[28] **viXra:1701.0689 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-31 12:19:59*

**Authors:** Martin Lopez-Corredoira

**Comments:** 63 Pages. accepted to be published in "Foundations of Physics"

The main foundations of the standard $\Lambda $CDM model of cosmology are that: 1) The redshifts of the galaxies are due to the expansion of the Universe plus peculiar motions; 2) The cosmic microwave background radiation and its anisotropies derive from the high energy
primordial Universe when matter and radiation became decoupled; 3) The abundance pattern of the light elements is explained in terms of primordial nucleosynthesis; and 4) The formation and evolution of galaxies can be explained only in terms of gravitation within a inflation+dark matter+dark energy scenario. Numerous tests have been carried out on these ideas and, although the standard model works pretty well in fitting many observations, there are also many data that present apparent caveats to be understood with it. In this paper, I offer a review of these tests and problems, as well as some examples of alternative models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1701.0688 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-03 22:45:38*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Periodic oscillations are observed in Newton's gravitational constant G that are contemporaneous with length of day data obtained from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System. Preliminary research has determined that the oscillatory period of G is ≈ 5.9 years (5.899 ± 0.062 years). In this paper, the oscillations are shown to be concomitant with the Earth's distance from the Sun and the angular frequency of its orbit. Implications for space exploration and dark matter are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1701.0678 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-31 01:22:05*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 20 Pages. This paper has been submitted to BAOJ Physics journal

It has been known for long time that the cosmic sound wave was there since the early epoch of the Universe. Signatures of its existence is abound. However, such an acoustic model of cosmology is rarely developed fully into a complete framework from the notion of space, cancer therapy up to the sky. This paper may be the first attempt towards such a complete description of the Universe based on classical wave equation of sound. It is argued that one can arrived a consistent description of space, elementary particles, Sachs-Wolfe acoustic theorem, up to a novel approach for cancer therapy, starting from this simple classical wave equation of sound. We also discuss a plausible extension of Acoustic Sachs-Wolfe theorem based on its analogue with Klein-Gordon equation to become Acoustic Sachs-Wolfe-Christianto-Smarandache-Umniyati (ASWoCSU) equation. It is our hope that the new proposed equation can be verified with observation data. But we admit that our model is still in its infancy, more researches are needed to fill all the missing details.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1701.0673 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-21 02:29:18*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Version 8 in English.

This article presents an invariant formulation of special relativity which can be applied in any inertial reference frame. In addition, a new universal force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1701.0667 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-17 15:27:38*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Singularity problem is a long-standing weak point in the theory of general relativity. Most scholars assume that the solution for this singularity consists in quantum mechanics. However, waiting for quantum gravity theory to be completed to solve the singularity problem in a black hole is wrong. Hear we show that gravitational self-energy has a negative value can solve singularity problem and rescue general relativity. Black hole does not have a singularity and there exists a zone that has a uniform energy density within the black hole. The distribution of mass can't be reduced to at least radius 0.3R_S(Schwarzschild radius). Also, gravitational self-energy and R_gs guarantee uniform density due to repulsive gravity effect and this can be grounds for the expansion in the early universe and the uniform universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1701.0643 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-28 06:12:43*

**Authors:** Victor D. Krasnov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The existing laws that describe planetary motion fail to predict and explain the presence of rotational plane inclination and the angle of inclination of this plane. These laws also fail to explain planetary rotation in one plane and how planetary motion in the direction of planetary system movement affects orbital parameters. It has been found that planetary motion in the direction of planetary system motion under the effect of the star's attraction gravitational component occurs as cyclic oscillations (motion with cyclically changing speed). A planet's cyclic oscillations form the visible declination observed in the system of coordinates of the planetary system, the rotational plane inclination and the inclination angle. The results obtained demonstrate the new understanding of the mechanisms that form the orbits of planets, and show the decisive role in this process of the star's attraction gravitational component, which acts in the direction of planetary system motion. The result
s are new and are the complete law of motion of objects within planetary type systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1701.0641 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-28 06:41:02*

**Authors:** Victor D, Krasnov

**Comments:** 11 Pages. in Russia

The existing laws that describe planetary motion fail to predict and explain the presence of rotational plane inclination and the angle of inclination of this plane. These laws also fail to explain planetary rotation in one plane and how planetary motion in the direction of planetary system movement affects orbital parameters. It has been found that planetary motion in the direction of planetary system motion under the effect of the star's attraction gravitational component occurs as cyclic oscillations (motion with cyclically changing speed). A planet's cyclic oscillations form the visible declination observed in the system of coordinates of the planetary system, the rotational plane inclination and the inclination angle. The results obtained demonstrate the new understanding of the mechanisms that form the orbits of planets, and show the decisive role in this process of the star's attraction gravitational component, which acts in the direction of planetary system motion. The results are new and are the complete law of motion of objects within planetary type systems.//
Существующие законы, описывающие движение планет, не предсказывают и не объясняют наличие наклона плоскости вращения и величину угла наклона этой плоскости. Не объясняют вращение планет в одной плоскости. Не объясняют, какое влияние на параметры орбит оказывает движение планет в направлении движения планетарной системы.
В процессе исследования установлено, что движение планет в направлении движения планетарной системы (в направлении движения звезды), происходит в виде циклических колебаний, формируемых под воздействием гравитационной составляющей притяжения звезды.
Показано, что циклические колебания планеты в направлении движения планетарной системы формируют наблюдаемое склонение и наблюдаемый в системе координат планетарной системы наклон плоскости вращения.
Выполнены расчёты, подтверждающие физическую модель формирования орбит.
Полученные результаты углубляют знания о механизмах формирующих орбиты планет, показывают решающую роль в этом процессе гравитационной составляющей притяжения звезды, действующей в направлении движения планетарной системы. Полученные результаты не противоречат законам И. Кеплера и И. Ньютона, являются их дальнейшим развитием.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1701.0640 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-28 06:44:22*

**Authors:** Amir Ali Tavajoh

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Can we apply Kepler’s Laws to the motion of stars of a galaxy?
Is it true that luminous matter contains the total galaxy’s mass?
When we observe galaxies, we see interstellar gas, dust and stars which is called luminous matter.
In 1922, a German astronomer, Jacobus Kapteyn was the first who suggested that dark matter exists.
In 1933, A Bulgarian-American astronomer, Fritz Zwicky, explained the reason for existence of dark matter. He realized that gravitational lensing would provide the means for the most direct determination of the mass of very large galactic clusters of galaxies, including dark matter. [1].
Gravitational lensing is the consequence of Einstein’s general relativity. It was first observed in 1919, when an apparent angular shift of the Mercury close to the solar limb was measured during a solar eclipse and it was a strong proof for Einstein’s theory.
Astronomers measure the total mass of a galaxy by Kepler’s laws (especially the law of periods) [2].
〖 T〗^2=(4π^2)/GM a^3 (1)
α: per Astronomical Unit
M: per Solar Mass
First of all, luminous matter is not equally distributed in galaxy because astronomers while evaluating the spectrums of stars of galaxy, found that stars of galaxy have different masses.
Also based on Kepler’s law of areas, stars located closer to the center of black hole should have more orbital velocity than stars located further from center of galaxy but based on the Doppler Effect, when astronomers found out the orbital velocity of both stars by analyzing the absorption lines in spectrum of them, both were the same in orbital velocity [3].
We come to this conclusion that there should be a matter which is not luminous (because it doesn’t have any electromagnetic interaction) that let this phenomenon take place.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1701.0636 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-28 08:51:07*

**Authors:** Allen Graycek

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Very recent studies of halos around galaxies found them to be much more extensive than previous studies indicated, and that they have enormous mass consisting of gas and dust from supernovas, SNs. The results of these studies and a recent study of SN rate of occurrence can be used to determine age, and for the Milky Way the result is roughly six trillion years with a conservative preliminary calculation. Other strong evidence exists as well which indicates a great age, yet it is truly a wonder any of this will shake up or change current beliefs.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1701.0631 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-03 08:56:47*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** Pages. Published in Frontiers in Science, link http://article.sapub.org/10.5923.j.fs.20170701.02.html

A new cosmological model is proposed for the dynamics of the Universe and the formation and evolution of galaxies. It is shown that the matter of the Universe contracts and expands in cycles, and that galaxies in a particular cycle may have imprints from the previous cycle. It is proposed that RHIC’s liquid gets trapped in the cores of galaxies in the beginning of each cycle and is liberated throughout time and is, thus, the power engine of AGNs. It is also proposed that the large-scale structure is a permanent property of the Universe, and thus, it is not created. It is proposed that spiral galaxies and elliptical galaxies are formed by mergers of nucleon vortices (vorteons) at the time of the big squeeze and immediately afterwards and that the merging process, in general, lasts an extremely long time, of many billion years. The origin of quasars is explained and the evaporation rate of RHIC’s liquid is calculated. The large mass at the center of quasar PDS 456 is calculated and agrees in order of magnitude with that attributed to a supposed black hole. It is concluded that the Universe is eternal and that space should be infinite or almost.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1701.0629 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-27 00:13:53*

**Authors:** Ryan C. Rankin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Using the Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe as a background metric, purely
General relativistic (classical) scalar metric perturbations are investigated for small bodies. For the
approximation of a point-like perturbing mass in the closed FLRW universe, the scalar perturbation
may be written in a form obeying precisely the Dirac equation up to a factor playing the role
of Planck’s constant. A physical interpretation suggests the scalar perturbation in this form is the
wavefunction of quantum mechanics. Such an interpretation indicates the nonlocality of gravitational energy/momentum in General relativity leads naturally to the indeterminacy of quantum
mechanics. Some physical consequences and predictions are discussed and briefly explored.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-20 17:17:40*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, Blinn's metaballs are used to model the pre-ringdown phase of the merger of $n = 2$ Schwarzschild black holes.
An analytical solution is provided.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1701.0575 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-21 10:14:12*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Following some earlier work by Antoci and Abrams, Crothers has spent at least the past decade arguing the mathematical impossibility of the black hole. Following a brief review of the mathematical argument, a physical one is presented, based on analysis of the ‘irresistible force’ of increasing gravity allegedly collapsing a neutron star with an even greater ‘immovable object’ of increasing density into a black hole. This physical argument supports Crothers’, et al., contention that a black hole is both a mathematical as well as physical impossibility.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1701.0565 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-22 02:59:14*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmossin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We have modified the standard Einstein field equations by introducing a general function that depends on Ricci’s scalar without prior assumption of the mathematical form of the function. By demanding that the covariant derivative of the energy-momentum tensor should vanish and with application of Bianchi identity a first order ordinary differential equation in the Ricci’s scalar has emerged. By integrating the resulting equation a constant of integration resulting from solving the equation is interpreted as the cosmological constant introduced by Einstein.
The form of function on Ricci’s scalar and on the cosmological constant corresponds to the form of Einstein-Hilbert’s Lagrangian appearing in the action integral.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1701.0561 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-21 14:30:05*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: As part of the production of 8-fold composite particles of life in the epoch before the big bang, top quarks and their anti-quarks were produced in large numbers. After disruption of the composite entities (Briggs fermibosons) the freed top quark particles met and annihilated (in active quasars) early in the present epoch. This annihilation was not complete, due to CP violation,however, resulting in the universe without antimatter we see today

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1701.0557 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-21 05:17:20*

**Authors:** Ulrich Berger

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Abstract
Based on the NCU concept presented earlier, this article describes and calculates a historical scenario for the development of the universe without “Dark Energy” but caused by an average excess of unneutralized protons (pn). This historical scenario consists of the following steps:
Starting with one initial quantum fluctuation, a “Primordial Nucleus” is formed from protons generated by further quantum fluctuations. Based on Mach’s principle, the nucleus is held together due to the very high gravitational constant which is given because of the tiny mass the nucleus contains in the beginning.
The more pn are condensed in the nucleus, the lower G becomes according to Mach’s principle. So, a turning point is reached, and beyond that point the nucleus explodes at a speedof almost c. This event plays the role of the “Big Bang” in the NCU scenario.
Caused by the extremely high acceleration experienced by the pn, they form an expanding hollow sphere and thereby generate our known 3D space. During the expansion, additional pn are steadily imported from fluctuations at the horizon.
Because of the steadily impacting Coulomb acceleration, all pn collect more and more
energy, which is converted into relativistic mass growth, and finally that mass is transformed into stable particles, i.e. protons and electrons - the known neutral matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1701.0551 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-09 23:03:27*

**Authors:** Valentin Danci

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Version 2

Since 1905, when Einstein introduced the Special Relativity Theory, various researchers independently observed that his theory contains at least one more postulate besides the two postulates stated by him explicitly. Putting together all those observations about the different additional postulates, we will describe here how the Special Relativity Theory was unfortunately based on nineteen postulates, and how most of them were implied and used in Einstein's 1905 article, later in his article of 1910, and also further in his manuscript written between 1912 and 1914.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1701.0544 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-19 12:56:31*

**Authors:** Thomas Görnitz

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Based on the simplest possible quantum structures, that is, the abstract free-of-meaning quan-tum information (AQI) bits establishing the fundamental substance referred to as protyposis, it is shown, using just three plausible postulates, how a cosmological model can be derived that describes the observation data better than the „flat ΛCDM“ standard model. The postulates are the Planck relation, E = hc/λ, the existence of a distinguished velocity, i.e. the velocity of light in vacuum, and the first law of thermodynamics. Assumptions concerning inexplicable fictitious entities, such as „inflation“ or „dark energy“ can be dispensed with. The model solves „cosmolog-ical problems“.
Einstein’s equations result by requiring that the cosmic relation between the radius of curvature and the energy density can be transferred to local density variations within the cosmos. General Relativity is shown up as a classical approximation of the quantum cosmology. Therefore the relations are clarified in principle that happen between quantum theory and gravity theory.
The AQI concept allows for a simple derivation of black hole entropies and, moreover, establish-es a rationalization of the gauge groups associated with the three fundamental forces. Relati-vistic particles with and without rest mass can be constructed from the AQI bits, and, thus, all objects described in natural sciences. In living beings, the AQI can manifest both in the material body and in meaningful quantum information of the psyche, eventually closing the „explanatory gap“ between „body and mind“.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1701.0528 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-17 23:40:30*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Concerning the paradox of magnetic interaction between two parallel moving charged particle beams, there are a lot of discussions. Here in this paper, an experimental design is proposed, by which we can verify if there is really a magnetic interaction between the two charged particle beams.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1701.0503 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-06 21:33:19*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 36 Pages. Please contact gene at genebarbee@msn.com

The cosmic web is a filament like structure that connects galaxies. It has been imaged by gravitational lensing and is thought to be composed mainly of dark matter since it is not visible in the electromagnetic spectrum. There are computer simulations of the web showing that galaxies are often nodes for multiple branches. View the simulations at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ivymdduulFU. WMAP, PLANCK and other background radiation anisotropy teams have concluded that dark matter is 5 times more prevalent than normal matter. Scientists are trying to identify dark matter and the unexpected web like structure adds to the list of cosmology unknowns.
This document proposes that dark matter consists of neutron waves or neutrons (wave/particle duality) contained by a gravitational field. Dark matter density would be the same as normal matter density but neutron waves might have a radius of only 1.53e-15 meters (the wavelength of a neutron). This means it could be very elongated (e.g. 5e16 meters). It may coil into a small volume unless stretched by gravity. The neutron/waves location in the long filament is probabilistic but it contains 939 MeV/filament (1.675e-27 Kg). A diffuse structure and the absence of electromagnetic features will make it difficult to detect. Originally dark and normal matter is mixed and both fall into massive structures like galaxies over time. The residual dark matter probably forms aligned filaments we see as the cosmic web. It would attract some normal matter and be gravitationally stretched between galaxies. Dark matter has only gravitational interactions. As it moves into galaxies it forms halos and explains anomalous galactic velocity observations.
The author will present a re-analysis of the baryon/photon ratio (critical to residual deuterium abundance data) and will review that WMAP data that lead scientists to conclude that dark matter was 5 times more prevalent than normal matter. A detailed model from matter equality to decoupling will be presented. The features of interest are the waves that cause temperature variations in the background radiation. A model that predicts the temperature of the hot spots will be presented. Based on re-analysis of limiting considerations it will be shown that half of all matter is baryons and the other half is dark matter.
Most

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1701.0481 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-13 09:07:07*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Mistakes are found in the theoretical derivation process, during which the magnetic force is explained to be the relativistic side effect of Coulomb force. As a result, some serious paradoxes will be inevitable if we accept the notion that Magnetism is a Relativistic side eﬀect of Electrostatics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1701.0472 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-20 11:32:32*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Keen

**Comments:** 17 Pages. 17 Figures, 7 Tables

This paper addresses two fundamental areas of physics and cosmology that involve a “universal
consciousness”. (a) It shows where Einstein was incorrect: it is not only possible to communicate
information faster than the speed of light, but this can be instantaneous. (b) The main challenge in
physics today is unifying quantum theory with gravity: in this paper it is demonstrated that the
extended mind is involved in solving this problem.
I have spent over 30 years researching the mind’s interaction with the laws of physics, subtle fields,
and the cosmos. This has been achieved by quantifying sensed data and discovering formulae and
universal constants. A technique, I have developed, involving a singularity is explained for noetically
studying subtle fields and abstract geometry. This has produced some ground-breaking and
fundamental findings, demonstrating that the mind is very sensitive to geometry and both local and
astronomical forces.
The most exciting aspects are the quantified results and graphs that have been obtained from a
specified subtle energy beam length (L) measured over the last eight years. For example, during the
course of a day, a sinusoidal curve is obtained with maxima at sunset and minima at sunrise, even if
measurements are made in a darkened room on a cloudy day.
Another example is that the mind can detect a lower gravitational force on Earth, when the sun and
moon’s gravity are pulling in opposite directions at full moon, resulting in a peak in L. Likewise, a
higher gravitational force, when the sun and moon’s gravity are pulling in the same direction at new
moon, results in counter-intuitive shorter lengths of L.
The mind also detects changes in the Newtonian gravitational force, Fg, as the earth orbits the sun.
Over the course of a year, a plot of L produces an equation L=6E+105*Fg
-δ which has a very high
correlation coefficient R2
= 0.9745. The power index is Feigenbaum’s constant within 0.013% error.
This is another example of the mind’s ability to interact with gravity and produce a universal constant,
suggesting that consciousness is intimately connected to the fabric of the universe and chaos theory.
Any three objects in alignment, be they 3 grains of sand, 3 trees, 3 coins, 3 stones, 3 abstract circles
drawn on paper, or even 3 objects in the solar system all form a strong subtle energy beam that
experimentally has been perceived to extend endlessly. In particular, this beam has been measured
during alignments across the solar system. These have included eclipses of the sun and moon, to a
transit of Neptune by the moon. The data was analysed weeks after the events. In all cases L peaked
before the predicted time of the occlusion. This time was always identical to the time it takes light to
reach an observer on earth from the furthest of the 3 planets in alignment, on the day of the
experiment This demonstrates that the mind can communicate not only faster than light, but
instantaneously across the solar system, and the structure of the universe is such to enable this to
happen. It also suggests that macro entanglement is possible.
The findings in this paper significantly impact cosmology, and in particular show that Inflation
Theory just after the big bang, is unnecessary to explain the current structure of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1701.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-08 16:08:20*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 70 Pages.

We propose a simple, axiom-free modification of Galileo-Newton's dynamics of moving bodies, termed Information Relativity theory. We claim that the theory is capable of unifying physics. The claimed unification is supported by the fact that the same derived set of simple and beautiful transformations, apply successfully to predicting and explaining many phenomena and findings in cosmology, quantum mechanics, and more. Our modification of classical physics is done simply by accounting for the time travel of information about a physical measurement, from the reference frame at which the measurement was taken, to an observer in another reference frame, which is in motion relative to the first frame. This minor modification of classical physics turns out to be sufficient for unifying all the dynamics of moving bodies, regardless of their size and mass. Since the theory's transformations and predictions are expressed only in terms of observable physical entities, its testing should be simple and straightforward.
For quantum mechanics the special version of the theory for translational inertial motion predicts and explains matter-wave duality, quantum phase transition, quantum criticality, entanglement, the diffraction of single particles in the double slit experiment, the quantum nature of the hydrogen atom. For cosmology, the theory constructs a relativistic quantum cosmology, which provides plausible and testable explanations of dark matter and dark energy, as well as predictions of the mass of the Higgs boson, the GZK cutoff phenomena, the Schwarzschild radius of black holes (without interior singularity), and the timeline of ionization of chemical elements along the history of the universe.
The general version of the theory for gravitational and electrostatic fields, also detailed in the paper, is shown to be successful in predicting and explaining the strong force, quantum confinement, and asymptotic freedom.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1701.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-07 04:17:29*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we look at the ultimate limits of a photon propulsion rocket. The maximum velocity for a photon propulsion rocket is just below the speed of light and is a function of the reduced Compton wavelength of the heaviest subatomic particles in the rocket. We are basically combining the relativistic rocket equation with Haug’s new insight in the maximum velocity for anything with rest mass; see [1, 2, 3].
An interesting new finding is that in order to accelerate any sub-atomic “fundamental” particle to its maximum velocity, the particle rocket basically needs two Planck masses of initial load. This might sound illogical until one understands that subatomic particles with different masses have different maximum velocities. This can be generalized to large rockets and gives us the maximum theoretical velocity of a fully-efficient and ideal rocket. Further, no additional fuel is needed to accelerate a Planck mass particle to its maximum velocity; this also might sound absurd, but it has a very simple and logical solution that is explained in this paper.
This paper is Classified!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1701.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-05 08:58:59*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper discusses the similarities between Einstein’s length contraction and the FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor length contraction. The FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor length contraction was originally derived for only the case of a frame moving relative to the ether frame, and not for two moving frames. When extending the FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor length transformation to any two frames, we will clearly see that it is different than the Einstein length contraction. Under the FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor length transformation we get both length contraction and length expansion, and non-reciprocality, while under Einstein’s special relativity theory we have only length contraction and reciprocality. However, we show that there is a mathematical and logical link between the two methods of measuring length.
This paper shows that the Einstein length contraction can be derived from assuming an anisotropic one-way speed of light. Further, we show that that the reciprocality for length contraction under special relativity is an apparent reciprocality due to Einstein-Poincar ́e synchronization. The Einstein length contraction is real in the sense that the predictions are correct when measured with Einstein-Poincar ́e synchronized clocks. Still we will claim that there likely is a deeper and more fundamental reality that is better described with the extended FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor framework, which, in the special case of using Einstein-Poincar ́e synchonized clocks gives Einstein’s length contraction. The extended FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor length contraction is also about length expansion, and it is not recipro- cal between frames. Still, when using Einstein synchronized clocks the length contraction is apparently reciprocal. An enduring, open question concerns whether or not it is possible to measure the one-way speed of light without relying on Einstein-Poincar ́e synchronization or slow clock transportation synchronization, and if the one-way speed of light then is anisotropic or isotropic. Several experiments performed and published claim to have found an anisotropic one-way speed of light. These experiments have been ignored or ridiculed, but in our view they should be repeated and investigated further.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1701.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-04 20:44:19*

**Authors:** Ramzi suleiman

**Comments:** 53 Pages. relevant also to quantum mechanics

We propose a simple, axiom-free modification of Galileo-Newton's dynamics of moving bodies, termed Information Relativity theory. We claim that the theory is capable of unifying physics. The claimed unification is supported by the fact that the same derived set of simple and beautiful transformations, apply successfully to predicting and explaining many phenomena and findings in cosmology, quantum mechanics, and more. Our modification of classical physics is done simply by accounting for the time travel of information about a physical measurement, from the reference frame at which the measurement was taken, to an observer in another reference frame, which is in motion relative to the first frame. This minor modification of classical physics turns out to be sufficient for unifying all the dynamics of moving bodies, regardless of their size and mass. Since the theory's transformations and predictions are expressed only in terms of observable physical entities, its testing should be simple and straightforward. For quantum mechanics the theory predicts and explains matter-wave duality, quantum phase transition, quantum criticality, entanglement, the diffraction of single particles in the double slit experiment, the quantum nature of the hydrogen atom, the strong force, quantum confinement, and asymptotic freedom. For cosmology, the theory constructs a relativistic quantum cosmology, which provides plausible and testable explanations of dark matter and dark energy, as well as predictions of the mass of the Higgs boson, the GZK cutoff phenomena, the Schwarzschild radius of black holes (without interior singularity), and the timeline of ionization of chemical elements along the history of the universe. Extensions of the theory to accounting for the gravitational and electrostatic fields are briefly discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1701.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-04 08:37:24*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

From Einstein's theory of relativistic we obtain a formula relating the acceleration and the time derivative of the momentum. The formula includes the speed of light. The metric, according to general relativity, and changes in the gravitational field and with time. Since changing the metric, changing the way the distance measurement. Since changing a method of measuring distances in various small local areas, then in every such local area of the speed of light is negligible differs from the speed of light in a different local area, if this speed is measured in units of certain third local area (eg, the area with the observer). Therefore, the interaction will be different on the attraction and repulsion. From this is derived the inertia of a body.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1701.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-20 23:05:03*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Supermassive black holes were created during the Big Bang. As such, they were
available for clustering in the early Universe. This paper describes the
role these clusters could play in explaining dark matter, and it answers the
following question: What is the energy source for the extremely hot gas
found in galactic clusters?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology