[19] **viXra:1512.0491 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-02 20:22:50*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Version-2

In the early publications, with reference to final unification, the authors suggested that, 1) There exists a strong interaction elementary charge of magnitude, es~4.72058686E-19 C. 2) Like quarks, the strong interaction elementary charge is experimentally undetectable and can be called as ‘invisible elementary nuclear charge’. 3) There exists a gravitational constant associated with strong interaction, Gs~3.329560807E28 m3/kg/sec2. 4) There exists a gravitational constant associated with electromagnetic interaction, Ge~2.374335472E37 m3/kg/sec2. Based on these concepts, an attempt is made to understand the mystery of origin of ‘discrete’ angular momentum of electron in hydrogen atom. Proceeding further, estimated value of Newtonian gravitational constant is GN~6.67985603E-11 m3/kg/sec2.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] **viXra:1512.0474 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-18 16:50:04*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that the GASER (Gamma Amplifier by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) is characteristic for stars with a mass close to one solar mass. SST shows that in reality the observed neutrino “oscillations” follow from the exchanges of the free neutrinos (they interact gravitationally only) for the neutrinos in the neutrino-antineutrino pairs the Einstein spacetime consists of, and follow from the decays of the unstable tau-neutrinos. Just due to the irreversible processes during the inflation, the neutrino-antineutrino pairs cannot annihilate and neutrinos cannot change their species. Notice as well that there is no reliable experimental data showing that at such a short distance as between the Sun and Earth, two-thirds of electron-neutrinos could change their species. SST shows that there are the exchanges and decays of the neutrinos but their abundance should be much lower than it is assumed in the mainstream cosmology. We must find a different mechanism explaining why we see only about one-third of the electron-neutrinos. Here we show that the solar neutrino problem can be solved via the stellar GASER which is characteristic for stars with a mass close to one solar mass. GASER causes that we observe only about 35.7% electron-neutrinos in comparison with abundance calculated within the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. The GASER solves as well the lithium problem. The lithium problem should be characteristic for old stars with mass below 0.94 solar mass. The various nuclear transformations in such stars cause that the production of lighter nuclei is not such effective as it is assumed in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] **viXra:1512.0451 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-27 07:06:45*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” (1), it was shown that spinning spheres can unite the gravitational and electromagnetic force with spinning spheres. The equation 4, developed in “The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres” can be used to predict a value of the fine-structure constant constant. This constant is found to depend only on pi and the dimensionless relations of the rest masses of the electron, neutron, and proton. The following paper shows a predicted fine-structure constant using the Codata values for the fundamental physical constants at each publication since 1969. The fine-structure constant found is accurate to the measured fine-structure constant within less than one sigma. As the data for the fundamental physical constants has become more accurate, the prediction for the fine-structure constant has been trending for a precise number difference.
Some, like John D. Barrow, Richard Feynman, and Sir Arthur Eddington knew that the fine-structures existence is embarrassingly elusive to grasp. Is its value to be found in string theory or quantum foam? Is pi a value incorporated in the fine-structure constant?
John D. Barrow wrote;“If the deep logic of what determines the value of the fine-structure constant also played a significant role in our understanding of all the physical processes in which the fine-structure constant enters, then we would be stymied. Fortunately, we do not need to know everything before we can know something.”
― John D. Barrow, New Theories of Everything(4)
Why does, this Equation 4, below predict a value for the fine-structure constant within the limits of the Quantum Hall method of measuring the fine-structure constant? We do not know, but we also touch a forever that we do not yet understand, yet are allowed to exist in the “ moment an instant lasted forever and be destined for the leading edge of Eternity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:1512.0445 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-01 08:40:19*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. removed parts of section 5

It is becoming clear, that experimental physics will not be enough to develop the model for the construction of the Universe. Statistical Probability will be necessary for developing the model and proving the model. The equations in this paper predict a value for the Planck Constant, from other fundamental constant for each Codata year since 1969. The data below shows a calculating equation that predicts a Planck constant within 0.2 sigma of the actual Codata value for the Planck constant over six publications of Codata in a row, since 1986. The data below shows a calculating equation that predicts a Planck constant consistently nearly equal to the actual Codata value for the Planck constant over all eight publications of Codata in a row, since 1973. To randomly generate an equation to do this, when the data has become more accurate by a factor of 700 times over this time period, is highly unlikely, perhaps as unlikely as one out of a 100000. In addition, Equation 2, below, predicted a more accurate Planck constant, than the Codata value of the respective Codata publication. This again is unlikely, but not unheard of. The sum of these data show that the mechanism for determining the Planck constant, may be mirroring the calculations, and may be measuring the same phenomena.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:1512.0433 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 08:50:53*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In the framework of the Joos-Weinberg 2(2S+1)- theory for massless particles, the dynamical invariants have been derived from the Lagrangian density which is considered to be a 4-vector. A la Majorana interpretation of the 6-component ``spinors`", the field operators of
S=1 particles, as the left- and right-circularly polarized radiation,
leads us to the conserved quantities which are analogous to those obtained by Lipkin and Sudbery. The scalar Lagrangian of the Joos-Weinberg theory is shown to be equivalent
to the Lagrangian of a free massless field, introduced by Hayashi. As a consequence of a new ``gauge" invariance this skew-symmetric field describes physical particles with the longitudinal components only.
The interaction of the spinor field with the Weinberg's 2(2S+1)-component massless field is considered. New interpretation of the Weinberg field function is proposed.
KEYWORDS: quantum electrodynamics, Lorentz group representation,
high-spin particles, bivector, electromagnetic field
potential.
PACS: 03.50.De, 11.10.Ef, 11.10.Qr, 11.17+y, 11.30.Cp

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1512.0398 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-26 18:26:52*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Corrected Equation 6 and typo on 1973 codata planck constant.

It is becoming clear, that experimental physics will not be enough to develop the model for the construction of the Universe. Statistical Probability will be necessary for developing the model and proving the model. The equations in this paper predict a value for the Planck Constant, from other fundamental constant for each Codata year since 1969. The data below shows a calculating equation that predicts a Planck constant within 0.2 sigma of the actual Codata value for the Planck constant over six publications of Codata in a row, since 1986. The data below shows a calculating equation that predicts a Planck constant within 0.25 sigma of the actual Codata value for the Planck constant over seven publications of Codata in a row, since 1973. To randomly generate an equation to do this, when the data has become more accurate by a factor of 100 times over this time period, is highly unlikely, perhaps as unlikely as one out of a 100000. In addition, over the last six Codata publications, the equations below have been closer to the next Codata publication for the Planck constant. This again is unlikely, but not unheard of. The sum of these data show that the mechanism for determining the Planck constant, must be mirroring the calculations, and must be measuring the same phenomena.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1512.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-18 23:18:45*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A coming back to the steady-state cosmology permits, from the horizon radius temporal invariance, to apply the Holographic principle to Cosmology. This one invariant parameter cosmology resolves not only many problems of the standard cosmology, with its six temporally variable free parameters, but also theoretical physics problems, such as parity violation and a rehabilitation of the tachyo-bosonic string theory. In particular, this justifies the critical condition and the Universe vastness, introducing a space-time quantization, smaller than the Planck units by a factor 4.0 × 10^60, and a 'Grandcosmos' larger than the Universe in the same ratio. This Grandcosmos appears as a lacking element in the steady-state cosmology, and introduces a super-speed exceeding c in the same ratio, resolving the vacuum energy dilemma. A special form of the Eddington's horizon formula leads to a Universe mass in a specific rational ratio with the reduced electron mass, showing that the Cosmos is calculating p. Dramatic relations between cosmic and biologic canonic quantities suggests an inversion of the anthropic principle and rejection of Darwin evolution, suggesting universality of intelligent life.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1512.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-17 10:24:28*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

On Tuesday, 15 December 2015, physicists from CERN published the results from Run 2. There is an excess of pairs of photons for total energy about 750 GeV. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present the origin of new LHC scalar resonance with a mass of 742 GeV. This mass follows from structure of baryonic plasma and Einstein spacetime and from the four-fermion symmetry (the quadrupole symmetry). The main mechanism is the same as for production of the composite Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV described within SST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1512.0342 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-18 08:05:05*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

On a previous paper (see http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040) it is described the first Nature force (the Universal antigravity), because of which the galaxies follow an accelerated centrifugal motion. Therefore, what the great astronomer Edwin Hubble observed is not due to the Universe «expansion» as a result of the «Big Bang», but it is the relative motion of galaxies.
The Cosmic journey of the matter (the galaxies) takes place at the constant timeless speed (see http://viXra.org/abs/1507.0079) towards the Universe periphery, while the numbers 3, 4 and 5 express the Pythagorean harmony of matter and centrifugal antigravity motion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1512.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-14 14:06:12*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 14 Pages. 24 references, no figures

A modified Fermi coupling of the weak interactions is proposed and in analogy with the Planck units, a Fermi scale is defined. We define a second Fermi length, a Fermi mass (related to the threshold energy for unitarity), and a Fermi time. The holographic principle (HP) is then applied to some two-dimensional objects, where the unit cell size is given by the second Fermi length. With the aid of non-linear Dirac equation, a formula is obtained relating the Fermi, the nucleon, and the electron masses. Another relationship is found, linking the second Fermi length to cosmological constant and Planck scales. Finally HP in 2-d is employed in a stationary condition for the free energy, as a means to evaluate the neutral pion decay time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1512.0317 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-16 00:33:21*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Submitted to the Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys

After a cursory introduction of the basic ideas behind Born's Reciprocal Relativity theory, the geometry of the cotangent bundle of spacetime is studied via the introduction of nonlinear connections associated with certain $nonholonomic$ modifications of Riemann--Cartan gravity within the context of Finsler geometry.
A novel gauge theory of gravity in the $8D$ cotangent bundle $ T^*M$ of spacetime is explicitly constructed and based on the gauge group $ SO (6, 2) \times_s R^8$ which acts on the tangent space to the cotangent bundle $ T_{ ( {\bf x}, {\bf p}) } T^*M $ at each point $ ({\bf x}, {\bf p})$. Several gravitational actions involving curvature and torsion tensors and associated with the geometry of curved phase spaces are presented. We conclude with a brief discussion of the field equations, the geometrization of matter, QFT in accelerated frames, {\bf T}-duality, double field theory, and generalized geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1512.0281 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-12 06:18:10*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Gravity is not the weak force you might think it is. You are only realizing a small part of the picture.

There is an overall tension field in space that is responsible for gravity. Any masses introduced into the field create an higher tension -- that's what is thought of as gravity -- but there is more to it.

The Earth is of course pulling you down but space itself is also pulling you.

The Earth has a stronger pull (more connections) so it wins the tug-of-war.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1512.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-10 10:28:24*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article we can find only certain summary of the mass-gap problem that is already solved within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). We cannot solve the Yang-Mills mass-gap problem within the quantum Yang-Mills theory because it is incomplete i.e. this theory does not lead to the internal structure of bare baryons (of the core of baryons) that is responsible for production of the massive carriers of the nuclear weak and strong interactions. To solve the mass-gap problem we must describe following three mechanisms: the real Higgs mechanism i.e. we must show how the Einstein-spacetime components (i.e. the neutrino-antineutrino pairs) acquire their gravitational mass because of their interactions with the non-gravitating superluminal Higgs field - it follows from the succeeding phase transitions of the Higgs field described within SST, the mechanism of production of the condensates composed of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs that are responsible for the nuclear weak interactions, and the mechanism of production of the pions that are responsible for the nuclear strong interactions of baryons. Such mechanisms are described within SST which is the mathematically coherent theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1512.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-09 05:34:41*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We cannot travel in a hyperspace because it is not a spacetime containing higher spatial dimensions. Hyperspace “acts” in the 4-dimensional spacetime and defines the degrees of freedom of different size scales obtained because of the succeeding phase transitions of the Higgs field - it is described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). Hyperspace described within SST leads to the origin of the base of the natural logarithm in physics, to masses of the three heaviest quarks and to the sums of squared charges of baryon components and energy thresholds that are consistent with experimental data. Emphasize that structures described within the SST hyperspace lead to the Chaos Theory also.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1512.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-27 01:53:04*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper shows, building on other papers by Michael John Sarnowski, that the Universe is potentially composed of smaller nested Spheres called Planck Spinning Spheres, which is composed of smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, which is composed of smaller spheres called Klein Spinning Spheres and so on until we get to a basic cuboctahedron structure.
We saw in
In “How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere” (1) It was shown that discontinuities of packing could account for the mass of the Universe.
We saw in The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres, that both gravity and charge, indicate a spherical spinning shape for the pixelated components to the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1512.0190 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-06 05:08:46*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Theories that describe the same phenomena but contain more parameters are the worse theories. Mathematical constants applied in physics if they have not a physical meaning are the parameters as well. It leads to conclusion that to reduce number of parameters we must show how mathematical constants applied in physics arise from physical initial conditions. In the Scale-Symmetric Theory, number of all parameters is reduced to 7. Here, using the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we described the origin of mathematical constants in physics. We showed that the state of spacetime and the structure of baryons that due to the dark-matter structures leaks out, leads to a number that is close to the base of the natural logarithm, whereas the entanglons responsible for the quantum entanglement lead to number Pi and to the imaginary unit i = sqrt(-1).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1512.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-18 09:02:55*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, we motivate that the superluminal neutrinos can be produced only due to the weak interactions in the central condensates of baryons and only when the quantum entanglement between produced neutrinos in the beta decays and the neutrons/protons is destroyed. We assume that in the earlier experiments, the superluminal neutrinos were not eliminated whereas in the later ones such neutrinos were eliminated because of the additional elements of apparatus between the place of collision and the detector. It is the reason that we cite the earlier scientific works. The observed neutrino speed in the earlier MINOS experiment, in the earlier OPERA experiment, and the observed time-distance between the fronts of the neutrino and photon beams, observed on the Earth, for the supernova SN 1987A are consistent with the theoretical results obtained within the Scale-Symmetric Theory. All results are obtained within the same coherent model. How we can verify presented model? We should measure time distances between photon and neutrino fronts for supernovae - they should be directly proportional to distances between supernovae and Earth. We as well should repeat the MINOS experiment at lower energies applying proper apparatus - there should be observed the upper limit for the speed of neutrinos 1.000050(21)c.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1512.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 02:14:08*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Within the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) we cannot answer following three fundamental questions: What is the origin of masses of the quarks? What is the origin of the mass of muon? Why for decades we cannot calculate precise masses and spin of proton and neutron which are the fundamental components of Nature? It suggests that QCD must be reformulated. We already answered the above questions within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). Here we present the next arguments that QCD must be extended and modified. We showed that the Titius-Bode law for the strong interactions follows from the coupling constants for electromagnetic and nuclear weak interactions of the core of baryons. We also showed that the sums of the squared charges of the components of baryons calculated within SST are consistent with experimental data for wide energy range. Within the atom-like structure of baryons do not appear singularities and infinities so renormalization is unnecessary - it causes that the reformulated QCD is mathematically very simple. We present also the theoretical curve for the kaon-to-pion ratio and we calculated the cross sections for production of the W bosons. We described as well the similar/dual structures in the reformulated QCD, General Relativity and in the theory of neutrinos (their shapes result from the Kasner metric) and we described the liquid-like plasma.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1512.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-27 07:41:18*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Corrected Fine structure constant equation 2

When is empirical evidence good enough to prove a hypothesis that cannot be observed directly? String Theory has the problem that strings will probably never ever be observed. The equations below, with the Fine structure constant, the mass ratio of the proton, electron, muon, and tau to the neutron all use the same patterns for developing an empirical equation for their values. The equations are remarkably similar.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory