Quantum Physics

1507 Submissions

[27] viXra:1507.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-30 09:37:56

A Computational Violation of the CHSH with a Local Model

Authors: Han Geurdes
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this paper the design and coding of a local hidden variables model is presented that violates the CHSH criterion in size larger than $1+\sqrt{2}$.
Category: Quantum Physics

[26] viXra:1507.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-28 07:24:38

Neutrino Magnetic Moment and Mass

Authors: Jacob Biemond
Comments: 12 Pages, including 2 tables

An expression for the magnetic moment of a massive Dirac neutrino was deduced in the context of the electroweak interactions at the one-loop level in 1977. A linear dependence on the neutrino mass was found. In addition, a magnetic moment for a massive neutrino arising from gravitational origin is predicted by the so-called Wilson-Blackett law. The latter relation may also be deduced from a gravitomagnetic interpretation of the Einstein equations. Both formulas for the magnetic moment can be combined, yielding the value of the neutrino mass.

The gravitomagnetic moment, i.e., the magnetic moment from gravitational origin, may contain different g-factors for the massive neutrino eigenstates m1, m2 and m3, respectively. Starting from the Dirac equation, a g-factor g = 2 has been deduced for a neutrino in first order, related to the derivation of the g-factor of charged leptons. When a value g = 2 is inserted, a value 1.530 meV results for the lightest neutrino mass m1, the main result of this work. In addition, the remaining neutrino masses can be calculated from observed neutrino oscillations.

Our results for the neutrino masses are compatible with the three-parameter semi-empirical neutrino mass formulas obtained by Królikowski. In addition, an empirical relation between the three neutrino masses proposed by Sazdović yields neutrino masses in fair agreement with our results.


Category: Quantum Physics

[25] viXra:1507.0185 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-20 07:01:14

On the Origin of Electric Charge

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 27 Pages.

By starting from a quaternionic separable Hilbert space as a base model the paper uses the capabilities and the restrictions of this model in order to investigate the origins of the electric charge and the electric fields. Also other discrete properties such as color charge and spin are considered. The paper exploits all known aspects of the quaternionic number system and it uses quaternionic differential calculus rather than Maxwell based differential calculus. The paper presents fields as mostly continuous quaternionic functions. The electric field is compared with another basic field that acts as a background embedding continuum. The behavior of photons is used in order to investigate the long range behavior of these fields.
Category: Quantum Physics

[24] viXra:1507.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-23 14:52:54

Qubit Chemistry of Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

A big part of the burgeoning science of quantum computation is reliably storing and processing information in the form of quantum bits, or qubits. One of the obstacles to this goal is the difficulty of preserving the fragile quantum condition of qubits against unwanted outside influence even as the qubits interact among themselves in a programmatic way. [8] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23] viXra:1507.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-22 20:25:03

Single Photon Diffraction and Interference

Authors: John C. Hodge
Comments: 11 Pages.

Interference experiments with only one photon in the experiment at a time have also showed interference patterns. A previous paper that studied photon diffraction and interference (IntellectualArchive, Vol.1, No. 3, P. 20, ISSN 1929-4700, Toronto, July 2012.) required several photons in the experiment at the same time. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of photon, plenum, screen and mask; the Bohm Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics; and the Transaction Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics are combined. The speed of the plenum wave is much faster than the speed of photons/light. The reverse wave required by the Transaction Interpretation is provided by a reflected plenum wave rather than a reverse time wave. The photon distribution on a screen results in an intensity pattern well fit by the Fraunhofer diffraction equation. The resultant mathematical model corresponds to the Fraunhofer mathematical model without the peculiar assumptions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[22] viXra:1507.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-21 10:51:52

Analysis of Bell-Type Experiments and Its Local Realism

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Volume 3, No.7 (2015), Page 898--902.

We investigate the violation factor of the original Bell-Mermin inequality. Until now, we have used an assumption that the results of measurement are $\pm 1$. In this case, the maximum violation factor is as follows: $2^{(n-2)/2}(n={\rm even})$ and $2^{(n-1)/2}(n={\rm odd})$. The quantum predictions by $n$-partite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state violate the Bell-Mermin inequality by an amount that grows exponentially with $n$. Recently, a new measurement theory is proposed [{K. Nagata and T. Nakamura, Int. J. Theor. Phys. {\bf 49}, 162 (2010)}]. The values of measurement outcome are $\pm 1/\sqrt{2}$. Here we use the new measurement theory. We consider a multipartite GHZ state. We use the original Bell-Mermin inequality. It turns out that the original Bell-Mermin inequality is satisfied irrespective of the number of particles. In this case, the maximum violation factor is as follows: $1/2(n={\rm even})$ and $1/\sqrt{2}(n={\rm odd})$. Thus the original Bell-Mermin inequality is satisfied by the new measurement theory. We propose the following conjecture: {\it All the two-orthogonal-settings experimental correlation functions admit local realistic theories irrespective of a state if we use the new measurement theory.}
Category: Quantum Physics

[21] viXra:1507.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-21 08:07:57

The Local Explanation of EPR Correlations in the Modified Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Jiri Soucek
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this note we shall give the simple formulation of the local explanation of EPR correlations [1] based on [2]. We also show that Bell inequalities cannot be derived in the modified Quantum Mechanics (QM).
Category: Quantum Physics

[20] viXra:1507.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-17 13:33:19

Augmented Quantum Reality

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 9 Pages.

We present here our quantum propagation system for virtual reality remote space computers and TVs with photonic displays in laser activated imagery.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19] viXra:1507.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-17 09:33:52

Weyl Fermions for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

An international team led by Princeton University scientists has discovered an elusive massless particle theorized 85 years ago. The particle could give rise to faster and more efficient electronics because of its unusual ability to behave as matter and antimatter inside a crystal, according to new research. The researchers report in the journal Science July 16 the first observation of Weyl fermions, which, if applied to next-generation electronics, could allow for a nearly free and efficient flow of electricity in electronics, and thus greater power, especially for computers, the researchers suggest. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18] viXra:1507.0131 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-18 12:58:39

The Nonlocality Vs. Nonrealism: the Critical Discussion and a New Proposal.

Authors: Jiri Soucek
Comments: 3 Pages.

We discuss the three options: the psi-ontic option, the psi-epistemic option and the novel psi-hybrid option.
Category: Quantum Physics

[17] viXra:1507.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-16 16:40:17

The Nature of Quantum Particles

Authors: Antonio Cardoso
Comments: 5 pages, 1 figure. Talk given at the International Symposium - Eurhythmy, Complexity and Rationality in an Interdisciplinary Perspective

In this paper we will discuss a recent double-slit experiment with quantum particles where an interference pattern is observed even when which-path information is available, and argue that this result is in clear contradiction with orthodox quantum mechanics but perfectly understandable in the framework of a nonlinear quantum physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16] viXra:1507.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-16 05:46:38

Augmented Reality Quantum System

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 8 Pages.

Our quantum harmonics electronic system will be based on jump-resonance phenomena of nonlinear feedback control systems of any order. The nonlinearities are those whose outputs are single-valued odd functions of the inputs and are independent of frequencies of the photonic inputs. The general conditions under which jump-resonance occurs will be given and the system with saturation nonlinearity will be analyzed. The essential objective is to define the contours on the complex plane for the constant values of system variables, e.g., input amplitude, amplitude ratio, and phase shift.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15] viXra:1507.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-15 14:55:08

The New Probabilistic Approach to the Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Jiri Soucek
Comments: 4 Pages.

Quantum Mechanics (QM) is primarily a probabilistic theory. The standard Kolmogorov probability theory is not suitable for this goal since it does not offer the possibility of the reversible time evolution. This implies the need to construct a new probability theory which is able to model the reversible time evolution. I have proposed such an Extended probability theory. The main goal of this project is to understand what QM is. In this note I shall describe the program of the research which is already partially realized.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14] viXra:1507.0107 [pdf] replaced on 2015-09-29 13:56:22

Special Relativity for Beginners - Part II

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 3 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to find out the physical meaning of the product pc in Einstein's Total Relativistic Energy Formula.
Category: Quantum Physics

[13] viXra:1507.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-13 15:40:52

On the Claimed Longitudinal Nature of the Antisymmetric Tensor Field After Quantization

Authors: Valeri V. Dvoeglazov
Comments: 6 Pages. http://www.emph.com.ua/4/pdf/dvoeglazov.pdf

It has long been claimed that the antisymmetric tensor field of the second rank is longitudinal after quantization. In my opinion, such a situation produces speculations about the violation of the Correspondence Principle. On the basis of the Lagrangian formalism I calculate the Pauli-Lubanski vector of relativistic spin for this field. Even at the classical level it can be equal to zero after applications of well-known constraints. The correct quantization procedure permits us to propose a solution of this puzzle in the modern field theory. Obtained results develop the previous consideration Physica A 214 (1995) 605-618.
Category: Quantum Physics

[12] viXra:1507.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-13 15:44:13

On Unusual Interactions of the (1/2,0)+(0,1/2) Particles

Authors: V. V. Dvoeglazov
Comments: 4 Pages. http://www.emph.com.ua/5/pdf/dvoeglazov.pdf

We continue to study the "fermion - 4-vector potential" interactions in the framework of the McLennan-Case construct which is a reformulation of the Majorana theory of the neutrino. This theory is shown after applying Majorana-like anzatzen to give rise to appearance of unusual terms as σ · [A × A*], which were recently discussed in non-linear optics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[11] viXra:1507.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-12 15:08:38

The Hidden Error in the Standard Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Jiri Soucek
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the standard Quantum Mechanics there exists certain assumption (which I call the von Neuman axiom) stating that an ensemble in the pure state is homogeneous. This means that all members of this ensemble are in the same individual state. In this note I am going to show that the von Neumann axiom is false. This also means that the standard interpretation of the wave function as the state of the individual system is in general false. In the ontic/epistemic terminology this means that the ontic interpretation of the wave function cannot be true. As a solution I propose the modified Quantum Mechanics which can be local.
Category: Quantum Physics

[10] viXra:1507.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-12 09:34:36

Brain is a Quantum Computer?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

How does the brain - a lump of 'pinkish gray meat' - produce the richness of conscious experience, or any subjective experience at all? Scientists and philosophers have historically likened the brain to contemporary information technology, from the ancient Greeks comparing memory to a 'seal ring in wax,' to the 19th century brain as a 'telegraph switching circuit,' to Freud's sub-conscious desires 'boiling over like a steam engine,' to a hologram, and finally, the computer. [8] Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[9] viXra:1507.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-11 04:04:55

Photonic Displays in Augmented Reality

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 7 Pages.

Our quantum harmonics electronic system will be based on jump-resonance phenomena of nonlinear feedback control systems of any order. The nonlinearities are those whose outputs are single-valued odd functions of the inputs and are independent of frequencies of the photonic inputs. The general conditions under which jump-resonance occurs will be given and the system with saturation nonlinearity will be analyzed. The essential objective is to define the contours on the complex plane for the constant values of system variables, e.g., input amplitude, amplitude ratio, and phase shift.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8] viXra:1507.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-09 09:44:41

Quantum Computing Advances Artificial Intelligence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Combining the vast processing power of quantum computers with cognitive computing systems like IBM's Watson will lead to huge advances in artificial intelligence, according to a C-level executive at the US software giant. [10] Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[7] viXra:1507.0054 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-12 23:55:04

Wave Functions for the Electron and Positron

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 23 Pages. Please visit http://www.energyfieldtheory.com

The Wave/Particle duality of particles in Physics is well known. Particles have properties that uniquely characterize them from one another, such as mass, charge and spin. Charged particles have associated Electric and Magnetic fields. Also every moving particle has a De Broglie wavelength determined by its mass and velocity. In this paper I show that all of these properties of a particle can be derived from a single wave function equation for that particle. I present wave functions for the Electron and the Positron and provide principles that can be used to calculate the wave functions of all the fundamental particles in Physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[6] viXra:1507.0047 [pdf] replaced on 2015-09-29 13:53:32

The Role of Powers of 2 in Physics

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 6 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to highlight the role of powers of 2 in physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[5] viXra:1507.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-07 08:18:16

Photochemistry Build Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

A combined team of researchers from Israel's Hebrew University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology and Germany's Universität Kassel has succeeded in demonstrating coherent control of bond-forming between atoms using a laser beam. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes their experiments with molecule-making and outlines future possible applications. [6] Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5] Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4] viXra:1507.0041 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-17 06:51:55

Why One Can Maintain that there is a Probability Loophole in the CHSH.

Authors: Han Geurdes
Comments: 8 Pages. Omega 0 numerical consistency

In the paper it is demonstrated that the particular form of CHSH S=E{A(1)[B(1)-B(2)]-A(2)[B(1)+B(2)]} with S maximally 2 and minimally -2, for A and B functions in {-1,1}, is not generally valid for local models. The nonzero probability that local hidden extra parameters violate the CHSH, is not eliminated with basic principles derived from the CHSH.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3] viXra:1507.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-03 07:18:22

Quantum Computer Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have identified a system that could store quantum information for longer times, which is critical for the future of quantum computing. [10] Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2] viXra:1507.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-03 04:14:14

Spin-Entangled Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

A team from the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science, along with collaborators from several Japanese institutions, have successfully produced pairs of spin-entangled electrons and demonstrated, for the first time, that these electrons remain entangled even when they are separated from one another on a chip. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1] viXra:1507.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-01 08:25:32

Quantum Cryptography with Qubit Transfer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics