Quantum Gravity and String Theory

1411 Submissions

[19] viXra:1411.0588 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-28 20:37:39

What Is Quantum Gravity? What Is Graviton?

Authors: Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu
Comments: 24 Pages. Published in Prespacetime Journal, 4(11): pp. 1003-1026

The natures of quantum gravity and graviton are reviewed and explored from the non-mainstream perspectives. It turns out that quantum gravity is likely manifestation of quantum entanglement and mediated by wave-functions of elementary particles as nonlocal objects. Thus, each elementary particle has its corresponding gravitons comprised of its external and internal wave-functions as nonlocal objects. This new understanding allows one to reconcile quantum mechanics with general relativity and explain dark matter and dark energy as nonlocal effects on the cosmic scales. To make the transition from quantum gravity to general relativity, it is theorized that: (1) Ricci scalar R and metric tensor guv are originated from and determined by the collective internal and external wave functions of the matter present; (2) in the absence of nonlocal effect of remote matter through quantum entanglement, R and guv are only correlated to momentum-energy tensor of the local matter; (3) in the presence of nonlocal effect of remote matter through quantum entanglement, R and guv are also influenced by the nonlocal effect of the remote matter currently interpreted (or seen) as dark matter and/or dark energy. Some of the important consequences of this theory are the following: (1) gravitational fields (gravitons as nonlocal objects comprised of internal and external wave functions) may not carry localized or directly detectable momentum and energy; and (2) there may be no gravitational wave since gravity is nonlocal and instantaneous.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] viXra:1411.0581 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-12 14:33:37

The Origin of Gravitational Constant

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the gravitational constant depends on properties of the two-component spacetime i.e. on properties of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field and the luminal gravitating Einstein spacetime. More precisely, the gravitational constant depends on internal structure of neutrinos, inertial-mass density of the Higgs field and on dynamic viscosity and the infinitesimal spin of the tachyons the Higgs field consists of. According to SST, gravitational masses produce gradients in the Higgs field so value of inertial-mass density of the Higgs field inside the neutrino-antineutrino pairs the Einstein spacetime consists of, depends on steepness of gravitational gradients. It leads to conclusion that in experiments with steeper gravitational gradients, the gravitational constant should be lower. But such changes in gravitational constant are too low to be measured. SST shows that in expanding spacetime, value of the gravitational constant must decrease. The invariance of gravitational constant suggests that our Cosmos has boundary nontransparent for the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field - it is consistent with SST.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] viXra:1411.0551 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-11 14:31:51

How to Eliminate the Messy Mathematical Methods from Physics and Cosmology?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

The gauge invariance of equations follows from constancy of charges. There appear arbitrary functions so to obtain quantized values we must apply approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The second messy mathematical method applied in physics follows from the wrong assumption that the bare particles are sizeless and that there are in existence interactions with infinite range (it follows from the massless carriers of interactions). In such method, to obtain theoretical results consistent with experimental data, there must appear the mathematical indeterminate forms so they are incoherent as well. Such messy method cannot be eliminated via vibrating flexible strings, as it is in the M/string theory, because such assumption cannot lead to constancy of physical constants. What we should do to eliminate the arbitrary functions, sizeless bare particles, infinite ranges of forces and flexible strings? What is the difference between microscopic and macroscopic times? We show that some extension to the General Relativity is the answer to these questions. The quantum entanglement and locally broken symmetries cause that Nature on higher and higher levels becomes more and more complex.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] viXra:1411.0534 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-11 14:27:23

The Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry: Is Our Universe the One and Only in Our Cosmos?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Some extension of the General Relativity leads to the superluminal nontransparent infinitesimal pieces of space (plenums/tachyons). Due to their dynamic viscosity, in the infinite cosmos can appear big pieces of space composed of smaller ones. Due to collisions of very big pieces of space, there can appear cosmoses with stable boundary. Inside some of them can appear universes. Here, we discuss the possibility that in our Cosmos, our Universe is the one and only. Knowing the radius of the boundary, we can calculate the period of the oscillations of our Universe. We show also that the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our Universe follows from the transitions of the electron-positron pairs into the electron-proton pairs in a vortex with left-handed internal helicity produced in the Einstein spacetime.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] viXra:1411.0374 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-10 11:36:07

The Origin of the Two New Baryon Resonances with a Mass of 5935 and 5955 MeV Observed in LHCb Experiment

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory, the origin of the two new baryon resonances with a mass of 5935 and 5955 MeV observed in LHCb experiment is presented.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] viXra:1411.0321 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-10 11:29:22

The Constructive Criticism of the Mainstream Theories

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 8 Pages.

We know that within the Standard Model (SM) we still (since 1964) cannot calculate exact masses and spin of proton and neutron from initial conditions, whereas the Cosmological Standard Model (CSM) that involves the General Theory of Relativity (GR) and Quantum Physics (QP) does not lead to origin of the dark matter and dark energy. Moreover, within the leading mainstream theories we cannot derive physical constants and mathematical constants applied in physics from initial conditions the GR and QP start from. There as well are tens of unsolved basic problems, for example, what mechanism causes that neutrinos acquire their masses or why the energy distance/gap between the Planck scale and the electric-charges scale is tremendous. It suggests that the leading mainstream theories are incomplete. Just there must be in existence some lacking part of the Theory of Everything (ToE) more fundamental than GR and QP. We suggest that the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) is the lacking part of ToE. What is the SST? The GR leads to the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field composed of tachyons. On the other hand, the SST shows that the succeeding phase transitions of such Higgs field lead to the theories of different scales of sizes/energies that solve all unsolved basic problems in particle physics and cosmology. Here is a very short recapitulation concerning the basic problems solved within SST that are not solved or are described incorrectly within the mainstream theories: The equivalence of pure energy and gravitational mass; Wrong interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experiment that follows from the quantum entanglement; The illusion of acceleration of expansion of the Universe; Non-existence of luminal gravitational waves; Why the Cosmos did not collapse at the beginning of the big bang?; Where is the antimatter ?; Why the Universe is flat ?; The hierarchy problem; The origin of dark matter; The many-worlds interpretation within QP; The 3-valence-quarks model of baryons; Why QED gives good results in spite of neglecting the weak interactions of electrons ?; Can the flexible closed strings applied in the M/string theory lead to invariance of gravitational constant ?; What is the origin of DNA?
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] viXra:1411.0219 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-09 10:41:57

The Origin of Unification of Mathematics and Physics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 1 Page.

In the limit we obtain grainy mathematical spacetime with grains composed of infinite sets of finite velocities of sizeless points placed in nothingness. On the other hand, we do not lose information about inertial-only mass if in nothingness are moving the physical plenums i.e. some grains as well. It causes that mathematical and physical descriptions are compatible. There are not in existence real numbers composed of infinite number of digits (there are gaps between the centres of the tangent mathematical grains or physical plenums). It leads to the calculus of finite differences. Similarity in behaviour of grains and plenums (the kinematics of fluids) causes that Platonism is partially correct. Such initial conditions lead sometimes to life and mind.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] viXra:1411.0160 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-09 10:38:55

Is the Physical World the Math/Platonic-World Only?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Mathematical states of the infinite cosmos should be preferred as the initial conditions. Creation of physical world is impossible without two different ground states. In the limit we obtain grainy mathematical spacetime with grains composed of infinite sets of finite velocities of sizeless points placed in (true) nothingness. Such model is coherent for nontransparent grains. Can the mathematical grains be nontransparent? Probability that we cannot formulate coherent mathematical theory of Nature without plenums moving in nothingness is very high. Existence of the plenums causes that in the limit we do not lose information about inertial mass. Next, due to the inertial mass directly proportional to volume of the grains of velocities, we can replace densities by dimensionless numbers i.e. there is possible the transition from the dynamical quantities to kinematical ones. Can be the infinite physical cosmos built from mathematical objects only? What is the transition from math to physics? What are the moving pieces of space? What is the origin of their inertia? What is the origin of the critical/Planck values? Is there a lower limit for the General Relativity and Quantum Physics? Do we need new physics?
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] viXra:1411.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-14 10:09:33

The 3D Visualization of E8 using an H4 Folding Matrix

Authors: J Gregory Moxness
Comments: Appendix split off with 22 pages that includes E8 root list, Hasse diagram and a complete particle list.

This paper will present various techniques for visualizing a split real even E8 representation in 2 and 3 dimensions using an E8 to H4 folding matrix. This matrix is shown to be useful in providing direct relationships between E8 and the lower dimensional Dynkin and Coxeter-Dynkin geometries contained within it, geometries that are visualized in the form of real and virtual 3 dimensional objects. A direct linkage between E8, the folding matrix, fundamental physics particles in an extended Standard model, quaternions, and octonions is introduced, and its importance is investigated and described.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] viXra:1411.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-14 04:18:00

Cosmological Constant Puzzle Explained

Authors: Patrick Tonin
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple formula from the 3D Universe Theory giving the value of the Dark Energy Density.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] viXra:1411.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-12 09:36:11

Gravitational Arrow of Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] viXra:1411.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-11 12:03:13

Light Cone Gauge Quantization of String, Dynamics of D-Brane and String Dualities

Authors: Muhammad Ilyas
Comments: 98 Pages.

This review aims to show the Light cone gauge quantization of strings. It is divided up into three parts. The first consists of an introduction to bosonic and superstring theories and a brief discussion of Type II superstring theories. The second part deals with different configurations of D-branes, their charges and tachyon condensation. The third part contains the compactification of an extra dimension, the dual picture of D-branes having electric as well as magnetic field and the different dualities in string theories. In ten dimensions, there exist five consistent string theories and in eleven dimensions there is a unique M-Theory under these dualities, the different superstring theories are the same underlying M-Theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:1411.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-10 04:37:27

What Is the Meaning of Milgrom's Acceleration Constant?

Authors: David Brown
Comments: 4 Pages.

G *((Planck mass) / (Planck length)^2) / (1.2 * 10 ^-10 meter/second^2) = 4.634 * 10^61 where Milgrom’s acceleration constant is approximately 1.2 * 10^-10 m/s^2. What (if anything) is the meaning of such a large number? What is Milgromian string theory? The answer might (or might not) be Wolframian string theory. Wolfram’s mobile automaton allegedly builds each Planck time interval through a huge number of updates by the updating parameter. Energy, spacetime, and string theory are supposedly approximations generated from a network of nonmeasurable Fredkin time, Fredkin distance, and Fredkin digit transition. Wolframian string theory might replace supersymmetry by Wolframian quasi-supersymmetry, which unifies bosons and fermions within Wolfram’s mobile automaton. The point is that Wolframian string theory is testable. According to “The Meaning of Relativity”, 5th edition, page 91, a unit measuring rod undergoes a gravitational contraction given by (1 – (κ/(8π)) * (∫ (σ/r) dV)), where κ is Einstein’s gravitational constant. The Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect implies that the gravitational contraction is (1 – ((1 – 2 * D-M-C-C)^–1) * (κ/(8π)) * (∫ (σ/r) dV)), where D-M-C-C = dark-matter-compensation-constant. In the standard form of Einstein’s field equations replace the –1/2 by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant (D-M-C-C) to get the alleged Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect, where the constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^–5.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:1411.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-09 01:18:30

On Some Novel Consequences of Clifford Space Relativity Theory

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 12 Pages. Based on a plenary talk at the 10-th International Clifford Algebra Conference in Tartu, Estonia, August 2014

Some of the novel physical consequences of the Extended Relativity Theory in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) are presented. In particular, generalized photon dispersion relations which allow for energy-dependent speeds of propagation while still $retaining$ the Lorentz symmetry in ordinary spacetimes, while breaking the $extended$ Lorentz symmetry in $C$-spaces. We analyze in further detail the extended Lorentz transformations in Clifford Space and their physical implications. Based on the notion of ``extended events" one finds a very different physical explanation of the phenomenon of ``relativity of locality" than the one described by the Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) framework. We finalize with a discussion of the modified dispersion relations, rainbow metrics and generalized uncertainty relations in $C$-spaces which are extensions of the stringy uncertainty relations.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] viXra:1411.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-08 02:15:32

Gravity Quantum Entanglement Between Matter and Space-Time.

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 6 Pages.

This article applies the work of Hawking and Bekenstein to get the core provisions of the entanglement entropy of the gravitational field and is an entirely new interpretation of gravity through quantum entanglement between matter and space-time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:1411.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-05 18:07:19

An Holographic Confirmation of Eddington's Proton/tau Symmetry

Authors: Francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is shown that the ratio of two c-free formulas for the Hubble radius exhibits overwhelming mathematical properties implying an holographic formula between the muon and tau masses, induced by an Eddington's symmetry argument.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] viXra:1411.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-05 04:06:34

Precise Model of Hawking Radiation from the Tunnelling Mechanism

Authors: Christian Corda
Comments: 11 Pages.

We recently improved the famous result of Parikh and Wilczek, who found a probability of emission of Hawking radiation which is compatible with a non-strictly thermal spectrum, showing that such a probability of emission is really associated to two non-strictly thermal distributions for boson and fermions. Here we finalize the model by finding the correct value of the pre-factor of the Parikh and Wilczek probability of emission. In fact, that expression has the ∼ sign instead of the equality. In general, in this kind of leading order tunnelling calculations, the exponent arises indeed from the classical action and the pre-factor is an order Planck constant correction. But in the case of emissions of Hawking quanta, the variation of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is order 1 for an emitted particle having energy of order the Hawking temperature. As a consequence, the exponent in the Parikh and Wilczek probability of emission is order unity and one asks what is the real significance of that scaling if the pre-factor is unknown. Here we solve the problem assuming the unitarity of the black hole (BH) quantum evaporation and considering the natural correspondence between Hawking radiation and quasi-normal modes (QNMs) of excited BHs , in a “Bohr-like model” that we recently discussed in a series of papers. In that papers, QNMs are interpreted as natural BH quantum levels (the “electron states” in the “Bohr-like model”). Here we find the intriguing result that, although in general it is well approximated by 1, the pre-factor of the Parikh and Wilczek probability of emission depends on the BH quantum level n. We also write down an elegant expression of the probability of emission in terms of the BH quantum levels.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:1411.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-04 06:09:12

Why Are There 3 Generations of Fermions?

Authors: David Brown
Comments: 5 Pages.

I conjecture that string theorists are guaranteed to fail unless they recognize the importance of the work of Milgrom, McGaugh, Kroupa, and Pawlowski. Milgrom’s acceleration law is true or appears to be true for some unknown reason. What does Milgrom’s acceleration law have to do with the 3 generations of fermions? I speculate that Milgrom’s acceleration law implies that the law of conservation of gravitational energy is false and that the infinite nature hypothesis is false. Assume that nature is finite and digital. Conjecture (1). The 26-dimensional model of bosonic string theory, together with Lestone’s heuristic string theory, implies that supersymmetry is an approximate symmetry within Wolfram’s automaton. Conjecture (2). There are 3 generations of fermions because Wolfram’s automaton provides a way for 3 copies of 26-dimensional bosonic string theory to map into 64 dimensions of fundamental particles, 2 dimensions of quantum spin, 3 dimensions of linear momentum, 3 dimensions of angular momentum, and 6 dimensions of quantum uncertainty. Wolfram’s automaton provides approximations to quantum field theory and general relativity theory by means of ‘t Hooft’s superdeterminism. Are conjectures (1) and (2) false? Perhaps, but the conjectures are testable. The main predictions are the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect, the Space Roar Profile Prediction, and the hypothesis that gravitons, inflatons, and axions are the only fundamental particles that remain to be discovered. According to the “Meaning of Relativity”, 5th edition, page 93, a ray of light passing near a large mass M is deflected by an amount α = (κ/(2π)) * (M/Δ), where Δ is the ray’s minimal (hypothetically undeflected in the flat coordinates) distance from the center of mass M, and κ is Einstein’s gravitational constant. The Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect implies that ((1 – 2 * D-M-C-C)^–1) * (κ/(2π)) * (M/Δ), where D-M-C-C = dark-matter-compensation-constant. In the standard form of Einstein’s field equations replace the –1/2 by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant (D-M-C-C) to get the alleged Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect, where the constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^–5.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1411.0018 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-09 10:34:22

The Positron Fraction in Primary Cosmic Rays and New Cosmological Problems

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 9 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays as a function of energy and we described positron flux. Obtained results are consistent with the data from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) on the International Space Station (ISS). These data lead to the internal structure of the core of baryons and to phenomena characteristic for regions in the Universe filled with baryonic plasma described within SST. Here as well we described new cosmological problems which lead to new cosmology. They are as follows. There are not in existence the B-modes associated with gravitational waves - it leads to conclusion that there was a separation in time of the inflation (the big bang) and the expansion of the Universe (the “soft” big bang) or/and that gravitational waves do not exist (SST shows that both conclusions are correct). In the Universe there is too small number of dwarf galaxies - there should be about 10 times more dwarf galaxies than we observe. In the very distant Universe there are numerous massive elliptical galaxies which do not significantly evolve so a time for their formation was too short. In the very distant Universe there are too many barred galaxies - it is inconsistent with simulations grounded on the Cosmological Standard Model (CSM). There is a substantial asymmetry in the CMB signal observed in the two opposite hemispheres of the sky. These new problems suggest that CSM starts from wrong initial conditions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory