[51] **viXra:1002.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 feb 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** Eight pages, two figures. Template for submission to Beyond the Standard Model
2010 conference proceedings. May be cut to five papes, pending decision as to length of
submission decision by Professor Hans Klaptor Kleingross, overall chair of Beyond the Standard
Model, as given in http://www.phy.uct.ac.za/beyond2010/

The case for a four dimensional graviton mass (non zero) influencing reacceleration of the universe
in both four and five dimensions is stated, with particular emphasis upon if four and five dimensional
geometries as given below give us new physical insight as to cosmological evolution. The author
finds that both cases give equivalent reacceleration one billion years ago which leads to an inquiry if
other criteria as to cosmology can determine the benefits of adding additional dimensions to
cosmology models

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:1002.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Constantinos Ragazas

**Comments:** 3 pages

The current physical view of the Universe (the Metaphysics of Physics) is one that just does
not make sense and is counter-intuitive to our Experience. It begins with the Quantization of
Energy Hypothesis used by Planck to derive his blackbody radiation formula and by Einstein to
explain the photoelectric effect, which later evolved into Quantum Mechanics. By examining
these conceptual foundations of Modern Physics we are able to show that the same experimental
facts that lead to Quantum Physics can be differently explained without using energy quanta,
continuously and not discretely. We are able to derive Planck's Law without using quanta and
explain the photoelectric effect without needing photons. We summarize in this paper results
presented in a series of papers that show with mathematical reasoning and rigor how this is
possible. The main purpose of this endeavor is to create a view of the Universe that 'makes
sense', that agrees with our Experience and provides physical meaning to our Understanding of it.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[49] **viXra:1002.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Fabrizio Vassallo

**Comments:** 9 pages.

V. Manasson has applied dissipative chaos theory to particle physics,
deriving a simple relation between the fine structure constant and
Feigenbaum delta constant. It is presented a preon model based on
Manasson's theory. The model is intended as a naive toy one, as it makes
use of unjustified assumptions, as e.g. the possibility of the existence of
neither fermionic nor bosonic particles in 3+1 spacetime.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[48] **viXra:1002.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Jack Sarfatti

**Comments:** 7 pages.

The bias against Wheeler-Feynman retro-causal advanced waves from a future absorber, a general
lack of understanding of when the asymptotically constant de Sitter horizon is in our subjective
observable causal diamond piece of the multiverse, Hawkings chronology protection conjecture, and
the lack of comprehension of the strange implications of the tHooft-Susskind hologram principle [i]
have not allowed us to see what is in front of our eyes since the discovery of dark energy energy
accelerating the expansion rate of 3D space ten years or so ago. Bernard Carr [ii] has already
published a brief account of my idea that retrocausality is the key to understanding the biggest
problem in physics today why the dark energy density is so small. My paper with Creon Levit
(NASA AMES) [iii] based on my brief talk at DICE 2008 further developed that idea. This paper,
is still a simpler explanation of why the virtual boson dark energy density is so small and how
it is intimately connected to the Arrow of Time of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. [iv] The
basic idea is so simple that any bright curious schoolboy or girl can grasp it without too much
difficulty. Our universe grows from one qubit at the moment of inflation to an asymptotically
constant de Sitter horizon hologram screen ~ 10^{123} qubits that is also the upper limit to the
total thermodynamic entropy of our observable universe in the precise sense of Tamara Daviss
2004 Ph.D. dissertation at the University of New South Wales. The early universe is obviously
not de Sitter, therefore, we have already there an obvious temporal asymmetry explaining the
Arrow of Time. The dark energy density we see in our past light cone is proportional to the
inverse area of our future de Sitter horizon at its intersection with our future light cone in
accord with the Wheeler-Feynman retrocausal absorber principle. [v] Our future de Sitter null
horizon is the Wheeler-Feynman total future absorber of last resort giving us retrocausality
without retrocausality similar to the nonlocality without nonlocality of the no cloning a quantum
or passion at a distance of orthodox quantum theorys signal locality. The link between our future
and our past is a globally self-consistent time loop in the sense of Igor Novikov. Indeed, this
is a bootstrap of self-creation from future to past. The past dark energy density is indeed the
Planck density at the moment of inflation, but Tamara Daviss Fig 5.1 shows that this density
quickly drops to the small constant value that has been dominant in the past few billion years
bearing in mind that what matters, is not the spacelike intersection at a constant conformal
time, but, rather, the intersection of the observers future light cone with his future dark
energy horizon. However, although I have not yet proved that the dark energy seen in our past
light cone is really advanced Hawking radiation from our future observer-dependent de Sitter
cosmic horizon that is, in addition, likely to be a holographic (post) quantum computer not in
sub-quantal equilibrium. I have given a plausible argument that this may turn out to be true.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[47] **viXra:1002.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 12 pages. This is a sequel to a paper published in Communications in Nonlinear Science and
Numerical Simulation 13 (2008) 1845-1850.

A long-standing puzzle of the current Standard Model for particle physics is that both leptons and quarks
arise in replicated patterns. Our work suggests that the number of fermion flavors may be directly derived
from the dynamics of Renormalization Group (RG) equations. Specifically, we argue that the number of
flavors results from demanding stability of the RG flow about its fixed-point solution.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[46] **viXra:1002.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 5 pages, 1 figure, Latex. Contribution to The 3d International Conference on Particle and Fundamental
Physics in Space (Space Part'06 ), Beijing, China, 19 - 21 April 2006 (Nuclear Physics B (Proc. Suppl.) 166 (2007)
297-299).

The Newtonian attraction turns out to be the main statistical effect
in the sea of super-strong interacting gravitons, with bodies themselves
being not sources of gravitons - only correlational properties of in and
out fluxes of gravitons in their neighbourhood are changed due to an
interaction with bodies. Other quantum effects of low-energy quantum
gravity are the following ones: redshifts, their analog - a deceleration
of massive bodies, and an additional relaxation of any light flux.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[45] **viXra:1002.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Antoine Acke

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In the paper GRAVITATION AND ELECTROMAGNETISM (viXra-classical
physics:1001.0017), we explained the gravitational and the electromagnetic phenomena
through the mediation of "informatons". We started from the hypothesis that any material
object manifests itself in space by emitting informatons. These are dot-shaped entities that
rush away with the speed of light carrying "information" about the position, the velocity
and - if it is electrically charged - the electrical charge of the emitter. We showed that informatons
constitute the gravitational and the electromagnetic fields which make the interactions
possible.
In this paper we extend the theory to interactions between - electrically neutral - moving
objects in relativistic situations.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[44] **viXra:1002.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 12 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 26 Pages. An equation of a 5D General Relativity ansatz included in the beginning of section 2 and minor changes in the text

We demonstrate how Rest Masses and Electric Charges are generated by the 5D Extra Dimension
of a Universe possessing a Higher Dimensional Nature using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation in agreement
with the point of view of Ponce De Leon explaining in the generation process how and why antiparticles
have the same rest mass m_{0} but charges of equal modulus and opposite signs when compared to particles
and we also explains why both annihilates.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1002.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Larissa Borissova

**Comments:** 37 pages, Published in "The Abraham Zelmanov Journal", vol.2, pp. 224-260 (2009).

This seminal study deals with the exact solution of Einstein's field equations for a sphere of incompressible
liquid without the additional limitation initially introduced in 1916 by Karl Schwarzschild, according to
which the space-time metric must have no singularities. The obtained exact solution is then applied to the
Universe, the Sun, and the planets, by the assumption that these objects can be approximated as spheres of
incompressible liquid. It is shown that gravitational collapse of such a sphere is permitted for an object
whose characteristics (mass, density, and size) are close to the Universe. Meanwhile, there is a spatial
break associated with any of the mentioned stellar objects: the break is determined as the approaching to
infinity of one of the spatial components of the metric tensor. In particular, the break of the Sun's space
meets the Asteroid strip, while Jupiter's space break meets the Asteroid strip from the outer side.
Also, the space breaks of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are located inside the Asteroid strip (inside the Sun's
space break).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1002.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabounski

**Comments:** 16 pages, Published in "The Abraham Zelmanov Journal", vol.2, pp. 208-223 (2009).

This study applies the mathematical method of chronometric invariants, which are physically observable
quantities in the four-dimensional space-time (Zelmanov A.L., Soviet Physics Doklady, 1956, vol.1, 227-230).
The isotropic region of the space-time is considered (it is known as the isotropic space). This is
the home of massless light-like particles (e.g. photons). It is shown that the isotropic space rotates
with a linear velocity equal to the velocity of light. The rotation slows in the presence of gravitation.
Even under the simplified conditions of Special Relativity, the isotropic space still rotates with the
velocity of light. A manifestation of this effect is the observed Hubble redshift explained as energy
loss of photons with distance, for work against the non-holonomity (rotation) field of the isotropic
space wherein they travel (Rabounski D. The Abraham Zelmanov Journal, 2009, vol.2, 11-28). It is shown
that the light-speed rotation of the isotropic space has a purely geometrical origin due to the space-time
metric, where time is presented as the fourth coordinate, expressed through the velocity of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1002.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabounski

**Comments:** 18 pages, Published in "The Abraham Zelmanov Journal", vol.2, pp. 11-28 (2009).

In General Relativity, the change in energy of a freely
moving photon is given by the scalar equation of the isotropic geodesic
equations, which manifests the work produced on a photon being
moved along a path. I solved the equation in terms of physical observables
(Zelmanov A. L., Soviet Physics Doklady, 1956, vol. 1, 227-230)
and in the large scale approximation, i.e. with gravitation and deformation
neglected, while supposing the isotropic space to be globally
non-holonomic (the time lines are non-orthogonal to the spatial section,
a condition manifested by the rotation of the space). The solution
is E = E_{0} exp(-Ωat/c), where Ω is the angular velocity of the
space (it meets the Hubble constant H_{0} = c/a = 2.3x10^{-18} sec^{-1}),
a is the radius of the Universe, t = r/c is the time of the photon's
travel. Thus, a photon loses energy with distance due to the work
against the field of the space non-holonomity. According to the solution,
the redshift should be z = exp(H_{0} r/c)-1 ≈ H_{0} r/c. This solution
explains both the redshift z = H_{0} r/c observed at small distances
and the non-linearity of the empirical Hubble law due to the exponent
(at large r). The ultimate redshift in a non-expanding universe,
according to the theory, should be z = exp(π)-1 = 22.14.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1002.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Constantinos Ragazas

**Comments:** 2 pages

In our derivation of Planck's Law (showing that this Formula is an exact mathematical identity that describes the
interaction of measurement) the 'accumulation of energy' locally at time t was a key variable. By starting with
this as the primary variable and defining energy, momentum and force in terms of it we are able to mathematically
derive such basic laws of Physics as Conservation of Energy and Momentum, and Newton's Second Law of Motion.
Following the same approach we demonstrate in this short note how Schrödinger's Equation relates to this formulation.
This leads to a physical meaning of the wave-function ψ and a plausible explanation of the double-slit experiment.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[39] **viXra:1002.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Anthony Pinedo Araujo

**Comments:** 7 pages. This article was written in Spanish. It was published in ECIPERU, vol 6, num 2, pp 68-76.August 2009.

There are two types of systems of electric aerogeneration by using wind turbines, one is called horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT)
and the other one is called vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). Both of them have advantages and disadvantages depending on many
factors. Since the second one had produced lees power than the first one, they were ignored. However, the adaptation of a levitation
system and a new system of magnetic induction made VAWT increase the power produced and exceed the HAWT. Although VAWT
models were studied enough in the design and experimental scheme, there is no solid explanation, based on basic principles, on the
operation of the VAWT. In this paper is proposed a theoretical model of VAWT operation. Therefore, three studies are done: the
interaction between wind and blades of the turbine, the magnetic levitation system and the energy production by magnetic induction.
Those studies make us able to know and predict the operation of those systems. Since, we shall know how many factors are affecting
the efficiency of the system; we shall be able to control those parameters in order to get the best efficiency.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[38] **viXra:1002.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 19 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Robert Gallinat

**Comments:** 5 pages, v1 is in German, v2 is in English

Conceptual approach and heuristic method for an investigation of
the possible algebraic structure of the interdependence between
mathematical and physical reality and about the connection between
local, non-local and global properties in physics and mathematics,
expressed by a general n-fold algebra

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1002.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Martín López-Corredoira, F. Sylos Labini, J. Betancort-Rijo

**Comments:** 5 pages, accepted to be published in A&A

Aims. Several authors have claimed to detect a significant cross-correlation between microwave WMAP anisotropies and the SDSS
galaxy distribution. We repeat these analyses to determine the different cross-correlation uncertainties caused by re-sampling errors
and field-to-field fluctuations. The first type of error concerns overlapping sky regions, while the second type concerns nonoverlapping
sky regions.
Methods. To measure the re-sampling errors, we use bootstrap and jack-knife techniques. For the field-to-field fluctuations, we use
three methods: 1) evaluation of the dispersion in the cross-correlation when correlating separated regions of WMAP with the original
region of SDSS; 2) use of mock Monte Carlo WMAP maps; 3) a new method (developed in this article), which measures the error as
a function of the integral of the product of the self-correlations for each map.
Results. The average cross-correlation for b > 30 deg. is significantly stronger than the re-sampling errors - both the jack-knife and
bootstrap techniques provide similar results - but it is of the order of the field-to-field fluctuations. This is confirmed by the crosscorrelation
between anisotropies and galaxies in more than the half of the sample being null within re-sampling errors.
Conclusions. Re-sampling methods underestimate the errors. Field-to-field fluctuations dominate the detected signals. The ratio of
signal to re-sampling errors is larger than unity in a way that strongly depends on the selected sky region. We therefore conclude that
there is no evidence yet of a significant detection of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. Hence, the value of
Ω_{Λ} ≈ 0.8 obtained
by the authors who assumed they were observing the ISWeffect would appear to have originated from noise analysis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1002.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas

**Comments:** 12 pages. Published Romanian Astronomical Journal, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 95-105, 2005

In a new theory called Dynamic Theory of Gravity, the gravitational potential is is
derived from gauge relations and has a different form than the classical Newtonian
potential. In the same theory an analytical expression for the pressure is derived from the
equation of the hydronamic equilibrium which is solved for a star of constant density and
the results are compared with those of Newtonian gravity. Changes then in the central
pressure and radius are also calculated and finally a redshift calculation is performed so
that the dynamic gravity effects if any might be shown to be of some detectabe
magnitude.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[35] **viXra:1002.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas

**Comments:** 7 pages. Published Romanian Astronomical Journal, Vo. 13 No. 2, pp.111-117

We propose a derivation of the empirical Weinberg relation for the mass of an elementary
particle and in an inflationary type of universe. Our derivation produces the standard
well known Weinberg relation for the mass of an elementary particle, along with an extra
term which depends on the inflationary potential, as well as Hubble's constant. The
derivation is based on Zeldovich's result for the cosmological constant Λ, in the context
of quantum field theory. The extra term can be understood as a small correction to the
mass of the elementary particle due to inflation. This term also enables us to calculate,
the initial value of the field φ_{O} for two kinds of potentials chosen, which makes
Weinberg's relation possible. Closed and flat and open universes give the mass of the
particles close to the mass of a pion, 140 MeV/c_{2} or as the one also predicted by
Weinberg's relation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[34] **viXra:1002.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas

**Comments:** 8 pages. Published Romanian Astronomical Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 3-9, 2004 and SAO and NASA Astrophysics Data System

In a new theory gravity called the dynamic theory, which is derived from
thermodymical principles in a five dimensional space, the deflection of a light signal is
calculated and compared to that of general relativity. This is achieved by using the dynamic
gravity line element which is the usual four dimesional space-time element of Newtonian
gravity modified by a negative inverse radial exponetial term. The dynamic theory of gravity
predicts this modification of the original Newtonian potential by this exponential term.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1002.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas

**Comments:** 5 pages. Published Romanian Astronomical Journal, Vo. 12 No. 2, 2002

A relation for the black-hole temperature in a De-Sitter type universe is determined in the
first step of this paper. As a result of that, the upper and the lower temperature limits of the black
hole are calculated, and then the limits of the radius of the universe containing the black hole. All
these calculations are based upon the present values of the cosmological constant Λ. Further
relations for the dependance of this temperature on Hubble's constant and the gravitationsal
energy of the hardons was also derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1002.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas

**Comments:** 9 pages. Published Romanian Astronomical Journal, Vol. 12 No. 1, 2002 and SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System.

In this paper we are going to examine the effect, if any exists, that a
modification of the Schwarzchild metric by a lamda term could have on the so called
Sakharov's upper temperature limit. It's known that Zakharov's limit is the maximum
possible black body temperature that can occur in our universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1002.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Akindele O. J. Adekugbe

**Comments:** 19 pages, 13 pages, published in Progress in Physics, 2010, vol.1, 49-61

The two-world background of the Special Theory of Relativity started in part one of
this article is continued in this second part. Four-dimensional inversion is shown to be
a special Lorentz transformation that transforms the positive spacetime coordinates of a
frame of reference in the positive universe into the negative spacetime coordinates of the
symmetry-partner frame of reference in the negative universe in the two-world picture,
contrary to the conclusion that four-dimensional inversion is impossible as actual transformation
of the coordinates of a frame of reference in the existing one-world picture.
By starting with the negative spacetime dimensions in the negative universe derived in
part one, the signs of mass and other physical parameters and physical constants in the
negative universe are derived by application of the symmetry of laws between the positive
and negative universes. The invariance of natural laws in the negative universe is
demonstrated. The derived negative sign of mass in the negative universe is a conclusion
of over a century-old effort towards the development of the concept of negative
mass in physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1002.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Akindele O. J. Adekugbe

**Comments:** 19 pages, published in Progress in Physics, 2010, vol.1 30-48

A new sheet of spacetime is isolated and added to the existing sheet, thereby yielding a
pair of co-existing sheets of spacetimes, which are four-dimensional inversions of each
other. The separation of the spacetimes by the special-relativistic event horizon compels
an interpretation of the existence of a pair of symmetrical worlds (or universes)
in nature. Further more, a flat two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime that underlies the
flat four-dimensional spacetime in each universe is introduced. The four-dimensional
spacetime is outward manifestation of the two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime, just as
the Special Theory of Relativity (SR) on four-dimensional spacetime is mere outward
manifestation of the intrinsic Special Theory of Relativity (φSR) on two-dimensional
intrinsic spacetime. A new set of diagrams in the two-world picture that involves relative
rotation of the coordinates of the two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime is drawn and
intrinsic Lorentz transformation derived from it. The Lorentz transformation in SR is
then written directly from intrinsic Lorentz transformation in φSR without any need to
draw diagrams involving relative rotation of the coordinates of four-dimensional spacetime,
as usually done until now. Indeed every result of SR can be written directly from
the corresponding result of φSR. The non-existence of the light cone concept in the
two-world picture is shown and good prospect for making the Lorentz group SO(3,1)
compact in the two-world picture is highlighted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1002.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 5 pages.

Using Wolff's model of spherical-wave centers, a scalar energy field is derived
between rest-energy of a particle and potential energy of a hypothetical space fabric. The
simple formula of mc^{2} = .5kx^{2} that results reveals a different elasticity constant k for each
particle, and based on the knowledge of electro-weak unification which requires the
constants k for the electron and neutrino to be the same, a mass for the electron-neutrino
is predicted to be 0.065 eV.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[28] **viXra:1002.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Anthony Pinedo Araujo

**Comments:** 8 pages. This paper is written in Spanish.

There are two uncertainty principles, but most of students get confused between both of
them because of the lack of conceptual context that this topic is explained in books. In
this article, both principles are discussed, making the differences between them clear.
Also, I propose some examples that are very easy to understand by students.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[27] **viXra:1002.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas

**Comments:** Published, Galilean Electrodynamics, vol. 18, SPI/3,pp. 49-53, 2007

The most important tool for the study of the gravitational field in Einstein's theory of gravity is his
field equations. In this short paper, we demonstrate the derivation of Einstein field equations for
the Freedman cosmological model using the Robertson-Walker metric, and furthermore Harrison's formula
for the Ricci tensor. The difference is that Harrison's formula is an actually shorter way of obtaining
the field equations. The advantage is that the Cristoffel symbols do not have to be directly calculated
one by one. This can actually be a very useful demonstration for somebody who would like to understand
a slightly different but faster way of deriving the field equations, something that is actually rarely
seen in many of undergraduate and even graduate textbooks.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1002.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas

**Comments:** 8 pages, Romanian Astronomical Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1 pp. 25-30, 2003

Recent evidence suggests that the fine-structure constant α=e^{2}/h bar*c, a measure
of the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between photons and electrons, is
slowly increasing over cosmological timescales.
High-resolution measurements of quasar spectra suggest that there has been a
variation Δα/α =-0.72 ± 0.18x10^{-5} over the past 6-10 Gyr.To model this, we
propose variability in the speed of light that produces a cosmological
time |αdot/α| = 10^{-15} and 10^{-16} yr^{-1} at z = 3 which also agrees with the
observational spectral data.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[25] **viXra:1002.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Constantinos Ragazas

**Comments:** 4 pages

Planck's constant h is considered to be a fundamental Universal constant of Physics.
And although we can experimentally determine its value to great precision, the reason
for its existence and what it really means is still a mystery. Quantum Mechanics has
adapted it in its mathematical formalism, as it also has the Quantum Hypothesis. But
QM does not explain its meaning or prove its existence. Why does the Universe need h
and energy quanta? Why does the mathematical formalism of QM so accurately reflect
physical phenomena and predict these with great precision? Ask any physicists and
uniformly the answer is "that's how the Universe works". The units of h are in
energy-time and the conventional interpretation of h is as a quantum of action. But
in this brief note we take a different view. We interpret h as the minimal accumulation
of energy that can be manifested in our measurements. Certainly the units of h agree
with such interpretation. Based on this we provide a plausible explanation for the
existence of Planck's constant, what it means and how it comes about. We show that
the existence of Planck's constant is not so much dictated by the Universe but rather
by Mathematics and the inner consistence and calibrations of Physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1002.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 5 pages, 2 figures, 2 tables, Submitted as a letter to MNRAS (MN-10-0299-L.)

This reading expounds with expediency on the recently proposed Azimuthally Symmetric Theory
of Gravitation (ASTG) set-up earlier. There-in, the ASTG was set up and it was demonstrated
that it is capable (amongst others solar anomalies) of explaining the precession of the
perihelion of solar planets. In the second reading, it was shown that this theory is capable - in
principle; of explaining outflows as a repulsive gravitational phenomenon. In the present, we
show that the ASTG is capable of explaining the puzzling observations of flyby anomalies vis,
anomalous asymptotic speed increases at the perigee and the speed changes occurring to the osculating
hyperbolic speed excess. It is shown that these flyby anomalies are a natural occurrence
in the ASTG. We derive a modified formula of the empirical formula proposed by Anderson et
al., which up to now has no foundational basis except that experience suggest it. It is seen that
the ASTG can in principle explain the Pioneer Anomaly. To say for sure the ASTG is the reason
for the Pioneer Anomaly, there is need to obtain the complete set of the Pioneer ephemerides.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[23] **viXra:1002.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas

**Comments:** 6 pages, Published: Serbian Astronomical Journal, no. 168, 2004, 49-54.

There is a new theory gravity called the dynamic theory, which is
derived from thermodynamic principles in a five dimensional space, radar signals
travelling times and delays are calculated for the major planets in the solar system,
and compared to those of general relativity. This is done by using the usual four
dimensional spherically symmetric space-time element of classical general relativistic
gravity which has now been slightly modified by a negative inverse radial exponential
term due to the dynamic theory of gravity potential.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1002.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Michael Harney, Ioannis Iraklis Haranas

**Comments:** 1 pages, Published: Progress in Physics, vol. 2, pp.8, 2010 .

The prime-number counting function π(n), which is significant in the prime number theorem,
is derived by analyzing the region of convergence of the real-part of the
Riemann-Zeta function using the unilateral z-transform. In order to satisfy the stability criteria
of the z-transform, it is found that the real part of the Riemann-Zeta function must converge
to the prime-counting function.

**Category:** Number Theory

[21] **viXra:1002.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Michael Harney, Ioannis Iraklis Haranas

**Comments:** 3 pages, Published: Progress in Physics, vol. 4, pp. 16-18, 2008 .

The proposal for dark energy based on Type Ia Supernovae redshift is examined. It is
found that the linear and non-Linear portions in the Hubble Redshift are easily explained
by the use of the Hubble Sphere model, where two interacting Hubble spheres sharing
a common mass-energy density result in a decrease in energy as a function of distance
from the object being viewed. Interpreting the non-linear portion of the redshift curve
as a decrease in interacting volume between neighboring Hubble Spheres removes the
need for a dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1002.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas, Michael Harney

**Comments:** 8 pages, Romanian Astronomical Journal, vol. 10, no. 1, 2009 and and SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System.

We derive quantization relations in the case when torsion effects are added in a De-Sitter
spacetime metric with or without a black hole at the Planck mass and Planck length limit.
To this end we use Zeldovich's definition of the cosmological constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1002.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas, Michael Harney

**Comments:** 2 pages, Published: Progress in Physics, vol. 3, pp. 3-8 , 2008.

General Relativity predicts the existence of relativistic corrections to the static Newtonian
potential which can be calculated and verified experimentally. The idea leading to quantum
corrections at large distances is that of the interactions of massless particles which only
involve their coupling energies at low energies. In this short paper we attempt to propose
the Sagnac intrerferometric technique as a way of detecting the relativistic correction
suggested for the Newtonian potential, and thus obtaining an estimate for phase difference
using a satellite orbiting at an altitude of 250 km above the surface.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[18] **viXra:1002.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas, Spiros Pagiatakis

**Comments:** 7 pages, Published: Astrophys Space Sci., Jan 22, 2010, DOI 10.1007/s10509-010-0274-5.

We study the effects of a non-singular gravitational potential on satellite orbits by
deriving the corresponding time rates of change of its orbital elements. This is achieved
by expanding the non-singular potential into power series up to second order. This series
contains three terms, the first been the Newtonian potential and the other two, here R1
(first order term) and
R2 (second order term), express deviations of the singular potential from the Newtonian.
These deviations from the Newtonian potential are taken as disturbing potential terms in
the Lagrange planetary equations that provide the time rates of change of the orbital
elements of a satellite in a non-singular gravitational field. We split these effects
into secular, low and high frequency components and we evaluate them numerically using
the low Earth orbiting mission Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). We show
that the secular effect of the second-order disturbing term R2 on the perigee and the
mean anomaly are 4".307*10^{-9}/a, and -2".533*10^{-15}/a, respectively. These effects are
far too small and most likely cannot easily be observed with today's technology. Numerical
evaluation of the low and high frequency effects of the disturbing term R2 on low Earth
orbiters like GRACE are very small and undetectable by current observational means.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1002.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 11 Aug 2011*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 7 pages

The Sun's orbital motion around the Solar System barycentre contributes a small quadrupole
moment to the gravitational energy of Mercury. The effect of this moment has until now
gone unnoticed, but it actually generates some precession of Mercury's orbit. Therefore the
residual 43arcsec/cy, currently allocated to general relativity, has to account for this new
component as well as a reduced relativity component.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1002.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 22 pages, Submitted to PMC Physics A

A theory has been developed of an auxiliary relativistic gravitational field, which operates
in conjunction with General Relativity gravity and accounts for the empirical success of
Milgrom's modified Newtonian dynamics theory. Remarkable links between this astronomical
theory and atomic physics have been discovered. Resonant, standing-wave properties of the
field encourage the formation of flat rotation curves, bar or spiral structures and quantised
galactic rings. Gravitational lensing due to this field is also significant. The angular
momentum proportional to mass-squared relationship observed in galaxies is attributed to
this field selecting a preferred galactic rotation velocity.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[15] **viXra:1002.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 23 pages, Submitted to PMC Physics A

Absolute radial positions of the main features in Saturn's ring system have been calculated by
adapting the quantum theory of atomic spectra. Fine rings superimposed upon broad rings are found
to be covered by a harmonic series of the form N α A(r)1/2, where N and A are integers. Fourier
analysis of the ring system shows that the spectral amplitude fits a response profile which is
characteristic of a resonant system. Rings of Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune also obey the same
rules. Involvement of the atomic fine structure constant throughout implies the existence of a
real quantisation force linking gravitation and atomic theories.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[14] **viXra:1002.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas, Michael Harney

**Comments:** 6 pages, Published: Progress in Physics, vol. 3, pp. 3-8 , 2008.

General Relativity predicts the existence of relativistic corrections to the static Newtonian
potential which can be calculated and verified experimentally. The idea leading
to quantum corrections at large distances is that of the interactions of massless particles
which only involve their coupling energies at low energies. In this short paper we
attempt to propose the Sagnac intrerferometric technique as a way of detecting the relativistic
correction suggested for the Newtonian potential, and thus obtaining an estimate
for phase difference using a satellite orbiting at an altitude of 250 km above the surface
of the Earth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1002.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas, Michael Harney

**Comments:** 6 pages, Published, Progress in Physics, vol. pp. 1-5, 2008

Using a non-singular gravitational potential which appears in the literature we analytically derived
and investigated the equations describing the precession of a body's spin orbiting around a main
spherical body of mass M. The calculation has been performed using a non-exact Schwarzschild solution,
and further assuming that the gravitational field of the Earth is more than that of a rotating mass.
General theory of relativity predicts that the direction of the gyroscope will change at a rate of 6.6
arcsec/year for a gyroscope in a 650 km high polar orbit. In our case a precession rate of the spin of
a very similar magnitude to that predicted by general relativity was calculated resulting to
a ΔS_{geo}/S_{geo} =-5.570*10^{-2}

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1002.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Borissova L., Rabounski D.

**Comments:** 118 pages, 2nd edition, published by Svenska fysikarkivet, 2008

This is a research on all kinds of particles, which could be conceivable in the space-time of
General Relativity. In addition to mass-bearing particles and light-like particles, zero-particles
are predicted: such particles can exist in a fully degenerate space-time region (zero-space).
Zero-particles seems as standing light waves, which travel in instant (non-quantum teleportation
of photons); they might be observed in a further development of the "stopped light experiment" which was
first conducted in 2001, at Harvard, USA. The theoretical existence of two separate regions in the
space-time is also shown, where the observable time flows into the future and into the past (our
world and the mirror world). These regions are separated by a space-time membrane wherein the
observable time stops. A few other certain problems are considered. It is shown, through Killing's
equations, that geodesic motion of particles is a result of stationary geodesic rotation of the
space which hosts them. Concerning the theory of gravitational wave detectors, it is shown that
both free-mass detector and solid-body detector may register a gravitational wave only if such a
detector bears an oscillation of the butt-ends.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1002.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Borissova L., Rabounski D.

**Comments:** 260 pages, 2nd edition, published by Svenska fysikarkivet, 2009

In this book, we build the theory of non-geodesic motion of particles in the space-time of
General Relativity. Motion of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field is constructed
in curved space-time (in contrast to the regular considerations held in Minkowski's space of
Special Relativity). Spin particles are explained in the framework of the variational
principle: this approach distinctly shows that elementary particles should have masses
governed by a special quantum relation. Physical vacuum and forces of non-Newtonian
gravitation acting in it are determined through the lambda-term in Einstein's equations.
A cosmological concept of the inversion explosion of the Universe from a compact object
with the radius of an electron is suggested. Physical conditions inside a membrane that
separates space-time regions where the observable time flows into the future and into the
past (our world and the mirror world) are examined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1002.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Constantinos Ragazas

**Comments:** 3 pages

What is measurement and what can it tell us about the quantity measured? Can we know a quantity
by measuring it? We mathematically demonstrate that the answer is no! We show how a continuous
quantity E(t) that grows exponentially can in our measurements of it be seen as discrete and
growing linearly. And if we further consider the practical limitations that render measurements
as 'approximations' only, then the quantity E(t) that we measure can be any integrable function
yet our measurements of it will still depict it as discrete and linear. Furthermore, and most
urprising, the 'interaction of measurement' will be described by Planck's Law, whether E(t) is
exponential or just integrable. Thus, we cannot know what the hidden quantity E(t) is by the
measurements of it.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[9] **viXra:1002.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** David Martin Degner

**Comments:** 37 pages

AWhen I was in my twenties I worked on the problem: What is Life? In 1980/81 I was a research
associate in molecular genetics at the University of California at Berkeley working for a
professor in bacteriology. I wrote for the professor a 57 legal sized page, hand written and
unedited essay in the form of a sequence of 72 questions and answers that focused on Gram (+)
prokaryotic cells, the hydrogen of biology. The professor failed to comment or ask a single
question. Back then I was into equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, reversible and
irreversible processes, chemical interactions and kinetics, static and dynamic phase
organization, mass/energy and information flow, information definition and information
processing, and modeling biological cells as chemical computers, i.e. Turing machines.
I've faithfully transcribed that unedited sequence of questions and answers here. It's at
times quite tedious and there were some major errors but there also is some really good
science. There is always chaos embedded in new work. This is a qualitative, phenomenological
model of the central processing unit of the prokaryotic cell that is the first step in obtaining a
fully quantitative model for biology.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[8] **viXra:1002.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Martín López-Corredoira

**Comments:** 44 pages, accepted to be published in Int. J. Mod. Phys. D

Assuming the standard cosmological model as correct, the average linear size of galaxies
with the same luminosity is six times smaller at z = 3.2 than at z = 0, and their average
angular size for a given luminosity is approximately proportional to z^{-1}. Neither the
hypothesis that galaxies which formed earlier have much higher densities nor their luminosity
evolution, mergers ratio, or massive outflows due to a quasar feedback mechanism
are enough to justify such a strong size evolution. Also, at high redshift, the intrinsic
ultraviolet surface brightness would be prohibitively high with this evolution, and the
velocity dispersion much higher than observed. We explore here another possibility to
overcome this problem by considering different cosmological scenarios that might make
the observed angular sizes compatible with a weaker evolution.
One of the models explored, a very simple phenomenological extrapolation of the
linear Hubble law in a Euclidean static universe, fits the angular size vs. redshift dependence
quite well, which is also approximately proportional to z^{-1} with this cosmological
model. There are no free parameters derived ad hoc, although the error bars allow a
slight size/luminosity evolution. The type Ia supernovae Hubble diagram can also be
explained in terms of this model with no ad hoc fitted parameter.
WARNING: I do not argue here that the true Universe is static. My intention is
just to discuss which theoretical models provide a better fit to the data of observational
cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1002.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** S. Halayka

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is considered whether or not recent ultra high energy cosmic ray
observations hint at the possibility that the unaccounted for higher energy
rays have become dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[6] **viXra:1002.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Constantinos Ragazas

**Comments:** 2 pages

In another paper we derived Planck's Law and showed that it is an exact mathematical
identity that describes the interaction of energy. In that derivation the quantity,
the 'accumulation of energy', played a prominent role. This quantity was defined as a
time-integral of energy, while energy was the primary quantity. In this note we consider
instead that this is the primary physical quantity (prime physis) and define in terms of
it energy, momentum and force. From these we go on to mathematically derive such basic
laws of Physics as Conservation of Energy and Momentum and Newton's Second Law of Motion.
We also make promising connections with the Schrodinger Equation and derive a relationship
between energy, mass and velocity. Underlying all this is the conviction that 'measurement'
is what connects Mathematics with Physics. It's what makes mathematical derivations
relevant to physics. If so, it should then be that all Basic Law of Physics are Mathematical
Identities that describe the interactions of measurement. This we are able to show for
Planck's Law, Conservation of Energy and Momentum, Newton's Second Law of Motion, and the
Quantization of Energy Hypothesis.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[5] **viXra:1002.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 38 pages, Spanish language

The connected theory solves the problem to the dark substance of
the theory of general relativity of Einstein.
What is the substance? Do we see the world and create theories, or we create
theories and observe the world? The real solution to the crisis of contemporary physics
will be a physico-philosophical question or...

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1002.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Constantinos Ragazas

**Comments:** 6 pages

Whereas globally energy propagates continuously as a wave, in this note we consider that
energy can be represented locally by an exponential of time. Using such representation we
are able to show that Planck's Formula for blackbody radiation is an exact mathematical
identity. We are also able to explain the photoelectric effect without the photon hypothesis
and derive an equation relating the photoelectric current to the intensity and frequency of
radiation. This equation conforms well with graphical characteristics of the actual
experimental data. Moreover, this representation of energy explains the quantum hypothesis,
provides a simple intuitive explanation of the double-slit experiment and permits a definition
of the temperature of radiation. It also explains the physical meaning of Planck's constant
h and why it exists.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[3] **viXra:1002.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 15 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Willi Penker

**Comments:** 3 pages

To shift assignments between infinite sets is to create a
disturbance within the assignment itself that cannot be
removed. An assignment carrying such a disturbance cannot be
regarded as static.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[2] **viXra:1002.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Richard C. Williams

**Comments:** 1 page

If energy is seen as having relative displacement based on atomic mass then it is possible to see how
the atom was envisaged

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[1] **viXra:1002.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Constantinos Ragazas

**Comments:** 4 pages

Using the same ideas and approach followed in our derivation of Planck's Law is an exact
mathematical identity and our explanation of the double-slit experiment, we in this note
provide an explanation of the Photoelectric Effect and derive equations that conform well
with experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Physics