General Science and Philosophy

1607 Submissions

[24] viXra:1607.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 01:40:47

Degrees of Membership > 1 and < 0 of the Elements With Respect to a Neutrosophic OffSet

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages.

We have defined the Neutrosophic Over-/Under-/Off-Set and -Logic for the first time in 1995 and published in 2007. During 1995-2016 we presented them to various national and international conferences and seminars ([16]-[37]) and did more publishing during 2007-2016 ([1]-[15]). These new notions are totally different from other sets/logics/probabilities
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[23] viXra:1607.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 01:52:18

Neutrosophic Crisp Probability Theory & Decision Making Process

Authors: A. A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 15 Pages.

Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. In neutrosophic set, indeterminacy is quantified explicitly and truth-membership, indeterminacy-membership and falsity-membership are independent.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[22] viXra:1607.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 01:55:43

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Book Series

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Mumtaz Ali
Comments: 144 Pages.

This volume is a collection of seventeen papers, written by different authors and co-authors (listed in the order of the papers): F. Smarandache, K. Bhutani, M. Kumar, G. Garg, S. Aggarwal, P. Biswas, S. Pramanik, B.C. Giri, J. Ye, A. Mukherjee, M. Datta, S. Sarkar, N. Shah, M. K. EL Gayyar, S. K. Patro, B. C. Cuong, P. H.Phong, A. A. Salama, I. M. Hanafy, H. Elghawalby and M. S. Dabash, R. Roy, P. Das, D. Mandal, Santhi R.,Udhayarani N., F. Yuhua, S. A. Akinleye, A.A.A. Agboola, and J. Chen.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[21] viXra:1607.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 21:58:38

Innovative and Increased Risks from CBR Disasters and Effective, Economical, Adaptive Countermeasures

Authors: Martin Dudziak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Ten years after 9-11 we are at a crucial junction point in our preparedness and defenses for chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) events initiated by terrorists, accidents or natural causes. Despite a decade of intensified work and significant expenditure aimed at providing more effective prevention as well as response to a variety of WMD-type incidents, society (USA and worldwide) is facing a higher probability for disruptive events, particularly “CBR” (chem.-bio-rad) that can cripple nations and their economies. This statement is in contradiction to common public opinions expressed on the subject. Why are CBRN risks in fact higher than before, and why are some of the types of countermeasures, particular those focused strongly upon terrorist-origin CBR threats, insufficient for preparing and responding in ways required for maintaining social resilience and sustainability? Included in our assessment are non-terrorist events that can be potentially of greater damage and consequence than terrorist acts. We also examine the diversity and unpredictability by which principally CBR threats can be brought into a large and mobile population and how such events can be amplified and made more destructive, not only by physical measures, but by psychological impact and caused by mass-panic.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[20] viXra:1607.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 03:13:10

The Current Status of the Physicalist Program [PHPR]

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

Status of PHPR.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[19] viXra:1607.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:45:37

Aggregation of Triangular Fuzzy Neutrosophic Set Information and Its Application to Multi-Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 21 Pages.

This paper is devoted to propose triangular fuzzy number neutrosophic sets by combining triangular fuzzy numbers with single valued neutrosophic set and define some of its operational rules. Then, triangular fuzzy number neutrosophic weighted arithmetic averaging operator and triangular fuzzy number neutrosophic weighted geometric averaging operator are defined to aggregate triangular fuzzy number neutrosophic sets.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18] viXra:1607.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:47:22

A Projection Model of Neutrosophic Numbers for Multiple Attribute Decision Making of Clay-Brick Selection

Authors: Jiqian Chen, Jun Ye
Comments: 4 Pages.

Brick plays a significant role in building construction.So we should use the effective mathematical decision making tool to select quality clay-bricks for building construction. The purpose of this paper is to present a projection model of neutrosophic numbers and its decision-making method for the selecting problems of clay-bricks with neutrosophic number information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[17] viXra:1607.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:49:28

Assessing it Projects Success with Extended Fuzzy Cognitive Maps & Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps in Comparison to Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

Authors: Kanika Bhutani, Megha Kumar, Gaurav Garg, Swati Aggarwal
Comments: 11 Pages.

IT projects hold a huge importance to economic growth. Today, half of the capital investments are in IT technology. IT systems and projects are extensive and time consuming; thus implying that its failure is not affordable, so proper feasibility study of assessing project success factors is required. A current methodology like Fuzzy Cognitive Maps has been experimented for identifying and evaluating the success factors in IT projects, but this technique has certain limitations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16] viXra:1607.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:52:13

Critical Review, Vol. Xii, 2016

Authors: Paul P. Wang, John N. Mordeson, Mark J. Wierman
Comments: 114 Pages.

We have proposed two multi-criteria decision making methods, Extended α-D MCDM and α-D MCDM-TOPSIS models that allow to work for consistent and inconsistent MCDM problems. In addition, three examples have demonstrated that the α-D MCDM-TOPSIS model is efficient and robust.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15] viXra:1607.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:56:11

Nω –CLOSED Sets in Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: Santhi R., Udhayarani N.
Comments: 4 Pages.

Neutrosophic set and Neutrosophic Topological spaces has been introduced by Salama. Neutrosophic Closed set and Neutrosophic Continuous Functions were introduced by Salama et. al.. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Nω- closed sets and their properties in Neutrosophic topological spaces.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14] viXra:1607.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:57:38

Neutrosophic Crisp α-Topological Spaces

Authors: A.A.Salama, I.M.Hanafy, Hewayda Elghawalby, M.S.Dabash
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, a generalization of the neutrosophic topological space is presented. The basic definitions of the neutrosophic crisp α-topological space and the neutrosophic crisp α-compact space with some of their characterizations are deduced. Furthermore, we aim to construct a netrosophic crisp α-continuous function, with a study of a number its properties.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[13] viXra:1607.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:59:12

Neutrosophic Goal Programming Applied to Bank: Three Investment Problem

Authors: Rittik Roy, Pintu Das
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper represents a new multiobjective Neutrosophic goal programming and Lexicographic goal programming to solve a multiobjective linear programming problem. Here we describe some basic properties of Neutrosophic sets. We have considered a multi-objective Bank Three Investment model to get optimal solution for different weights.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[12] viXra:1607.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:00:21

Neutrosophic Hyperideals of Semihyperrings

Authors: Debabrata Mandal
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we have introduced neutrosophic hyperideals of a semihyperring and considered some operations on them to study its basic notions and properties.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[11] viXra:1607.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:03:25

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 12, 2016

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Said Broumi, A.A.Salama
Comments: 144 Pages.

“Neutrosophic Sets and Systems” has been created for publications on advanced studies in neutrosophy, neutrosophic set, neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic statistics that started in 1995 and their applications in any field, such as the neutrosophic structures developed in algebra, geometry, topology, etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[10] viXra:1607.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:05:15

Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Sets and Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: Anjan Mukherjee, Mithun Datta, Sadhan Sarkar
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic sets (RIVNS in short). Some basic operations and properties of RIVNS are discussed. The concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic topology is also introduced together with restricted interval valued neutrosophic finer and restricted interval valued neutrosophic coarser topology. We also define restricted interval valued neutrosophic interior and closer of a restricted interval valued neutrosophic set. Some theorems and examples are cites. Restricted interval valued neutrosophic subspace topology is also studied.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9] viXra:1607.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:06:30

Smooth Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: M. K. EL Gayyar
Comments: 8 Pages.

As a new branch of philosophy, the neutrosophy was presented by Smarandache in 1980. It was presented as the study of origin, nature, and scope of neutralities; as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. The aim in this paper is to introduce the concepts of smooth neutrosophic topological space, smooth neutrosophic cotopological space, smooth neutrosophic closure, and smooth neutrosophic interior. Furthermore, some properties of these concepts will be investigated.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[8] viXra:1607.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:07:36

Some Studies in Neutrosophic Graphs

Authors: Nasir Shah
Comments: 11 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the notion of neutrosophic graphs, weak isomorphisms, co-weak isomorphisms and isomorphisms between two neutrosophic graphs. It is proved that the isomorphism between the two neutrosophic graphs is an equivalence relation. Some other properties of morphisms are also discussed in this paper.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[7] viXra:1607.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:09:08

Value and Ambiguity Index Based Ranking Method of Single-Valued Trapezoidal Neutrosophic Numbers and Its Application to Multi-Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 12 Pages.

The objective of the paper ARE to introduce single-valued trapezoidal neutrosophic numbers(SVTrNNs), which is a special case of single-valued neutrosophic numbers and to develop a ranking method for ranking SVTrNNs. Some operational rules as well as cut sets of SVTrNNs have been introduced.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[6] viXra:1607.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-16 23:01:22

Parallel Universes and Causal Anomalies: Links Between Science and Religion

Authors: Roman Sverdlov
Comments: 34 Pages. Original article was written in 2010, when I was in Raman Research Institute, but I am posting it in 2016 when I am at University of Mississippi (Spring) and University of New Mexico (Fall)

In [6] it was proposed to define "god" as a region of a universe that is subject to circular causality. While we do not adapt the exact definition of "god" that is being introduced in that paper, we do accept the concept that "god" has something to do with causal anomalies: either circular causality or else two competing causal structures. We will show that the presence of a causal anomaly (whatever it happens to be) might allow us to define trinity in non-contradictory way. That is, we will show how the members of trinity can be separate entities and, yet, have the same identity.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[5] viXra:1607.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 13:59:58

Art Definition

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

An attempt of definition of art
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[4] viXra:1607.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 21:36:52

The Human Connection: Part II

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 9 Pages. original paper revised and split into two parts due to length

As Carl Sagan famously said, we are "star stuff" exploring the stars. Life is the information pathway by which the universe achieves consciousness and self-awareness, and begins to explore itself, including evolving new modes of experience, creativity, and beauty. In terms of creativity, humans represent a fractal iteration of the creative energy of the Cosmos, as well as of its evolutionary powers. Because the entire material universe devolves from light, matter and life are a conserved form of the information content latent in the energy of light, expressed primordially through the broken symmetry of light - leading to our "matter-only" cosmos, charge conservation, atoms, the Periodic Table, chemistry, biology, and humanity. The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light (Noether's Theorem), and through these charges the energy of light is transformed into the information content of the world. Hence it is ultimately through the connection between light and matter (atoms), charge conservation and symmetry conservation, that humans retain their connection to the primordial creative energies and information content of the universe (and the multiverse). "We come trailing clouds of glory..." (Wordsworth)
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[3] viXra:1607.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 23:34:54

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern, Biochemical Characteristics and Biotyping of Salmonella Paratyphi a: an Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Enteric fever is a major global problem. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens to render current treatments ineffective. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Salmonella paratyphi A (S. paratyphi A) in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. S. paratyphi A strain were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9150). The study was conducted in revived and lyophilized state of S. paratyphi A. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. paratyphi A were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Revived treated cells was assessed on day 5 and day 10, while lyophilized treated cells assessed on day 10 after biofield treatment with respect to control (Gr. I). The antimicrobial susceptibility of S. paratyphi A showed significant (60%) alteration in revived treated cells (Gr. II) on day 10 as compared to control. The MIC values of S. paratyphi A also showed significant (53.12%) alteration in Gr. II and on day 10 while, no alteration was found in Gr. on day 5 as compared to control. It was observed that overall 18.18% biochemical reactions were altered in the treated groups with respect to control. Moreover, biotype numbers were substantially changed in Gr. II, on day 5 (53001040, S. paratyphi A), on day 10 (57101050, Citrobacter freundii complex) as compared to control (53001000, S. paratyphi A). Besides, biotype number was also changed in Gr. III (53001040, S. paratyphi A) as compared to control. The overall result suggested that biofield treatment had significant impact on S. paratyphi A in Gr. II on day 10 with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC values and biotype number.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[2] viXra:1607.0070 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-13 17:09:40

The Existence of Quantum Computer

Authors: Petr E. Pushkarev
Comments: 8 Pages.

We extend an empirically grounded theory of the existence of quantum computer. The main question that we are considering is a question about the quantum computer’s possibility of existence and creation. As empirical evidence, we use logic, which we show in cognitive perspective. For a definition of the computer, we use a formal definition of Turing machine. By formulating many definitions abstractly and phenomenologically we go around the areas of quantum physics, quantum computing and other quantum-related fields of science which could give an unambiguous answer to our question about the essence of quantum computer and which is developed so they can’t. In many ways, it makes this theory about the existence of quantum computer universal for these areas, although less applied for them. We consider some corollary of the essences of quantum computer, including the possibility of quantum computer for the human. References to research of cognitive nature of logic suggest empirical basis which we follow in our theory.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[1] viXra:1607.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 05:17:58

Maternal Exercise During Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation But not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring

Authors: Sérgio Gomes da Silva
Comments: 15 Pages.

Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain devel- opment and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and absolute cell num- bers in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex of rat pups born from mothers exer- cised during pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated the cognitive abilities of adult offspring in different behavioral paradigms (exploratory activity and habituation in open field tests, spatial memory in a water maze test, and aversive memory in a step-down inhibitory avoid- ance task). Results showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy increased BDNF lev- els and absolute numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the hippocampal formation of offspring. No differences in BDNF levels or cell numbers were detected in the cerebral cortex. It was also observed that offspring from exercised mothers exhibited better cognitive performance in nonassociative (habituation) and associative (spatial learning) mnemonic tasks than did offspring from sedentary mothers. Our findings indicate that maternal exer- cise during pregnancy enhances offspring cognitive function (habituation behavior and spa- tial learning) and increases BDNF levels and cell numbers in the hippocampal formation of offspring.
Category: General Science and Philosophy