[27] **viXra:1505.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-30 18:57:18*

**Authors:** Blazej Kot

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Previously published in Prespacetime Journal, May 2015, Volume 6, Issue 6, pp. 470-481

The fundamental structure of the universe is posited to be a network of causal relationships. Coordinate systems are interpreted as a regular structure of causal links. The discrete nature of such coordinate systems and the associated aliasing gives rise to the existence of a phase factor. This in turn leads to an interpretation of the probabilistic nature of observation and the path integral approach to quantum field theory. The symmetry group of a coordinate system built from causal links is shown to match that of the Standard Model of particle physics. The metric of such a coordinate system has Lorentzian signature, while accounting for its curvature leads to a natural interpretation of the Hilbert action of general relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[26] **viXra:1505.0225 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-12 14:12:30*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Version 8 contains a minor change in References

The variables and parameters of the presented model for the generation of an arbitrary photon fit like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle and therefor justify the conclusion that the model eliminates the wave-particle duality of the photon by explicitly excluding the possibility that it can be a (massless) particle too. On top of that it has been proven that the energy of the photon is directly delivered by the magnetic energy of the atom, as created by the orbiting electron(s). The model is verified inclusive Röntgen radiation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[25] **viXra:1505.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-28 06:05:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Quantum computers are inherently different from their classical counterparts because they involve quantum phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, which do not exist in classical digital computers. But in a new paper, physicists have shown that a classical analog computer can be used to emulate a quantum computer, along with quantum superposition and entanglement, with the result that the fully classical system behaves like a true quantum computer. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[24] **viXra:1505.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-27 12:31:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A collaboration of physicists and a mathematician has made a significant step toward unifying general relativity and quantum mechanics by explaining how spacetime emerges from quantum entanglement in a more fundamental theory. [5]
Time is an emergent phenomenon that is a side effect of quantum entanglement, say physicists. And they have the first experimental results to prove it. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[23] **viXra:1505.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 13:04:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important step in establishing scalable and secure high rate quantum networks. [8]
As do all advancing technologies, they will also create new nightmares. The most worrisome development will be in cryptography. Developing new standards for protecting data won’t be easy. The RSA standards that are in common use each took five years to develop. Ralph Merkle, a pioneer of public-key cryptography, points out that the technology of public-key systems, because it is less well-known, will take longer to update than these — optimistically, ten years. And then there is a matter of implementation so that computer systems worldwide are protected. Without a particular sense of urgency or shortcuts, Merkle says, it could easily be 20 years before we’ve replaced all of the Internet’s present security-critical infrastructure. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22] **viXra:1505.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 04:19:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The way creatures evolve in a quantum environment throws new light on the nature of life. [11]
Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10]
There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[21] **viXra:1505.0171 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-27 04:24:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Time is an emergent phenomenon that is a side effect of quantum entanglement, say physicists. And they have the first experimental results to prove it. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[20] **viXra:1505.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-23 08:51:59*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 42 Pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015. PUBLISHED BY: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics Vol.4 No.4, April 27, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2016.46106

Under some well-defined conditions the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics enables physicists, chemists and other to calculate and predict the outcome of a vast number of experiments. In fact, especially the Schrödinger equation which involves an imaginary quantity describes how a quantum state of a physical system changes with time and is one of the main pillars of modern quantum mechanics. The wave function itself is a determining part of the Schrödinger equation, but the physical meaning of the wave function is still not clear. Altogether, does the wave function represent a new kind of reality? This publication will solve the problem of the physical meaning of the wave function by investigating the relationship between the wave function and the theory of special relativity. It is shown that the wave function is determined by notion co-ordinate time of the special theory of relativity. Moreover, the result of this investigation suggests a new understanding of the wave function, according to which the wave function and co-ordinate time of the theory of special relativity are equivalent. Apparently, based upon the close relationship between time and gravitational field and the normalized relativistic energy-momentum relation, this contribution provides a way to calculate the “mass-equivalent” of a photon in SI units as 7.372 503 726 490 51 * 10^-51 and the “mass-equivalent” of a graviton in SI units as 1.346053370*10^-136 . A necessary mathematical formalism for the quantization of the gravitational field is developed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[19] **viXra:1505.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-22 12:00:03*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The theory presented in this paper is the first part of the quantum gravitational formulation of Einstein's special theory of relativity. The formulation is based on two postulates which take into account the discrete nature of space and time. Because the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction formula violates the space quantization postulate, this formula is modified to avoid the violation. However Einstein's time dilation formula does not violate the time quantization postulate. This
seems to indicate that we cannot treat time the same way we treat space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[18] **viXra:1505.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-03 04:26:57*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In its original form the Dirac equation for the free electron and the free positron is formulated by using complex number based spinors and matrices. That equation can be split into two equations, one for the electron and one for the positron. These equations appear to apply different parameter spaces. The equation for the electron and the equation for the positron differ in the symmetry flavor of their parameter spaces. This results in special considerations for the corresponding quaternionic second order partial differential equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1505.0148 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-15 11:04:58*

**Authors:** Lukas A. Saul

**Comments:** Physics Essays, Volume 28: Pages 561-566, 2015

The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment and certain predictions of quantum mechanics in theoretical and experimental forms are sometimes described as exhibiting non-local action. We describe here an interpretation of one oft-discussed EPR experiment with a locally realistic model. We demonstrate a consistent description based on probabilistic measurement for Mermin and Aspect EPR setups, and show how Bell's theorem applies. Quantum non-locality is shown to be an interpretation dependent on deterministic measurement and vanishes when a treatment of probabilistic measurement and relevant information theory is included.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[16] **viXra:1505.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-28 21:36:09*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Entanglement between separate, distant systems, be it pairs of photon, atoms, or molecules, is a well-documented phenomenon. It is the basis for emerging quantum information technologies, including cryptographic secure keys, quantum teleportation and quantum computing. The current consensus among physicists is that the violation of non-locality, prescribed by quantum mechanics, should be accepted as a fact of how nature behaves, even if it conflicts with human reasoning and intuition, including the reasoning and intuitions of Albert Einstein and John Bell. In the present paper, I describe a new relativity theory, termed Information Relativity, and show that it can account, both qualitatively and quantitatively, for entanglement in a bipartite preparation like the one described in the EPR paper. The theory rests on two axioms: The relativity axiom of Special Relativity, plus an axiom designating light as the information carrier. The theory is deterministic, local, and complete, in the sense that each element in the theory is in a one-to-one correspondence with reality. The fact that the theory, with no hidden variables, can make precise predictions of entanglement is in itself sufficient for casting serious doubts on the nonlocality condition imposed by Bell's inequality. More importantly, the theory results demonstrate that entanglement is in fact, a local phenomenon, and that communicating information between entangled systems occurs by local causality, even at long distances. These conclusions imply that quantum theory is incomplete, that entanglement is not spooky, and that the reasoning and worries of Einstein and Bell are intact. The results also demonstrate that although God might be playing dice, we can do otherwise.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[15] **viXra:1505.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-26 07:10:44*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

One especial function will be considered in this paper , and the difficult of quantum mechanics can be solved by the especial function ; which exists objectively and really in nature through analysis the theory which has been developed .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1505.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-18 06:49:16*

**Authors:** Fu-sui Liu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Based on exact theory of quantum transition and precise numerical calculations,
this paper demonstrates quantitatively that the Urbach tail in the
diagram of light absorption coefficient of semiconductor versus photon energy
are caused by energy nonconservation (ENC). This paper also points out
that the light absorption is a non-example of Fermi golden rule; due to ENC
the estimations on the dark energy and dark mass in our universe might be no
longer to have big significance; ENC is a non-example of the first and second
thermodynamic law.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1505.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-14 15:28:08*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Comments welcome genebarbee@msn.com

Observations regarding unexpected connections in quantum mechanically entangled systems are revealing a new understanding of our position in the universe. Experiments known by the initials EPR (Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen) show a statistical correlation between separated particle properties. If two particles are produced with opposite spins and move in different directions, it is observed that changes induced in one particle cause immediate changes in its partner. The classic “dual slit experiment” demonstrates that quantum photons can either produce a spot pattern or an interference pattern depending on whether an observer can “measure” which of two slits the photon travels through. More recently, a Discovery Magazine article by Zeeva Merali (Aug 26, 2010) indicates that an entangled particle responds to future changes in its partner (called “back from the future” observations by Jack Sarfatti of Cornell University). The author discusses the implications of taking this data at face value. Three FQXi contest essays [5][6][9]lead up to what I believe to be the explanation for EPR results and back from the future observations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12] **viXra:1505.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-14 07:38:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

As do all advancing technologies, they will also create new nightmares. The most worrisome development will be in cryptography. Developing new standards for protecting data won’t be easy. The RSA standards that are in common use each took five years to develop. Ralph Merkle, a pioneer of public-key cryptography, points out that the technology of public-key systems, because it is less well-known, will take longer to update than these — optimistically, ten years. And then there is a matter of implementation so that computer systems worldwide are protected. Without a particular sense of urgency or shortcuts, Merkle says, it could easily be 20 years before we’ve replaced all of the Internet’s present security-critical infrastructure. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1505.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 02:34:18*

**Authors:** Chu-Jun Gu

**Comments:** 29 Pages. 3 figures

Abstract We propose a space-time interaction principle (StIP) which states any particle with mass m
will involve a random motion without friction, due to random impacts from space-time. Every impact changes the amount \hbar
for an action of the particle. According to the principle, firstly, we prove the interaction coefficient must be \Re=\frac{\hbar}{2m_{ST}}
deriving from Langevin's equation to the corresponding Fokker-Planck Hamiltonian, where m_{ST}
is a space-time sensible mass of the particle. We can derive that an equation of motion for the particle will be the Schr\ddot{o}
dinger equation, and prove that the space-time sensible mass m_{ST}
reduce to the inertial mass in the non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Secondly, we show that there must exist the smallest mass \bar{m}_{ST}
as the minimum of space-time sensible mass, provided the speed of light in vacuum as the maximum speed due to the postulation of special relativity. Furthermore, we estimate a magnitude of this \bar{m}_{ST}
from microwave background radiation. Thirdly, an interpretation of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is suggested, with a stochastic origin of Feynman's path integral formalism. It is shown that we can construct a physical picture distinct from Copenhagen interpretation, and reinvestigate the nature of space-time and reveal the origin of quantum behaviours from the materialistic point of view.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10] **viXra:1505.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-09 13:46:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]
A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10]
Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1505.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-09 06:36:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A team researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10]
Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1505.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 16:21:58*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article we consider four versions of quantum mechanics (QM), which form four different theories and which have the same experimental consequences (one of them is the standard QM). We consider six fundamental problems as criteria for the evaluation of these theories. The most successful is the modified QM introduced in [1] and described in the axiomatic form in [2], which
solves all six problems. The least successful is the standard QM, which does not solve any of considered problems. (It seems that the standard QM is unable to solve any of these problems.) Other two theories solve some of problems and did not solve some other problems. On the base of this result we recommend to abandon the standard QM and to accept the modified QM as the right QM,
since both variants have the same experimental content and the differences rest only in theoretical considerations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1505.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-07 03:44:52*

**Authors:** Robert Mereau

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I determine how APST is accomplished through the effects of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, in the networks I previously determined.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1505.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 06:10:48*

**Authors:** You-Bang Zhan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The discrimination of quantum operations is an important subject of quantum information processes. For the local distinction, existing researches pointed out that, since any operation performed on a quantum system must be compatible with no-signaling constraint, local discrimination between quantum operations of two spacelike separated parties cannot be realized. We found that, however, local discrimination of quantum measurements may be not restricted by the no-signaling if more multi-qubit entanglement and selective measurements were employed. In this paper we report that local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD) can be completed via selective projective measurements and numerous seven-qubit GHZ states without help of classical communication if both two observers agreed in advance that one of them should measure her/his qubits before an appointed time. As an application, it is shown that the teleportation can be completed via the LQMD without classical
information. This means that the superluminal communication can be realized by using the LQMD.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1505.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 02:24:45*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The dielectric with index of refraction n is inserted in the Planck blackbody. The spectral
formula for photons in such dielectric medium and the equation for the temperature of
photons is derived. The new equation is solved for the constant index of refraction. The
photon flow
initiates the osmotic pressure of he Debye phonons. The dielectric crystal surface
works as the osmotic membrane with the Maxwell demonic refrigerator.
Key words: Thermodynamics, blackbody, photons, phonons, dielectric medium, dispersion.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1505.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-14 10:44:28*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper introduces a new quantum gravitational formula for the mass of the electron. The formula is based on the mass of the proton, the Planck mass and other fundamental physical constants. When we calibrate the value of Newton's gravitational constant to G_calibrated = 6.67265565×10^−11
N m^2/Kg^2 , we obtain the observed value for the mass of the electron. The fact that the calibrated value is very close to the value published by NIST in 1986: G_NIST 1986 = 6.67259×10^−11 N m^2/Kg^2 , suggests that the formula presented in this paper is a true
law of nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1505.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-03 02:03:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1505.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-27 12:18:46*

**Authors:** Richard L Amoroso, Louis H Kauffman, Peter Rowlands, Jean-Pierre Vigier

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Maths in original upload was grossly damaged by the Pdf converter, AIP Conference Proceedings 1316, 1 (2010); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3536434

Recent attempts to consider isolated particles and real constitutive wave elements as localized, extended spacetime structures (i.e., moving within time-like hypertubes or M-Theoretic higher dimensional (HD) brane topologies) are developed within a causal extension of the Feynman-Gell-Mann electron model. These extended structures contain real internal motions, (i.e., internal hidden parameters) locally correlated with the "hidden parameters" describing the local collective motions of the corresponding pilot-waves. Recent experimental evidence is briefly discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1505.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-02 13:05:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall ’91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics