Thermodynamics and Energy

1510 Submissions

[7] viXra:1510.0510 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-30 11:15:57

Scientists Experimentally Demonstrate 140-Year-Old Prediction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[6] viXra:1510.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:21:37

An Equivalent Circuit Modeling Self Heating Induced InterModulation Distortion in Microwave Interconnects

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 8 Pages.

Self-heating is an undesirable phenomenon, causing intermodulation distortion in RF frequencies. The theories pertinent to passive electrothermal theory are studied, and the phenomenon giving rise to self-heating is represented as an RC equivalent circuit. After validation of the model with established experimental observations, the model is applied to various microwave transmission line configurations (coplanar and microstrip) considering various material configurations. After extracting certain useful inferences, the model is applied to smart materials such as Titanium Dioxide.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[5] viXra:1510.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:22:35

Harmonic Elimination using Giant-K Planar Filters

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper design of low loss passive planar low pass filter for reducing harmonics in a frequently used voltage source type nonlinear load in low voltage distribution system is proposed. The filter is comprised of a lumped high impedance line inductor made of fused silica and an interdigitated capacitor that is made of La0.5Na0.5Cu3Ti4O12 giant K material. An extensive simulation of single phase diode bridge rectifier with designed filter is carried out by employing Spice software. The subsequent analyses reveal very low insertion loss for the proposed filter. Furthermore, low total harmonic distortion values conforming to IEEE standards and 3dB cut-off in the range of 75Hz, are obtained. This enables the designed low pass filter to effectively eliminate higher order harmonics over the entire wide band in single stretch. The usage of fractal based capacitor structure with giant K resulting in large capacitance value of the order of 3mF, small size, and the effective harnessing of temperature dependent resistance in the inductor leading to stable cut-off frequency even amidst dynamic load variation form the crux of the present work.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[4] viXra:1510.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 03:10:06

Modeling of Two-Dimension Solid Dissolution Based on Granular Particle Interaction: A Simple Approach for Tablet Dissolution Simulation in 2-D

Authors: Sparisoma Viridi, Suprijadi, Rachmat Mauludin, Hendy Hertiasa
Comments: 10 pages, 8 figures, 1 table, conference paper (ICPAPS, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 7-8 September 2015)

Simulation of 2-d rectangular tablet dissolution is constructed based on short range granular interaction through repulsive and attractive force. The former is based on linear spring-dashpot model, while the later is gravitation-like force. Fluid particles around the tablet is obeying Maxwell speed distribution, which can be tuned through temperature. Dissolution process seems to be influenced by the temperature.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[3] viXra:1510.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-15 09:16:22

Problem of Thermally Driven Diffusion in Terms of Occupation Numbers

Authors: I. V. Drozdov
Comments: 8 Pages.

In the new approach to the diffusion problem conventional statistical derivation is reconsidered deterministically using the partition function for thermal velocities. The resulting relation for time evolution of particle distribution is an integro-differential equation. Its first approximation provides the conventional partial differential equation - the second Fick's law with the diffusion transport coefficient proportional to the temperature.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[2] viXra:1510.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-12 15:36:35

From Thermokinetics to the Energodynamics

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 16 Pages.

The author generalizes thermodynamics of irreversible processes on processes of useful transformation of energy in thermal and not thermal, cyclic and not cyclic engines. For this purpose it suggests to find thermodynamic forces Xi and flows Ji from the energy conservation law, but not “entropy production”. Further it opens indissoluble communication of processes of transfer and transformation of any forms of energy, unity of their laws and existence for them antisymmetric reciprocal relations, confirming their fairness on a wide class of the processes, submitting to Maxwell’s equations.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[1] viXra:1510.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-01 06:18:12

Further Insights on the New Concept of Heat for Open Systems

Authors: Juan Ramón González Álvarez
Comments: 7 Pages.

A new definition of heat for open systems, with a number of advantages over previous definitions, was introduced in [2013}; Int. J. Therm., 16(3), 102--108]. We extend the previous work by analyzing the production of entropy and showing that the new definition of heat appears naturally as the proper flow [«flux density»] conjugate to the gradient of temperature, with the previous definitions only considering a subset of the physical effects associated to this gradient. We also revisit the transfer of heat in multicomponent systems, confirming the identity derived in the previous work for the identification of thermal effects associated to each one of the chemical potentials in the system. The new definition of heat was previously obtained within the scope of the traditional thermodynamics of irreversible processes (TIP), which has a limited field of applicability to macroscopic systems with no too strong gradients and not too fast processes. We extend now the new definition of heat to more general situations and to the quantum level of description using a standard non-commutative phase space, with the former TIP-level definition recovered from partial integration.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy