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1104 Submissions

[82] viXra:1104.0088 [pdf] submitted on 29 Apr 2011

Derivation of the Relativistic Lorentz Transformation Using the Wave Structure of Matter - May 27, 2007

Authors: Michael Harney
Comments: 4 pages

The SRT frequency shift, time dilation and energy equivalence formulas are derived from wave structure of matter concepts. The derivation shown removes Einstein's requirement for the constancy of the speed of light between reference frames, which is not necessary in producing the results of the Lorentz transforms. Also, the photon is revealed to be the interaction between two electron wave centers, not a separate particle, showing a preference for Tetrode's concept of a photon.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[81] viXra:1104.0087 [pdf] submitted on 29 Apr 2011

The Cosmological-Redshift Explained by the Intersection of Hubble Spheres

Authors: Michael Harney
Comments: 9 pages

The cosmological redshift is described by the intersection of two Hubble spheres, where a Hubble sphere is defined as a range over which spherical, quantum-waves interact, specifically Ru = 1.9 x 1026 m.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[80] viXra:1104.0086 [pdf] replaced on 15 May 2011

Surmounting the Cartesian Cut: Torsion, Klein Bottle, Stereochemistry, the Biomechanics of the Cell Splitter in Embryogenesis and Bauplans.

Authors: Diego L Rapoport
Comments: 15 pages

We introduce logophysics at the foundations of biology and stereochemistry, and discuss its bearing in biomembranes and quantum torsion tensegrity structure for cell biology, proposing a unified logophysics paradigm integrating topological chemistry and cell biology. We discuss the relations with the differentiation waves in embryogenesis, and a quantum geometry tensegrity model for the cell splitter, proposing a codification of the embryological differentiation in terms of the Klein bottle logic of the genetic code. We propose a new understanding to evolution in terms of the hyperKlein bottle.
Category: Mind Science

[79] viXra:1104.0085 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-07 10:17:53

Dark Matter Formula For Fundamental Calculation Of Satellite Flybys In Hyperbolic Orbits.

Authors: Dan Visser
Comments: 7 Pages. Version-3 removed mistakes in interpretation.

In version-1 for the first time an announcement was made in this paper to have found fundamental evidence for the flyby-anomalies of six satellites earlier investigated by John Anderson and co-workers of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena USA. The central part of this theoretical evidence exists of a ‘dark matter flow’ being the cause of a velocity-change for satellites during their ‘flyby’ along the earth. A formula is given to calculate the velocity-change caused by the dark matter flow. The origin of the evidence is related to a ‘dark energy force formula‘, which is a new force in a new proposed cosmological model describing dark energy and dark matter in a double torus geometry. Version-2 replaces version-1, because I read about new investigation of GPS satellites, which predict dark matter surrounding the earth-equator. In version-2 I cleared an expression without an effect on the original end-result of version-1 and I extended it with the calculation of the energy satellites are feeling from dark matter around the earth-equator. Version-3 makes much better clear that satellites can be used to calculate the dark energy density flow around the earth-equator from the perspective of a new cosmological model: The Double Torus Universe.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[78] viXra:1104.0084 [pdf] submitted on 28 Apr 2011

Why Should You Believe in Jesus Christ

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 3 pages

Some people do not believe in Jesus Christ, because he/she does not believe in the New Testament. He/she thinks that the New Testament contains human voice and does not belong to God. Here are a few simple arguments discussing why one can trust the New Testament, and then why one can and should believe in Jesus Christ. This article is intended to those people who until now postpone their faith because they do not think that the Scripture is reliable. We hope that you will make up your mind soon after you read this article, or at least you will begin considering Jesus Christ seriously. This article is presented in small sections.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[77] viXra:1104.0083 [pdf] submitted on 28 Apr 2011

Quantum FFF Theory in Posters.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 6 pages

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[76] viXra:1104.0082 [pdf] submitted on 27 Apr 2011

Experiments on Electron Bremsstrahlung When Passing Through Narrow Slits and Their Interpretation in Terms of Inverse Photoelectric Effect

Authors: V.V. Demjanov
Comments: 5 pages

          In special experiments on slowing down soft electrons from the energy E1 at the entry of a narrow slit down to E2<E1 in the exit there was drawn a conclusion that the source of the retardation radiation with the energy ΔE12=E1E2 in the opening of the narrow slit is not the passing by electrons, but a radiation due to inverse photoelectric effect of valence electrons in the stationary structure of the edge of the hole. Here we consider only central-axial flight of electrons via a narrow slit (of the width <0.2 μm) which generates quanta of light with the energy ΔE12. If with the aid of external electrodes inside a wider slit (>2 μm) to create a field with the same retardation potential φ=ΔE12 then despite of the same slowing down in it of central-axial flying by electrons there will be observed no emission of light quanta with the energy ΔE12. This enables us to interpret in a different way the mechanism of induced radiation of matter under quantum transitions in it of particles. It looks such that the flying by electrons excites around themselves spherical zones of nonlinearity with radius ∼ 0.2 μm. The orbitals (with energies E1 and E2<E1) of stationary valence electrons in the edge of the narrow orifice (of the width < 0.2 μm), falling in these zones, in accord with the Ritz combination rule gives from the difference of terms ν1=E1/h and ν2=E2/h the observed in experiments monochromatic radiation of the frequency ν121– ν2. The passing of center-axial electrons via a wider gaps (>2 μm) is not affected by the nonlinearity zones of the orbitals of stationary valence electrons in the edge of the slit. Thence, despite of the dragging by the external field of the diaphragm φ=ΔE12 in this case the flying by electrons does not radiate at the frequency ν12E12/h.
Category: Quantum Physics

[75] viXra:1104.0081 [pdf] replaced on 10 May 2011

Cracks of Fundamental Quantum Physics

Authors: Ir J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 14 pages

The fundaments of quantum physics are still not well established. This paper tries to find the cracks in these fundaments and suggests repair procedures. This leads to unconventional solutions and a new model of physics. As part of this enterprise an underpinning of the existence of strands is provided. Another innovation is the derivation of a curvature field from the superposition of all other fields. The most revolutionary introduction is the representation of dynamics by a sequence of separable Hilbert spaces.
Category: Quantum Physics

[74] viXra:1104.0079 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2011

A Multi-Space Model for Chinese Bids Evaluation with Analyzing

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 16 pages

A tendering is a negotiating process for a contract through by a tenderer issuing an invitation, bidders submitting bidding documents and the tenderer accepting a bidding by sending out a notification of award. As a useful way of purchasing, there are many norms and rulers for it in the purchasing guides of the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank,..., also in contract conditions of various consultant associations. In China, there is a law and regulation system for tendering and bidding. However, few works on the mathematical model of a tendering and its evaluation can be found in publication. The main purpose of this paper is to construct a Smarandache multi-space model for a tendering, establish an evaluation system for bidding based on those ideas in the references [7] and [8] and analyze its solution by applying the decision approach for multiple objectives and value engineering. Open problems for pseudo-multi-spaces are also presented in the final section.
Category: Geometry

[73] viXra:1104.0078 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2011

Smarandache Multi-Space Theory(IV)

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 26 pages

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n different spaces equipped with some different structures for an integer n ≥ 2, which can be both used for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and spacetimes in theoretical physics. This monograph concentrates on characterizing various multi-spaces including three parts altogether. The first part is on algebraic multi-spaces with structures, such as those of multi-groups, multi-rings, multi-vector spaces, multi-metric spaces, multi-operation systems and multi-manifolds, also multi-voltage graphs, multi-embedding of a graph in an n-manifold,..., etc.. The second discusses Smarandache geometries, including those of map geometries, planar map geometries and pseudo-plane geometries, in which the Finsler geometry, particularly the Riemann geometry appears as a special case of these Smarandache geometries. The third part of this book considers the applications of multi-spaces to theoretical physics, including the relativity theory, the M-theory and the cosmology. Multi-space models for p-branes and cosmos are constructed and some questions in cosmology are clarified by multi-spaces. The first two parts are relative independence for reading and in each part open problems are included for further research of interested readers (part IV)
Category: Geometry

[72] viXra:1104.0077 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2011

Smarandache Multi-Space Theory(III)

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 74 pages

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n different spaces equipped with some different structures for an integer n ≥ 2, which can be both used for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and spacetimes in theoretical physics. This monograph concentrates on characterizing various multi-spaces including three parts altogether. The first part is on algebraic multi-spaces with structures, such as those of multi-groups, multi-rings, multi-vector spaces, multi-metric spaces, multi-operation systems and multi-manifolds, also multi-voltage graphs, multi-embedding of a graph in an n-manifold,..., etc.. The second discusses Smarandache geometries, including those of map geometries, planar map geometries and pseudo-plane geometries, in which the Finsler geometry, particularly the Riemann geometry appears as a special case of these Smarandache geometries. The third part of this book considers the applications of multi-spaces to theoretical physics, including the relativity theory, the M-theory and the cosmology. Multi-space models for p-branes and cosmos are constructed and some questions in cosmology are clarified by multi-spaces. The first two parts are relative independence for reading and in each part open problems are included for further research of interested readers (part III)
Category: Geometry

[71] viXra:1104.0076 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2011

Smarandache Multi-Space Theory(II)

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 78 pages

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n different spaces equipped with some different structures for an integer n &t; 2, which can be both used for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and spacetimes in theoretical physics. This monograph concentrates on characterizing various multi-spaces including three parts altogether. The first part is on algebraic multi-spaces with structures, such as those of multi-groups, multirings, multi-vector spaces, multi-metric spaces, multi-operation systems and multi-manifolds, also multi-voltage graphs, multi-embedding of a graph in an n-manifold,..., etc.. The second discusses Smarandache geometries, including those of map geometries, planar map geometries and pseudo-plane geometries, in which the Finsler geometry, particularly the Riemann geometry appears as a special case of these Smarandache geometries. The third part of this book considers the applications of multi-spaces to theoretical physics, including the relativity theory, the M-theory and the cosmology. Multi-space models for p-branes and cosmos are constructed and some questions in cosmology are clarified by multi-spaces. The first two parts are relative independence for reading and in each part open problems are included for further research of interested readers.
Category: Geometry

[70] viXra:1104.0075 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2011

Smarandache Multi-Space Theory(I)

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 47 pages

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n different spaces equipped with some different structures for an integer n ≥ 2, which can be both used for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and spacetimes in theoretical physics. This monograph concentrates on characterizing various multi-spaces including three parts altogether. The first part is on algebraic multi-spaces with structures, such as those of multi-groups, multirings, multi-vector spaces, multi-metric spaces, multi-operation systems and multi-manifolds, also multi-voltage graphs, multi-embedding of a graph in an n-manifold,..., etc.. The second discusses Smarandache geometries, including those of map geometries, planar map geometries and pseudo-plane geometries, in which the Finsler geometry, particularly the Riemann geometry appears as a special case of these Smarandache geometries. The third part of this book considers the applications of multi-spaces to theoretical physics, including the relativity theory, the M-theory and the cosmology. Multi-space models for p-branes and cosmos are constructed and some questions in cosmology are clarified by multi-spaces. The first two parts are relative independence for reading and in each part open problems are included for further research of interested readers.
Category: Geometry

[69] viXra:1104.0074 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2011

On Multi-Metric Spaces

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 9 pages

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n spaces A1,A2,...,An with some additional conditions holding. Combining Smarandache multispaces with classical metric spaces, the conception of multi-metric space is introduced. Some characteristics of a multi-metric space are obtained and Banach's fixed-point theorem is generalized in this paper.
Category: Geometry

[68] viXra:1104.0073 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2011

On Algebraic Multi-Vector Spaces

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 7 pages

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n spaces A1,A2,...,An with some additional conditions holding. Combining Smarandache multispaces with linear vector spaces in classical linear algebra, the conception of multi-vector spaces is introduced. Some characteristics of a multi-vector space are obtained in this paper.
Category: Geometry

[67] viXra:1104.0072 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2011

On Algebraic Multi-Ring Spaces

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 8 pages

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n spaces A1,A2,...,An with some additional conditions holding. Combining Smarandache multispaces with rings in classical ring theory, the conception of multi-ring spaces is introduced. Some characteristics of a multi-ring space are obtained in this paper
Category: Geometry

[66] viXra:1104.0071 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2011

On Algebraic Multi-Group Spaces

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 8 pages

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n spaces A1,A2, ... ,An with some additional conditions holding. Combining classical of a group with Smarandache multi-spaces, the conception of a multi-group space is introduced in this paper, which is a generalization of the classical algebraic structures, such as the group, filed, body,..., etc.. Similar to groups, some characteristics of a multi-group space are obtained in this paper.
Category: Geometry

[65] viXra:1104.0070 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2011

A Generalization of Seifert-Van Kampen Theorem for Fundamental Groups

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 16 pages

As we known, the Seifert-Van Kampen theorem handles fundamental groups of those topological spaces (see paper)
Category: Geometry

[64] viXra:1104.0069 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2011

A Generalization of Stokes Theorem on Combinatorial Manifolds

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 16 pages

For an integer m > 1, a combinatorial manifold fM is defined to be a geometrical object fM such that for(...) there is a local chart (see paper) where Bnij is an nij -ball for integers 1 < j < s(p) < m. Integral theory on these smoothly combinatorial manifolds are introduced. Some classical results, such as those of Stokes' theorem and Gauss' theorem are generalized to smoothly combinatorial manifolds in this paper.
Category: Geometry

[63] viXra:1104.0068 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2011

Geometrical Theory on Combinatorial Manifolds

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 37 pages

For an integer m ≥ 1, a combinatorial manifold fM is defined to be a geometrical object fM such that for (...), there is a local chart (see paper) where Bnij is an nij -ball for integers 1 ≤ j ≤ s(p) ≤ m. Topological and differential structures such as those of d-pathwise connected, homotopy classes, fundamental d-groups in topology and tangent vector fields, tensor fields, connections, Minkowski norms in differential geometry on these finitely combinatorial manifolds are introduced. Some classical results are generalized to finitely combinatorial manifolds. Euler-Poincare characteristic is discussed and geometrical inclusions in Smarandache geometries for various geometries are also presented by the geometrical theory on finitely combinatorial manifolds in this paper.
Category: Geometry

[62] viXra:1104.0067 [pdf] replaced on 27 May 2011

Attributive Quantum Fields

Authors: Philip Carter
Comments: 23 pages, Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License

A brief history of the ether (aether) is presented, leading up to the proliferation of space-filling fields required by the current Standard Model of particle physics. The excessive number of fields, along with the mathematical inconsistency of Quantum Field Theory and the grossly wrong space-density calculation, lead us to conclude that Quantum Field Theory is built upon a faulty paradigm. An alternative physical model is presented whereby quantum fields are associated with quantum attributes rather than particle species. This model is shown to illuminate the mathematical process of quantum measurement while corresponding to ancient esoteric teachings concerning the classical elements and the ether.
Category: Quantum Physics

[61] viXra:1104.0066 [pdf] submitted on 25 Apr 2011

Framework for Unification of Physics

Authors: Philip Carter
Comments: 29 pages, Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License

On the basis of acknowledged quantum facts it is argued that the quantum state is extended in four spatial dimensions in a 4D space interpenetrating our 3D space. The notion of branes is borrowed from M/String Theory to conceptualize the spatial arrangement. Euclidean spacetime is reinterpreted as the spatial geometry of the 4-brane, with "imaginary time" reinterpreted as the fourth (imaginary) spatial dimension. The imaginary axis of the quantum state is identified as its fourth spatial dimension, yielding a natural union of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics and the emergence of time. Spatial properties are shown to explain quantum nonlocality, while time in the 3-brane emerges from motion of or through the imaginary dimension in the 4-brane. A consciousness-model is introduced which conforms to the spatial configuration while providing mechanisms for resolution of the Measurement Problem.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[60] viXra:1104.0065 [pdf] replaced on 28 Sep 2011

Gravity as a Manifestation of de Sitter Invariance over a Galois Field

Authors: Felix M. Lev
Comments: 94 pages, 2 figures. Chapter 3 (considering observable gravitational effects) has been considerably revised.

We consider a system of two free bodies in de Sitter invariant quantum mechanics. De Sitter invariance is understood such that representation operators satisfy commutation relations of the de Sitter algebra. Our approach does not involve quantum field theory, de Sitter space and its geometry (metric and connection). At very large distances the standard relative distance operator describes a well known cosmological acceleration. In particular, the cosmological constant problem does not exist and there is no need to involve dark energy or other fields for solving this problem. At the same time, for systems of macroscopic bodies this operator does not have correct properties at smaller distances and should be modified. We propose a modification which has correct properties, reproduces Newton's gravity, the gravitational redshift of light and the precession of Mercury's perihelion if the width of the de Sitter momentum distribution δ for a macroscopic body is inversely proportional to its mass m. We argue that fundamental quantum theory should be based on a Galois field with a large characteristic p which is a fundamental constant characterizing laws of physics in our Universe. Then one can give a natural explanation that δ = constR/(mG) where R is the radius of the Universe (such that λ = 3/R2 is the cosmological constant) and G is a quantity defining Newton's gravity. A very rough estimation gives G ~ R/(mNlnp) where mN is the nucleon mass. If R is of order 1026m then lnp is of order 1080 and therefore p is of order exp(1080). In the formal limit p → ∞ gravity disappears, i.e. in our approach gravity is a consequence of finiteness of nature.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[59] viXra:1104.0064 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2011

The Many Novel Physical Consequences of Born's Reciprocal Relativity in Phase-Spaces

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 25 pages, submitted to Int. Jour. Mod. Phys A.

We explore the many novel physical consequences of Born's reciprocal Relativity theory in flat phase-space and to generalize the theory to the curved phase-space scenario. We provide with six specific novel physical results resulting from Born's reciprocal Relativity and which are not present in Special Relativity. These are : momentum-dependent time delay in the emission and detection of photons; energy-dependent notion of locality; superluminal behavior; relative rotation of photon trajectories due to the aberration of light; invariance of areas-cells in phase-space and modified dispersion relations. We finalize by constructing a Born reciprocal general relativity theory in curved phase-spaces which requires the introduction of a complex Hermitian metric, torsion and nonmetricity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[58] viXra:1104.0063 [pdf] replaced on 4 Sep 2011

Time... is What Allows Things to Happen in Sequence But Keeps Everything from Happening at Once

Authors: Michael J Savins
Comments: 17 pages.

The second law of thermodynamics is an expression of the universal principle of decay observable in nature. Time is a measure by which things happen, the yardstick of causality and is a fundamental property of the universe. We can deduce from E = mc2 it is mass that gives an arrow to time and energy that gives it a rate of flow. Flexi-time is the square root of the energy of the universe divided by its mass (matter less antimatter). As mass is responsible for gravity, it can be re written as flexi-time is the square root of the energy of the universe divided by its gravity. The speed of light in a vacuum without the influence of gravity is infinite. In the real universe, gravity 'slows' the photons down. It is this 'slowing' down of photons by gravity that we call time. Time is the notches on the yardstick of entropy. Gravity is a manifestation of the universe trying to reach its ground state.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[57] viXra:1104.0062 [pdf] submitted on 20 Apr 2011

Pseudo-Manifold Geometries with Applications

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 15 pages.

A Smarandache geometry is a geometry which has at least one Smarandachely denied axiom(1969), i.e., an axiom behaves in at least two different ways within the same space, i.e., validated and invalided, or only invalided but in multiple distinct ways and a Smarandache n-manifold is a n-manifold that support a Smarandache geometry. Iseri provided a construction for Smarandache 2-manifolds by equilateral triangular disks on a plane and a more general way for Smarandache 2-manifolds on surfaces, called map geometries was presented by the author in [9]-[10] and [12]. However, few observations for cases of n ≥ 3 are found on the journals. As a kind of Smarandache geometries, a general way for constructing dimensional n pseudo-manifolds are presented for any integer n ≥ 2 in this paper. Connection and principal fiber bundles are also defined on these manifolds. Following these constructions, nearly all existent geometries, such as those of Euclid geometry, Lobachevshy-Bolyai geometry, Riemann geometry, Weyl geometry, Kähler geometry and Finsler geometry, ...,etc., are their sub-geometries.
Category: Geometry

[56] viXra:1104.0061 [pdf] submitted on 20 Apr 2011

Combinatorial Speculations and the Combinatorial Conjecture for Mathematics

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 19 pages.

Combinatorics is a powerful tool for dealing with relations among objectives mushroomed in the past century. However, an more important work for mathematician is to apply combinatorics to other mathematics and other sciences not merely to find combinatorial behavior for objectives. Recently, such research works appeared on journals for mathematics and theoretical physics on cosmos. The main purpose of this paper is to survey these thinking and ideas for mathematics and cosmological physics, such as those of multi-spaces, map geometries and combinatorial cosmoses, also the combinatorial conjecture for mathematics proposed by myself in 2005. Some open problems are included for the 21th mathematics by a combinatorial speculation.
Category: Geometry

[55] viXra:1104.0060 [pdf] submitted on 20 Apr 2011

Parallel Bundles in Planar Map Geometries

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 16 pages.

Parallel lines are very important objects in Euclid plane geometry and its behaviors can be gotten by one's intuition. But in a planar map geometry, a kind of the Smarandache geometries, the situation is complex since it may contains elliptic or hyperbolic points. This paper concentrates on the behaviors of parallel bundles in planar map geometries, a generalization of parallel lines in plane geometry and obtains characteristics for parallel bundles.
Category: Geometry

[54] viXra:1104.0059 [pdf] submitted on 20 Apr 2011

A New View of Combinatorial Maps by Smarandache's Notion

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 19 pages.

On a geometrical view, the conception of map geometries is introduced, which is a nice model of the Smarandache geometries, also new kind of and more general intrinsic geometry of surfaces. Some open problems related combinatorial maps with the Riemann geometry and Smarandache geometries are presented.
Category: Geometry

[53] viXra:1104.0057 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2011

The Proofs of Binary Goldbach's Theorem Using Only Partial Primes

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 21 pages.

In 1994 we discovered the new arithmetic function J2(ω). Using it we proved the binary Goldbach's theorem [1]. In this chapter we yield the more detailed proofs of the binary Goldbach's theorem using only partial primes.
Category: Number Theory

[52] viXra:1104.0056 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2011

Crystal Power: Piezo Coupling to the Quantum Zero Point

Authors: Laurence J. November
Comments: 36 pages.

We consider electro-optical constructions in which the Casimir force is modulated in opposition to piezo-crystal elasticity, as in a stack of alternating tunably conductive and piezo layers. Adjacent tunably conducting layers tuned to conduct, attract by the Casimir force compressing the intermediate piezo, but when subsequently detuned to insulate, sandwiched piezo layers expand elastically to restore their original dimension. In each cycle some electrical energy is made available from the quantum zero point (zp). We estimate that the maximum power that could be derived at semiconductor THz modulation rates is megawatts/cm3 ! Similarly a permittivity wave generated by a THz acoustic wave in a single crystal by the acousto-optic effect produces multiple coherent Casimir wave mode overtones and a bulk mode. We model the Casimir effect in a sinusoidally graded medium finding it to be very enhanced over what is found in a multilayer stack for the equivalent permittivity contrast, and more slowly decreasing with scale, going as the wavelength 1/λ2. Acoustic waves give comparable theoretical power levels of MW/cm3 below normal crystal damage thresholds. Piezo thermodynamic relations give conditions for effective coupling of the Casimir bulk mode to an external electrical load. Casimir wave modes may exchange energy with the main acoustic wave too, which may partially account for THz attenuation seen in materials. We outline feasibility issues for building a practical crystal power generator.
Category: Quantum Physics

[51] viXra:1104.0055 [pdf] submitted on 18 Apr 2011

A Note on the Antimatter

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 1 page.

The antimatter has not disappeared; it could be anywhere in the universe and in the same proportion as the matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[50] viXra:1104.0054 [pdf] submitted on 18 Apr 2011

Microscopes and Telescopes for Theoretical Physics : How Rich Locally and Large Globally is the Geometric Straight Line ?

Authors: Elemér E Rosinger
Comments: 31 pages.

One is reminded in this paper of the often overlooked fact that the geometric straight line, or GSL, of Euclidean geometry is not necessarily identical with its usual Cartesian coordinatisation given by the real numbers in R. Indeed, the GSL is an abstract idea, while the Cartesian, or for that matter, any other specific coordinatisation of it is but one of the possible mathematical models chosen upon certain reasons. And as is known, there are a a variety of mathematical models of GSL, among them given by nonstandard analysis, reduced power algebras, the topological long line, or the surreal numbers, among others. As shown in this paper, the GSL can allow coordinatisations which are arbitrarily more rich locally and also more large globally, being given by corresponding linearly ordered sets of no matter how large cardinal. Thus one can obtain in relatively simple ways structures which are more rich locally and large globally than in nonstandard analysis, or in various reduced power algebras. Furthermore, vector space structures can be defined in such coordinatisations. Consequently, one can define an extension of the usual Differential Calculus. This fact can have a major importance in physics, since such locally more rich and globally more large coordinatisations of the GSL do allow new physical insights, just as the introduction of various microscopes and telescopes have done. Among others, it and general can reassess special relativity with respect to its independence of the mathematical models used for the GSL. Also, it can allow the more appropriate modelling of certain physical phenomena. One of the long vexing issue of so called "infinities in physics" can obtain a clarifying reconsideration. It indeed all comes down to looking at the GSL with suitably constructed microscopes and telescopes, and apply the resulted new modelling possibilities in theoretical physics. One may as well consider that in string theory, for instance, where several dimensions are supposed to be compact to the extent of not being observable on classical scales, their mathematical modelling may benefit from the presence of infinitesimals in the mathematical models of the GSL presented here. However, beyond all such particular considerations, and not unlikely also above them, is the following one : theories of physics should be not only background independent, but quite likely, should also be independent of the specific mathematical models used when representing geometry, numbers, and in particular, the GSL. One of the consequences of considering the essential difference between the GSL and its various mathematical models is that what appears to be the definitive answer is given to the intriguing question raised by Penrose : "Why is it that physics never uses spaces with a cardinal larger than that of the continuum ?".
Category: Geometry

[49] viXra:1104.0053 [pdf] submitted on 17 Apr 2011

A New Proof of Menelaus's Theorem of Hyperbolic Quadrilaterals in the Poincaré Model of Hyperbolic Geometry

Authors: Catalin Barbu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 pages.

In this study, we present a proof of the Menelaus theorem for quadrilaterals in hyperbolic geometry, and a proof for the transversal theorem for triangles.
Category: Geometry

[48] viXra:1104.0052 [pdf] submitted on 17 Apr 2011

Energy Multiplier in Retarded Resonance

Authors: Qichang Liang, Yu Liang, Xiaodong Liu
Comments: 4 pages.

In this work, we describe a wireless power system in which the distance between the source and receiver is 1/4 of wavelength. The induced electromotive force (EMF) from the receiver to the source is phase inverted due to the retardation so that the source absorbs energy instead of output energy. This system is an energy multiplier since both source and receiver gain energy.
Category: Classical Physics

[47] viXra:1104.0051 [pdf] submitted on 17 Apr 2011

A Physical Model of the Electron According to the Basic Structures of Matter Hypothesis

Authors: Stoyan Sarg
Comments: 17 pages. The article was published in Physics Essays v. 16, No 2, (2003).

A physical model of the electron is suggested according to the Basic Structures of Matter (BSM) hypothesis (later published as a BSM-SG theory). BSM-SG is based on an alternative concept about the physical vacuum assuming that the space contains underlying superfine structure of nodes formed of super-dens sub-elementary particles, which are also involved in the structure of the elementary particles. The proposed grid structure is formed of vibrating nodes possessing quantum features and energy well. It is admitted that this hypothetical structure could be accounted for the missing "dark matter" in the Universe. The signature of such "dark matter" is apparent in the galactic rotational curves and in the relation between masses of the supermassive black whole in the galactic centre and the host galaxy. The suggested model of the electron possesses oscillation features with anomalous magnetic moment and embedded signatures of the Compton wavelength and the fine structure constant. The analysis of the interactions between the oscillating electron and the nodes of the vacuum grid structure allows obtaining physical meaning for some fundamental constants.
Category: Classical Physics

[46] viXra:1104.0050 [pdf] replaced on 2012-06-13 11:41:23

Space-Time And Time-Travel

Authors: Bertrand Wong
Comments: 5 Pages.

Time is actually an abstract entity which became part of Special Relativity. There has in fact been postulation that time is unreal but just an invention of the intellect. Whether time is an invention or actually real, it cannot be denied that it plays a very important role in our lives, e.g., without a watch to tell us the time practically all of us would be lost in time. This paper takes a look at the philosophical ramifications and difficulties of time, as well as time-travel, and clarifies things.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[45] viXra:1104.0049 [pdf] submitted on 17 Apr 2011

Gravity is

Authors: Bertrand Wong
Comments: 5 pages.

Newton accidentally discovered gravity after observing an apple falling from a tree. What exactly is gravity? This paper takes a look at gravity, which evidently remains a subject of mystery.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[44] viXra:1104.0048 [pdf] replaced on 23 May 2011

An Unifying Basis for all the Nuclear Reactions

Authors: Karunakar Marasakatla
Comments: 4 pages.

A successful explanation of the actual underlying physical process for an observed phenomenon will lead to the prediction of other possible scenarios for that process. A new understanding of how the nuclear reactions such as the fission and fusion works leads to the explanation of other observed anomalies. All the nuclear reactions, including the low energy nuclear reactions, appear to be the manifestation of the collapse and or expansion of a group of particles.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[43] viXra:1104.0046 [pdf] submitted on 14 Apr 2011

Basic Structures of Matter - Supergravitation Unified Theory Based on an Alternative Concept of the Physical Vacuum

Authors: Stoyan Sarg
Comments: 11 pages. Reported and included in Proceedings of the IX Iternational scientific conference, Space, Time, Gravitation, Aug 7-11, 2006, St. Petersburg,Russia.

The Basic Structures of Matter - Super Gravitation Unified Theory (BSM-SG) unveils the relation between the forces in Nature by adopting the following framework: - Empty Euclidian space without any physical properties and restrictions - Two fundamental particles of superdense matter with parameters associated with a Planck's scale - A Fundamental law of Super Gravitation (SG) - an inverse cubic law valid in pure empty space.
Category: Classical Physics

[42] viXra:1104.0045 [pdf] replaced on 17 Apr 2011

On the Cold Big Bang Cosmology an Alternative Solution Within the GR Cosmology

Authors: Armando V. D. B. Assis
Comments: 6 pages. This paper is reviewed and accepted for publication in Progress in Physics.

We solve the general relativity (GR) field equations under the cosmological scope via one extra postulate. The plausibility of the postulate resides within the Heisenberg indeterminacy principle, being heuristically analysed throughout the appendix. Under this approach, a negative energy density may provide the positive energy content of the universe via fluctuation, since the question of conservation of energy in cosmology is weakened, supported by the known lack of scope of the Noether's theorem in cosmology. The initial condition of the primordial universe turns out to have a natural cutoff such that the temperature of the cosmological substratum converges to the absolute zero, instead of the stablished divergence at the very beginning. The adopted postulate provides an explanation for the cosmological dark energy open question. The solution agrees with cosmological observations, including a 2.7K CMBT prediction.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[41] viXra:1104.0044 [pdf] replaced on 2014-05-22 15:16:38

Ball Lightning, Micro Comets, Sprite-Fireballs, Solar Bright Points and Xray/ Gamma Flashes According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 19 Pages. 19

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF Theory. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning. Recently the NASA-SOHO satellite photos showed clear evidence of multiple hotspots created at the solar surface. I assume that the majority of the hotspots can be compared with Micro Comet- or fireball phenomena related to Sprites..
Category: Astrophysics

[40] viXra:1104.0043 [pdf] replaced on 2012-02-21 02:11:55

A Cold Genesis Theory of Fields and Particles

Authors: Marius Arghirescu
Comments: 108 Pages. Book: "The Cold Genesis", ISBN: 978-973-1886-57-2, Ed. S.C. INVEL Multimedia S.R.L., Bucharest, 2011

The book argues the possibility of cold genesis of particles and of fundamental fields through a phenomenological approach using the concept of sub-quantum fluid, the theory explaining the elementary particle and the fundamental fields cold genesis with ideal unitary pre-quantum particle’ models of simple or composite chiral soliton type, formed at T→0K from confined “dark energy” in a cascade vortex process, according to the ideal fluids mechanics applied to the particle soliton vortex, in the Protouniverse’ period, by primordial gravstars. The exponential form of the nuclear potential is theoretically found through a nucleon model of degenerate electrons and an Eulerian expression, as being generated by the vortexial dynamic pressure inside the nucleonic quantum volume. The weak force is explained by a dynamid model of neutron with intrinsic vibration and the particle disintegration are explained as a result of intrinsic vibration of quarks formed as cluster of quasi-electrons. For a phenomenologic model of cosmic expansion, by the dependency of the G- gravitation constant of the etheronic local density, the physical cause of the cosmic expansion results as a force of pressure difference of etheronic winds coming from the ultrahot stellary structures having an antigravitic charge given by destroyed particles, the speed of expansion resulting with a semi-sinusoidal variation. The primordial cold genesis of particles and fields results by a gravistar model with self-growing property formed by the primordial “dark energy” and superdense gravistaric seeds. The theory can explain also the tachyonic neutrins observed in the OPERA experiment and some known magneto-electric and magneto-mechanic effects .
Category: Quantum Physics

[39] viXra:1104.0042 [pdf] replaced on 2013-01-07 17:41:15

Global-Local Gauge Symmetries and the "Tetrahedron Model": Postscript

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 8 Pages. part 3 of 3

Global symmetries are those that apply everywhere, and for all time, such as the electric charge, mass, and spin of an elementary particle. This is a symmetry only because all electrons (for example) everywhere and always have exactly the same electric charge, mass, and spin - any electron could be swapped with any other without causing the least disturbance to the universe. Other global symmetries include the value of the universal electromagnetic constant "velocity c", the value of the universal gravitational constant "G", the value of Planck's energy quantum (h), among many others. These physical constants or physical global symmetries never change and are determined, fixed, set, or "gauged" at the beginning of the universe. They are the defining parameters of our universe, distinguishing it from any other in the "Multiverse". Local symmetries, on the other hand, involve actual changes in a single particle from one globally conserved symmetry state to another, as in the decay of a single neutron to a proton, electron, and electron anti-neutrino. In such a decay, all the original charges must reappear (in some form) in the product particles, and both the original and product particles must themselves be members of some global symmetry set or state. Finally, such locally gauged symmetry changes are, at least in principle, reversible given sufficient energy. Local gauge symmetry interactions involve post-"Big Bang" interactions between particles (or dimensions), and are mediated by the field vectors of the four forces of physics. They are the conserved interactions between particles (or the metric) that produce the common environment of our daily experience.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[38] viXra:1104.0041 [pdf] replaced on 29 Apr 2011

Galaxy Rotation Anomaly

Authors: Michael J Savins
Comments: 4 pages.

The galaxy rotation problem is the discrepancy between the observed rotation speeds of matter in the disk portions of spiral galaxies and the predictions of Newtonian dynamics considering the known mass. However, gravitational time dilation from the outside in enables galaxies and the space they occupy to rotate as one.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[37] viXra:1104.0040 [pdf] submitted on 12 Apr 2011

Concentric Family of Rings Around Great Russian Plane

Authors: Yury N. Bratkov
Comments: 4 pages - English. 4 pages - Russian Edited from Vernadsky / Brown microsymposium-46 on comparative planetology, Moscow, 2-3 October 2007.

An exact multiring structure on the Earth is described. The center of concentric rings is Yaroslavl city at Great Russian Plane. Elements of rings are: 1) the highest summits of big mountain ranges, 2) important civilization centers. Some comparing with Mars and Venus is given. Embedding of integer-valued distances is discussed.
Category: Geophysics

[36] viXra:1104.0039 [pdf] submitted on 11 Apr 2011

Paradossi Distici (Paradoxist Distiches in Italian Language)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 99 pages in Italian.

PARADOXISM is an avant-garde movement in literature, art, philosophy, science, based on excessive use of antitheses, antinomies, contradictions, parables, odds, anti-clichés, deviations of senses, against-the-grain speech, nonsense, paraphrases, paradoxes, semiparadoxes, etc. in creations. It was set up and led by the writer Florentin Smarandache since 1980's, who said: "The goal is to enlargement of the artistic sphere through non-artistic elements. But especially the counter-time, counter-sense creation. Also, to experiment."

Il Paradossismo e' movimento di avanguardia in letteratura, arte, filosofia, scienza fondato sull'uso eccessivo delle antitesi, antinomie, contraddidizioni, parabole, differenze, paradossi. Esso e' stato fondato e guidato dallo scrittore Florentin Smarandache fin dal 1980, quando disse: lo scopo e' un allargamento della sfera artistica attraverso elementi non artistici. Ma specialmente la creazione del contro-tempo, contro-senso. E anche attraverso l'esperimento.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[35] viXra:1104.0038 [pdf] replaced on 13 Apr 2011

Higgs-Free Symmetry Breaking from Critical Behavior near Dimension Four

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 16 pages.

Starting from the infrared limit of Yang-Mills theory, we introduce here a Higgs-free model in which symmetry breaking arises from critical behavior near dimension four. Electroweak bosons develop mass near the Wilson-Fisher point of Renormalization Group flow. The family structure of Standard Model is recovered using the technique of "epsilon expansion". We also find that dimensional regularization offers a straightforward solution to the cosmological constant problem.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[34] viXra:1104.0036 [pdf] submitted on 8 Apr 2011

The Geometry of Large Rotating Systems

Authors: Cameron Rout, Bruce Rout
Comments: 28 pages. This submission is a revised version of the paper appearing in the Proceedings of the 2011 Western Conference of the Society of Amateur Radio Astronomers.

This paper presents an analytical solution to the geometry of large rotating systems which reconciles the peculiar rotation profiles of distant galaxies with Einstein's principle of General Relativity. The resulting mathematical solution shows that large rotating systems are distorted in the space of a non-rotating observer into a spiral pattern with tangential velocities that behave in agreement with those observed in distant galaxies. This paper also demonstrates how the scale of the spiral structure of rotating systems can be used to determine its distance from the observer. The authors' proposed equations for the rotation profile and the distance measure are compared with the observed rotation profiles and Cepheid distance measurements of several galaxies with strong agreement. A formal error analysis is not included however the authors suggest a method for better qualifying the accuracy of the theorums.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[33] viXra:1104.0035 [pdf] submitted on 7 Apr 2011

The Archaeological Search for Tartessos-Tarshish-Atlantis and Other Human Settlements in the Donana National Park

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 5 pages.

Adolf Schulten suggested that Tartessos-Tarshish was the model for Plato's Atlantis. I argued that its capital was situated in what is now the Marisma de Hinojos within the central part of the Andalucian Donana National Park in south-west Spain. This article reports about the preliminary results of an archaeological expedition to test this theory. The preliminary results of the expedition include evidence of either a tsunami or a storm flood during the third millenium BC and evidence of human settlements from the Neolithic Age to the Middle Ages.
Category: Archaeology

[32] viXra:1104.0034 [pdf] submitted on 7 Apr 2011

NTEP: Chapter 9. Physical Vacuum and Its Effect on Elementary Particles and Their Interactions

Authors: Alexander G. Kyriakos
Comments: 23 pages.

The first purpose of this chapter is to describe the influence of physical vacuum (PV) on the characteristics of particles (e.g. electron) and their interactions. Our second purpose is to show that all methods of calculation of this influence, which are used in quantum field theory (QFT), can be represented in electromagnetic (EM) form within the framework of nonlinear theory of elementary particles (NTEP).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[31] viXra:1104.0033 [pdf] submitted on 7 Apr 2011

Solving the Einstein Twin's Paradox

Authors: Hamid Reza Karimi
Comments: 2 pages.

This paper is using the theory of quantized time - length and a new model of internal structure of elementary particles by my expression [1] to solve Einstein twin's paradox.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30] viXra:1104.0031 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-04 03:08:49

The Hypothesis About the Absence of Individual Particles

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 7 Pages. Russian

Are the observations, as if confirming the existence of elementary particles, only a certain interpretation of the observer? Does the theory, that sequentially denies particles existence, contradict with observations and internal logic? The hypothesis is that sometimes we register the "particles" only due to the way of observation, but in fact we take the energy from continuous wave field. "Objective isolation of particles" may be done without any experimenter assistance, but even in this case "particles" are just different dynamical field state. We interpret the transitions between the native states of a wave field as a "birth" or "disappearance" of particles. Sometimes we observe field energy splashing, like "sprays", as "particles tracks". According to the hypothesis, "randomness" in "particles" detection is related to the statistical nature of the "wave receivers" work. For instance, "receivers" in the form of multiple "atoms" with a probability depending on the intensity of the reference wave can pull out just such small portions of reference wave, which lead to eigenstates of "atoms", which is interpreted as "capture of particles".
Category: Quantum Physics

[29] viXra:1104.0030 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus in Extremis: Part 4.4 Quarks

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 15 pages.

A conceptual model is created for the composition of quarks and the internal structure of the proton and neutron. In this model the charge of a quark indicates the number of hyff (force lines) it emits. Cordus also explains the colour and provides a mechanism for the strong interaction (both the attraction and repulsive components). The model also explains why parity violation occurs. A new concept of the 'level of assembly' is introduced and used to explain mass excess and why smaller particuloids have greater mass. Cordus also predicts non-conservation of mass.
Category: Classical Physics

[28] viXra:1104.0029 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus in Extremis: Part 4.3 Gravitation, Mass and Time

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 14 pages.

Gravitation is conceptually problematic to General Relativity and Quantum mechanics in that the fundamental mechanisms are unknown to both, and the theories have different requirements that are difficult to reconcile into a single model. Cordus gravitation offers a solution to the problem. It provides a mechanism whereby gravitation is not continuous but in discrete force (or displacement) increments similar to quanta (but not uniform increments). Also, the closing force between two masses is transient. In this idea, gravitation, and therefore also mass, is a discontinuous property: i.e. a particuloid emits gravity (has mass) at some moments but not others. Thus gravitation is an effect that a mass does to the whole universe, not to targeted other bodies, and in this regard Cordus is consistent with General relativity. Both QM and Cordus agree that gravitation is quantised. Cordus conceptually integrates the different effects of mass: Gravitation is a particuloid contributing hyff to the fabric; Newtonian mass is resistance of the reactive ends to unexpected displacement; Relativistic mass is decreasing efficacy of hyff engagement with the fabric as velocity of the reactive end increases; Momentum is a frequency mechanism that ensures the reactive end re-energises on-time and in-place; particuloids like nucleons have mass to the extent that they have frequency. Furthermore, Cordus offers an explanation of how time arises at a sub-atomic level by the cordus frequency, and how this aggregates to the sense of time that we perceive biologically. Thus Cordus offers a radically new way of thinking about the problem of gravitation, mass and time that is quite unlike conventional physics, yet includes concepts that might be recognisable to those other physics.
Category: Classical Physics

[27] viXra:1104.0028 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus in Extremis: Part 4.2 Fabric of the Universe

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 8 pages.

The concept of the vacuum is problematic for conventional physics. Electromagnetic wave theory models it as consisting of nothing at all, but yet paradoxically having finite electric and magnetic constants. Quantum mechanics models it as consisting of temporary particles, but no average substance. General Relativity theory includes a spacetime medium, without describing the composition. In all cases the underlying physical mechanisms are obscure. Furthermore, these existing perspectives conflict in their expectations, so the integration is poor. The treatment is not always logical either: conventional theories find the idea of the matterbased aether thoroughly unacceptable, yet ironically all include something that looks conceptually much like a medium. The Cordus conjecture provides a conceptual solution for the composition of the vacuum: it provides a fabric that is granular (similar to quantised) at the smallest scale, scales up to a continuum, provides a medium for propagation of disturbances and waves, provides a medium for electromagnetism and gravitation, is relativistic, is not a matter aether, and includes a time signal. In the cordus solution the vacuum is made of tangled hyff (force lines) from all the surrounding matter particuloids. This cordus fabric concept also provides a descriptive explanation as to why the speed of light is a finite value. The fine structure constant is given a physical interpretation, as a measure of the transmission efficacy of the fabric. Cordus also distinguishes between the fabric that makes up the vacuum of space, as opposed to the void which has neither fabric nor time as we perceive it. This model is radically unorthodox in suggesting that the speed of light is relativistic but not invariant; that it depends fundamentally on the fabric density and hence the accessible mass density of the universe at that locality.
Category: Classical Physics

[26] viXra:1104.0027 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus in Extremis: Part 4.1 Electromagnetism

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 17 pages.

The Cordus conjecture is extended to create a conceptual model for electromagnetic fields. The resulting model shows how a cordus particuloid generates small transient units of force at the sub-atomic level, thereby creating the apparently smooth and continuous electric field that we more commonly perceive. Cordus also reconceptualises how magnetism is generated at the sub-atomic level, and likewise explains how the granularity arises. It is shown that the electric field cannot be shielded, only neutralised. Cordus electromagnetism is applied to explain the electric field surrounding a wire carrying current, the locus of moving test charges in a magnetic field, and the mechanism for how force arises in permanent magnets. The contribution made by this paper is a description of electromagnetism that goes to the next deeper level: it explains the underlying mechanisms for how the forces arise. Also, it provides a mechanism for fields to be granular and directional at the small scale, but smooth and continuous at larger scale.
Category: Classical Physics

[25] viXra:1104.0026 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Matter: Part 3.5 Schrodinger's Cat Reconceptualised

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 10 pages.

Quantum mechanics is the dominant conceptual foundation for fundamental physics. Nonetheless there are effects that it does not explain, or explains only by reference to metaphysical effects. While many have wondered whether there could be a more-complete explanation, the solution has been elusive. Cordus suggests that the necessary deeper mechanics is only accessible by abandoning the premise of 'particle', and shows how to achieve this. The resulting Cordus mechanics provides a new way of thinking and a radically different conceptual foundation. This paper primarily contrasts Quantum and Cordus mechanics. In the process, Cordus re-conceptualises Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. It also provides an explanation for the paradox of Schrödinger's Cat, and shows it to be based on unrealistic and unattainable premises.
Category: Classical Physics

[24] viXra:1104.0025 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Matter: Part 3.4 Special States of Matter

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 12 pages.

The Cordus principle of complementary frequency states (CoFS) is used to develop a novel descriptive model for the mechanisms underlying superfluidity and superconductivity. In both cases Cordus explains the effects as synchronisation of forces between electrons and atoms. Several associated effects are likewise explained, including quantum vortices, heat conduction in superfluids, and the Meissner effect in superconductors. Cordus also asserts that superposition does not exist, at least not the way QM conceptualises it. In particular, that the mathematics of superposition and the wavefunction are not the reality, only mathematical approximations of deeper effects, and are unreliable qualitative descriptors of those underlying mechanisms. The concept of 'coherence' is reconceptualised and the reasons why that state cannot be readily achieved are discussed. Cordus also explains why Quantum mechanics, which seems to apply at the level of individual particles, does not scale up to macroscopic bodies.
Category: Classical Physics

[23] viXra:1104.0024 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Matter: Part 3.3 Energy Cycles Within Matter

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 7 pages.

The interaction of light with electrons is one of the fundamental perceptual realities of what we see. Yet that interaction is only partly understood. Cordus concepts are applied to develop a descriptive model of the mechanisms whereby photons are absorbed into electrons and emitted. From the Cordus perspective, the temperature of a body is primarily a measure of its phonons (lattice-vibrations). Cordus shows why entropy occurs, despite the individual mechanisms being reversible. An understanding of the mechanisms for entropy is relevant to the understanding of coherence, superfluidity and superconductivity. Cordus suggests that a failure to adequately conceptualise entropy leads to misapplication of coherence and ultimately to unreliability in the premise of superposition.
Category: Classical Physics

[22] viXra:1104.0023 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Matter: Part 3.2 Matter Particuloids

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 12 pages.

Some of the most enigmatic effects in the physics of electrons are its waveparticle duality and the Aharonov-Bohm and Casimir effects. Even relatively core concepts of atomic physics, like spin and the Pauli exclusion principle, lack satisfactory descriptive explanations. This paper shows that application of the cordus principle can explain these effects in a coherent manner.
Category: Classical Physics

[21] viXra:1104.0022 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Matter: Part 3.1 Wider Locality

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 7 pages.

The dominant paradigm in conventional physics is that of a 'particle', which this paper suggests is a badly flawed premise. The cordus particuloid is a more coherent concept in that it offers explanations of phenomena that are otherwise puzzling, and does so with one conceptual consistent framework across a wide variety of phenomena. This paper shows how entanglement is readily explained as a natural consequence of the cordus. It also introduces the principle of complementary frequency state synchronisation (CoFS) as the deeper principle beneath the Pauli exclusion principle, and coherence. It is suggested that Bell's Theorem is only applicable to 1D point particles, and is thus generally irrelevant. Specifically, Bell's Theorem is not an obstacle to models of hidden variables. Furthermore, it is suggested that the principle of locality is not viable in its present form, and a principle of wider locality is proposed.
Category: Classical Physics

[20] viXra:1104.0021 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Optics: Part 2.3 Refraction

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 11 pages.

Explaining basic optical effects is not possible with classical particle mechanics, and even with quantum mechanics it is not straight forward and not particularly intuitive. The problem is much simpler when solved in the cordus domain. This paper provides cordus explanations for Snell's Law and Brewster's Angle, and quantitative derivations too. This is significant because the cordus mechanics were derived for single photons, and immediately generalise also to beams of light. Therefore cordus can explain particle behaviour, fringes, and optical effects, using a single coherent mechanics. The cordus explanation does not need the conventional concept of 'interference'.
Category: Classical Physics

[19] viXra:1104.0020 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Optics: Part 2.2 Reflection

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 10 pages.

Optical effects such as reflection and refraction are conventionally best described by Electromagnetic Wave theory, at least when they involve beams of light. However that theory does not explain why single photons should also show such behaviour. This paper shows that optical effects can also be explained from a cordus particuloid perspective. Several principles are proposed for the interaction of a cordus photon with an optical surface, and these are used to explain reflection and subsequently refraction. The formula for critical angle is derived from a particuloid basis. The cordus and wave theory perspectives are compared and contrasted. The significance of this work is that the cordus mechanics explains the reflection and refraction behaviour of both single photons as well as beams of light, so it is a more universal explanation.
Category: Classical Physics

[18] viXra:1104.0019 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Optics: Part 2.1 Frequency

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 10 pages.

Conventional particle and wave theories struggle to explain the frequency of photons and matter in a coherent manner using natural physics. This paper applies the cordus conjecture to develop a model for frequency of the photon. The interpretation is that there really is a part of the photon cordus that moves with a frequency. The working model is for a reciprocal motion: the energy alternates between the two reactive ends across the span of the cordus, and the hyff represent the observable electric field. This cordus model for frequency readily explains polarisation and tunnelling, and the concept is fundamental to other developments of the cordus mechanics including the reflection and refraction of particuloids. The implications are that frequency is not just an intrinsic variable, but a physical effect within the photon. The cordus frequency is a fundamental conceptual building-block in creating an integrated solution that unifies wave and particle behaviour. It is a powerful concept that is coherent across many other phenomena too, including matter particuloids and it contributes subsequently to the cordus model for granular fields.
Category: Classical Physics

[17] viXra:1104.0018 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Conjecture: Part 1.3 Explanation of Fringes

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 18 pages.

The cordus concept is shown to be able to explain wave behaviour in gaps, and fringes in the double slit device. This is useful because one of the enigmas of the double-slit device is that single photons form fringe patterns. Cordus explains fringes in terms of force lines called hyperfine fibrils (hyff) and their interaction with the edges of the light path. This also explains beam divergence and near-field effects. The results show that it is conceptually possible to create a solution for fringes based on a particuloid interpretation of light, without using the concept of interference. The biggest difference between Wave theory and the cordus explanation is their interpretation of the mechanism for fringes. Wave theory explains fringes as 'interference': two separate waves of light differing by full (half) fractions of wavelengths and thus constructively (destructively) interfering. From the Cordus perspective photons do not actually interfere or add together, and 'interference' is only a convenient analogy. The Cordus explanation is that fringes are caused instead by interaction of the photon hyff with opaque edges. This bracket of papers therefore offers a resolution of wave-particle duality by anticipating the internal cordus structure of the photon and the associated cordus mechanics. From this perspective wave and particle behaviours are simply the different output behaviours that the internal system shows depending on how it is measured. Thus Cordus offers a deeper mechanics that subsumes both quantum mechanics and wave theory. Surprisingly, Cordus suggests that the next deeper level of reality is deterministic.
Category: Classical Physics

[16] viXra:1104.0017 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Conjecture: Part 1.2 Quo Vadis, Photon?

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 14 pages.

Photon path dilemmas are a difficult area for conventional physics. Typical situations are the double-slit device and interferometers. The problem manifests as an apparent ability of the photon to simultaneously take all paths through the device, but eventually only appear at one. It is shown that a cordus structure is conceptually able to resolve the path dilemmas in wave-particle duality. Explanations are given for the double-slit device and interferometers. The Cordus conjecture implies there is a deeper, simpler, deterministic, and more elegant reality beneath quantum mechanics and wave theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[15] viXra:1104.0016 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Cordus Conjecture: Part 1.1 Quis es tu Photon?

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 8 pages.

A new conceptual model is proposed for the internal structure of the photon, and the mechanics thereof. This internal structure is called a cordus. The cordus consists of two reactive ends (RE) connected together with a fibril. The fibril connecting the two reactive ends does not interact with other matter. Each of the two reactive ends behaves like a whole photon in its ability to interact with other matter, including reflection, transmission, and the ability to take two paths, though it collapses to only one location. The reactive ends emit hyperfine fibrils (hyff) which are force lines. The cordus structure is neither a particle nor a wave, though can appear as either in certain circumstances.
Category: Classical Physics

[14] viXra:1104.0015 [pdf] replaced on 2015-09-17 14:16:38

Conceptual Framework for a Novel Non-Local Hidden-Variable Theory of Physics: Overview of the Cordus Theory

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Ariel M. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 77 Pages.

PROBLEM- There are many integration problems of fundamental physics that still lack ontologically coherent solutions. NEED- There is a need to find a new theory of physics with wide-ranging logical consistency. The idea that particles could have internal structure has long been a consideration in the development of theories of physics, as evidenced in the EPR criticism (Einstein, Podolsky, & Rosen, 1935). DIFFICULTY- However Local hidden-variable solutions are excluded by the Bell-type inequalities and by the empirical evidence of entanglement. The non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) sector is not entirely excluded on theoretical grounds. However, if any solution existed it would have to be counterintuitive as all the obvious candidates have been excluded [4]. Unfortunately the hidden-variable sector has proved incapable of offering suitable solutions. APPROACH- Conceptual design methods were borrowed from engineering design and applied to create an initial conjectural solution for the double-slit device. This was then validated against multiple other phenomena. RESULTS- This paper offers a candidate solution, in the form of a new theory of physics wherein particles have internal structures. This Cordus theory proposes a specific structure for particles, for both the structure internal to the particle and the nature of the external discrete field emissions. FINDINGS- It also has good external construct validity, as it: explains path dilemmas in interferometers; recovers basic laws of optics from first principles (reflection, refraction, Brewster’s angle); identifies the causes of contextual measurement; explains the transition from coherence to discoherence; explains pair-production and annihilation; offers a solution to the asymmetrical baryogenesis and leptogenesis problems; explains time dilation; conceptually unifies the electro-magneto-gravitational forces with the strong interaction; explains the selective spin attributes of the neutrino species; predicts the internal structure of the atomic nucleus and explains the stability, instability and non-existence of the table of nuclides from Hydrogen to Neon. ORGINALITY- The Cordus theory is a novel conceptual framework for fundamental physics. It shows that a specific structure of particles has excellent explanatory power for many phenomena. The strengths of the theory are: Explanatory (ontological) power; Coherent solution across multiple phenomena; Offers candidate solutions to otherwise intractable problems. IMPLICATIONS- The Bell-type inequalities are falsified. Physical realism is re-asserted. The stochastic nature of the wave-function is subsumed in a deeper explanation. The theory is not inimical to quantum mechanics, which it reinterprets as a stochastic approximation of a deeper determinism. The new theory has philosophical implications because it shows that it is possible to conceive of a solution for fundamental physics that is grounded in physical realism. The theory therefore rebuts the idea that the deeper level of physics is purely mathematical, and it rejects the many-worlds interpretation.
Category: Classical Physics

[13] viXra:1104.0014 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2011

Basic Principles of Deterministic Quantum Physics

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 20 pages.

In this paper the following results are achieved: at first we demonstrate that Heisenberg's indeterminacy principle is based on a mathematical model that is unsound because of an inadequate use of the Fourier development and we prove a new mathematical model. In second place we show that with regard to physical quantities there isn't theoretical indeterminacy and only the inadequacy of measuring instruments can cause working indeterminacy. Then we prove within the ambit of the new theory: the stability of orbital motions of atomic electrons, the quantized wave equation, the fine and hyperfine structure of atoms, the Lamb shift as a consequence of the relativistic correction. Results on these subjects are concordant with experimental data and are obtained without making use of probabilistic concepts. We think that only the most adequate use of mathematical models can allow a further evolution of our scientific knowledges that must be adapted to the examined physical event and supported with more valid analyses.
Category: Quantum Physics

[12] viXra:1104.0013 [pdf] submitted on 5 Apr 2011

Summary of Anti-Greenhouse Co2 Evidence from Noaa, Spencer, et Al.

Authors: Nigel B. Cook
Comments: 8 pages.

The IPCC "positive feedback" models falsely assume that all water vapour amplifies temperature rises from CO2 by a factor of2 (instead of cancelling them out), which amounts to falsely claiming the extra sunlight-heated water vapour evaporating from oceans contravenes the law of buoyancy and doesn't rise to form sunlight-reflecting condensed water droplet clouds, which cool the surface underneath. This increase in "natural" cloud cover (global dimming) due to the buoyancy of sunlight-warmed humid air, totally cancels out the CO2 AGW "greenhouse effect"
Category: Climate Research

[11] viXra:1104.0011 [pdf] replaced on 8 Apr 2011

Generalized Fermat's Last Theorem (3) Rn = y15 y25

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 4 pages.

In this paper we prove Rn = y15 y25 has no nonzero integer solutions for n ≥ 2. In 1978 using this method we had proved Fermat's last theorem [1]. But on the afternoon of July 19, 1978 this proof was disproved by Chinese mathematics institute of Academia Sinica. How tragic!
Category: Number Theory

[10] viXra:1104.0010 [pdf] submitted on 5 Apr 2011

Fermat-Catalan Equations (1)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 4 pages.

In this paper we prove that Fermat-Catalan equations d2 = a3 + c5 and d2 = a3 + c7 have infinitely many coprime integer solutions.
Category: Number Theory

[9] viXra:1104.0009 [pdf] submitted on 5 Apr 2011

The Tetron Model in 6+1 Dimensions

Authors: Bodo Lampe
Comments: 14 pages.

The possibility of a 6+1 dimensional spacetime model being the fundamental theory for elementary particle interactions is explored. The dynamical object is an (octonion) spinor defined over a spacetime lattice with S8 permutation symmetry which gets broken to S4 x S4. Electroweak parity violation is argued to arise from the interplay of the two permutation groups S4 or eventually from the definition of the octonion product. It corresponds to a change in sign for odd permutation lattice transformations and is shown to suggest a form for the Hamiltonian.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] viXra:1104.0008 [pdf] replaced on 8 Apr 2011

Do We Need Two Theories of Relativity?

Authors: Ali R. Hadjesfandiari
Comments: 5 pages.

This article discusses the ambiguity created by dividing the theory of relativity into special and general branches. A systematic study of covariant electrodynamics reveals the relation between matter and Minkowskian space-time, and the governing non-Euclidean geometry. This in turn results in the completion of Poincare's theory of relativity by showing that motion of a particle is a four-dimensional rotation of its body frame and the interaction field is a four-dimensional vorticity field. Therefore, one can see that there is only one theory of relativity, which is fully covariant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7] viXra:1104.0007 [pdf] submitted on 3 Apr 2011

Paradoxist Distiches

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 90 pages. Translated from English to Greek by Denis Koulentianos and Theodhora Blushi

PARADOXISM is an avant-garde movement in literature, art, philosophy, science, based on excessive used of antitheses, antinomies, contradictions, parables, odds, anti-clichés, deviations of senses, against-the-grain speech, nonsense, paraphrases, paradoxes, semiparadoxes, etc. in creations. It was set up and led by the writer Florentin Smarandache since 1980's, who said: "The goal is to enlargement of the artistic sphere through non-artistic elements. But especially the counter-time, counter-sense creation. Also, to experiment."
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[6] viXra:1104.0006 [pdf] replaced on 17 Nov 2011

How Can 30% of Nickel in Rossi's Reactor be Transmuted Into Copper?

Authors: Giuliano Bettini
Comments: 4 pages. best editing.

In the present article I would like to answer a question posed by L. Kowalsky in a recent paper: how can 30% of nickel in Rossi's reactor be transmuted into copper? "Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler", says a guy. I apologizes if I am too simplistic here.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[5] viXra:1104.0005 [pdf] submitted on 1 Apr 2011

Sixth International Anthology on Paradoxism

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 221 pages.

The Sixth International Anthology on Paradoxism Started in 1980's as an anti-totalitarian protest based on excessive use of contradictions, antitheses, antinomies, deviations of sense, paradoxes in the creation process, the paradoxism as a literary movement was rapidly spread through the creators in the world, finding applications in many fields (such as geometry, physics, logics, literature), and his founder, University Professor Florentin Smarandache, Ph D, a refugee from Romania who now settles in New Mexico State, USA, became a well-known personality. The actual paradoxist anthology presents, at the beginning, articles and chronicles in various languages (English, French, Albanian, Spanish, Chinese, Romanian) about paradoxism and its applications, gathered from the folklore, from popular jokes, and also paradoxist arithmetic and geometries, paradoxist images from our today's reality. In the second part the anthology alphabetically groups 35 authors (translators included) and their literary paradoxist creations - from countries like Australia, Albania, Canada, China, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Spain, and United States.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[4] viXra:1104.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2 Apr 2011

Theoretical Analysis of Growth Shape Evolution of Crystal Grown with Pulling

Authors: Lunyong Zhang, Hongbo Zuo, Jianfei Sun, Xiaohong Wang, Jiecai Han, Dawei Xing
Comments: 9 pages and 5 figures, will be submited to the journal Crystal Research and Technology.

This paper constructed a geometric model of crystal growth with pulling. On the basis of the model, effects of processes on crystal shape evolution were clarified. The results shown some effects always used to control the crystal diameter in practice. Some unusual effects also be shown. Crystal could have a self-stable diameter and decreasing the convex extent of solid liquid interface could enhance the increase rate of crystal diameter or reduce the decrease rate of crystal diameter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[3] viXra:1104.0003 [pdf] replaced on 20 Apr 2011

A Newtonian Model for Spiral Galaxy Rotation Curves

Authors: Geoffrey M. Williams
Comments: 29 pages.

A spiral galaxy is modeled as a thin, flat, axisymmetric disk comprising a series of concentric, coplanar rings. Using conventional Newtonian gravitation kinematics, it is shown that relatively flat velocity curves are produced by a variety of possible mass distributions in the disk. No halo of "dark matter" is needed to produce these rotation curves. Compared with a point mass at the center, the disk gravitational force grows with increasing distance from the disk center, crests and then slowly subsides beyond the disk perimeter. The model is applied to the NGC 3198, M31 and NGC 4736 galaxies, with ring masses adjusted to match the respective velocity profiles. Gravitational force fields in the disk are calculated, leading to direct estimates of enclosed galaxy mass. The mass distributions of several other spiral galaxies are analyzed, and their basic characteristics are charted in Appendix 2.
Category: Astrophysics

[2] viXra:1104.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-18 03:05:21

Stellar Anchor Black Holes as the Remnants of Former Herbig Haro Objects and as Cosmic Ray Hotspots.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 7 Pages. 7

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF Theory. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS Black Hole, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, by so called Stellar Anchor Black Holes (SABHs), Herbig Haro Objects, down to Sunspots, Comets and even Ball Lightning. Recent observation of a Cosmic Hotspot under the big dipper is reason to assume that this is the location of one ( Northern) of our solar Stellar Anchor Black Hole (SABH), reason to search for the other one: south located. At the same time it is proposed that Galaxies also are supported by dual black hole systems being the former Big Bang splitted primordial black holes. Called Galaxy Anchor Black Holes ( GABHs)
Category: Astrophysics

[1] viXra:1104.0001 [pdf] submitted on 1 Apr 2011

Electrodynamics and Gravitation

Authors: Smail Messaoudi
Comments: 9 pages.

In this manuscript, we examine the hypothesis of an electromagnetic origin of the gravitation. We suppose that the vacuum is polarized around a mass and we use the wave nature of matter in order to redefine gravity. We determine the relative permittivity and the relative permeability in order to find the expression of the energy and of the gravitational force.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory