Number Theory

1703 Submissions

[28] viXra:1703.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-31 21:43:31

On the Collatz Conjecture

Authors: Clive Jones
Comments: 6 Pages.

The Escape-Condition is a power of 2
Category: Number Theory

[27] viXra:1703.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-31 21:46:05

On the Distribution of Primes

Authors: Clive Jones
Comments: 6 Pages.

Primes & Squares in Pyramids, Blocks & Triangles
Category: Number Theory

[26] viXra:1703.0304 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-22 07:22:56

A Solution of Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 7 Pages. In French. Submitted to Journal Annales Scientifiques de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure. Comments welcome.

In 1898, Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann had announced the following conjecture, called Riemann Hypothesis : The nontrivial roots (zeros) s=\sigma+it of the zeta function, defined by: \zeta(s) = \sum_{n=1}^{+\infty}\frac{1}{n^s},\,for \Re(s)>1 have real part \sigma= \frac{1}{2}. We give a proof that \sigma= \frac{1}{2} using an equivalent statement of Riemann Hypothesis.
Category: Number Theory

[25] viXra:1703.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-31 05:36:04

On the Recurrence ((((P∙2-D)∙2-D)∙2-D)...) on Poulet Numbers P Having a Prime Factor D

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I note two sequences of Poulet numbers: the terms of the first sequence are the Poulet numbers which can be written as P*2 – d; the terms of the second sequence are the Poulet numbers which can be written as (P*2 – d)*2 - d, where P is another Poulet number and d one of the prime factors of P. I also conjecture that the both sequences are infinite and I observe that the recurrent relation ((((P*2 – d)*2 – d)*2 – d)...) conducts sometimes to more than one Poulet number (for instance, starting with P = 4369 and d = 257, the first, the second and the third numbers obtained are 8481, 16705 and 33153, all three Poulet numbers).
Category: Number Theory

[24] viXra:1703.0243 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-29 16:58:21

Q-Naturals: A Counter-Example to Tennenbaum's Theorem

Authors: Wes Hansen
Comments: 9 Pages.

In what follows we develop foundations for a set of non-standard natural numbers we call q-naturals, where q stands for quanta, by the recursive generation of reflexive sets. From the practical perspective, these q-naturals correspond to ordered pairs of natural numbers with the lexicographic ordering, hence, they are isomorphic to ω^2. In addition, we demonstrate a novel definition of the arithmetical operation, multiplication, which turns out to be recursive. This, in turn, enables our demonstration of a counter-example to Tennenbaum’s Theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[23] viXra:1703.0241 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-19 07:27:00

Goldbach Conjecture

Authors: Barry Foster
Comments: 2 Pages.

Goldbach Conjecture This attempt requires very little mathematical knowledge.
Category: Number Theory

[22] viXra:1703.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-25 08:25:21

Riemann Zeta Function Encryption

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 4 Pages.

The purpose of this papers is to share an encryption system based on a modified Riemann Zeta function which relates to prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[21] viXra:1703.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-23 22:58:58

Theory Of Natural Metric

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about the Scheme of construction of Natural metric for any given positive Integer. Natural Metric can be used for Natural Scaling of any Set optimally. Natural Metric also forms the Universal Basis for the Universal Correspondence Principle between Quantum mechanics and Newtonian Mechanics. Furthermore, Natural Metric finds great use in the Science of Forecasting Engineering.
Category: Number Theory

[20] viXra:1703.0220 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-29 20:38:48

A New Approach to Prime Numbers and Why Golbach’s Conjecture is True

Authors: Pedro Caceres
Comments: 23 Pages.

Abstract: A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself. The crucial importance of prime numbers to number theory and mathematics in general stems from the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, which states that every integer larger than 1 can be written as a product of one or more primes in a way that is unique except for the order of the prime factors. Primes can thus be considered the “basic building blocks”, the atoms, of the natural numbers. There are infinitely many primes, as demonstrated by Euclid around 300 BC. There is no known simple formula that separates prime numbers from composite numbers. However, the distribution of primes, that is to say, the statistical behavior of primes in the large, can be modelled. The first result in that direction is the prime number theorem, proven at the end of the 19th century, which says that the probability that a given, randomly chosen number n is prime is inversely proportional to its number of digits, or to the logarithm of n. The way to build the sequence of prime numbers uses sieves, an algorithm yielding all primes up to a given limit, using only trial division method which consists of dividing n by each integer m that is greater than 1 and less than or equal to the square root of n. If the result of any of these divisions is an integer, then n is not a prime, otherwise it is a prime. This paper introduces a new way to approach prime numbers, called the DNA-prime structure because of its intertwined nature, and a new process to create the sequence of primes without direct division or multiplication, which will allow us to introduce a new primality test, and a new factorization algorithm. As a consequence of the DNA-prime structure, we will be able to provide a potential proof of Golbach’s conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[19] viXra:1703.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-22 01:05:49

Jour de Pi : Pi day at Winston Churchill Lycée London, march 14 2017

Authors: Simon Plouffe
Comments: 41 Pages. Conference is in French

Une conférence sur Pi, le jour de Pi : 14 mars 2017 au Lycée International Winston Churchill : Londres. A conference on Pi on Pi Day, march 14 2017 at the Winston Churchill International College (Lycée ) London.
Category: Number Theory

[18] viXra:1703.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-20 08:06:50

Squarefree Arithmetic Sequences

Authors: Helmut Preininger
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper introduces the notion of an S-Structure (short for Squarefree Structure.) After establishing a few simple properties of such S-Structures, we investigate the squarefree natural numbers as a primary example. In this subset of natural numbers we consider "arithmetic" sequences with varying initial elements. It turns out that these sequences are always periodic. We will give an upper bound for the minimal and maximal points of these periods.
Category: Number Theory

[17] viXra:1703.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-19 02:37:08

Conjecture that States that Numbers 4n^2+8n+3 Are Fermat Pseudoprimes to Base 2n+2

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I conjecture that any number of the form 4*n^2 + 8*n + 3, where n is positive integer, is Fermat pseudoprime to base 2*n + 2.
Category: Number Theory

[16] viXra:1703.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-18 07:50:11

Conjecture on the Poulet Numbers of the Form (4^n + 1)/5 Where N is Prime

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I conjecture that any Poulet number of the form (4^n + 1)/5 where n is prime is either 2-Poulet number either a product of primes p(1)*p(2)*...*p(k) such that all the semiprimes p(i)*p(j), where 1 ≤ i < j ≤ k, are 2-Poulet numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[15] viXra:1703.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-18 04:21:30

Conjecture that States that Numbers (4^n – 1)/3 Where N is Odd Are Divisible by Poulet Numbers

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that any number of the form (4^n – 1)/3 where n is odd greater than 3 is divisible by a Poulet number (it is known that any number of this form is a Poulet number if n is prime greater than 3; such a number is called Cipolla pseudoprime to base 2, see the sequence A210454 in OEIS).
Category: Number Theory

[14] viXra:1703.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-15 23:40:37

Affirmative Resolve of Legendre's Conjecture if Riemann Hypothesis is True.

Authors: T.Nakashima
Comments: 2 Pages.

Near m, the destance of primes is lower order than logm. This is the key to solve the Legendre's conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[13] viXra:1703.0147 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-01 20:27:28

A Simple Algebraic Proof of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Philip A. Bloom
Comments: 2 Pages.

This simple proof of Fermat's last theorem rewrites x^n + y^n = z^n as a corresponding equation, explicitly showing that no integral triple (x, y, z) exists for n > 2.
Category: Number Theory

[12] viXra:1703.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-13 13:55:36

Constant Quality of the Riemann Zeta's Non-Trivial Zeros

Authors: Petr E. Pushkarev
Comments: 5 Pages. was published in the Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics 13, no. 6 (2017): 1987-1992

In this article we are closely examining Riemann zeta function's non-trivial zeros. Especially, we examine real part of non-trivial zeros. Real part of Riemann zeta function's non-trivial zeros is considered in the light of constant quality of such zeros. We propose and prove a theorem of this quality. We also uncover a definition phenomenons of zeta and Riemann xi functions. In conclusion and as an conclusion we observe Riemann hypothesis in perspective of our researches.
Category: Number Theory

[11] viXra:1703.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-17 05:58:07

Solving Polignac's and Twin Prime Conjectures Using Information-Complexity Conservation

Authors: John Yuk Ching Ting
Comments: 21 Pages. This research paper outline the rigorous proofs for Polignac's and Twin prime conjectures. It is cross-related to Solving Riemann Hypothesis Using Sigma-Power Laws (http://viXra.org/abs/1703.0114).

Prime numbers and composite numbers are intimately related simply because the complementary set of composite numbers constitutes the set of natural numbers with the exact set of prime numbers excluded in its entirety. In this research paper, we use our 'Virtual container' (which predominantly incorporates the novel mathematical tool coined Information-Complexity conservation with its core foundation based on this [complete] prime-composite number relationship) to solve the intractable open problem of whether prime gaps are infinite (arbitrarily large) in magnitude with each individual prime gap generating prime numbers which are again infinite in magnitude. This equates to solving Polignac's conjecture which involves analysis of all possible prime gaps = 2, 4, 6,... and [the subset] Twin prime conjecture which involves analysis of prime gap = 2 (for twin primes). In conjunction with our cross-referenced 2017-dated research paper entitled "Solving Riemann Hypothesis Using Sigma-Power Laws" (http://viXra.org/abs/1703.0114), we advocate for our ambition that the Virtual container research method be considered a new method of mathematical proof especially for solving the 'Special-Class-of-Mathematical-Problems with Solitary-Proof-Solution'.
Category: Number Theory

[10] viXra:1703.0114 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-17 06:11:01

Rigorous Proof for Riemann Hypothesis Using Sigma-Power Laws

Authors: John Yuk Ching Ting
Comments: 23 Pages. This research paper contains the rigorous proof for Riemann hypothesis and explanation for Gram points. It is cross-referenced to "Solving Polignac's and Twin Prime Conjectures using Information-Complexity Conservation" (http://viXra.org/abs/1703.0115).

The triple countable infinite sets of (i) x-axis intercepts, (ii) y-axis intercepts, and (iii) both x- and y-axes [formally known as the 'Origin'] intercepts in Riemann zeta function are intimately related to each other simply because they all constitute complementary points of intersection arising from the single [exact same] countable infinite set of curves generated by this function. Recognizing this [complete] relationship amongst all three sets of intercepts enable the simultaneous study on important intrinsic properties and behaviors arising from our derived key formulae coined Sigma-Power Laws in a mathematically consistent manner. This then permit the rigorous proof for Riemann hypothesis to mature as well as allows explanations for x-axis intercepts (which is the usual traditionally-dubbed 'Gram points') and y-axis intercepts. Riemann hypothesis involves analysis of all nontrivial zeros of Riemann zeta function and refers to the celebrated proposal by famous German mathematician Bernhard Riemann in 1859 whereby all nontrivial zeros are conjectured to be located on the critical line [or equivalently stated as all nontrivial zeros are conjectured to exactly match the Origin intercepts]. Concepts from the Hybrid method of Integer Sequence classification, together with our 'Virtual container' incorporating the novel Sigma-Power Laws, are some of the important mathematical tools employed in this research paper to successfully achieve our proof. Not least in [again] using the same Virtual container research method in this paper, there are other additional deeply inseparable mathematical connections between the contents of this paper and our cross-referenced 2017-dated publication on the dual source of prime number infiniteness entitled "Solving Polignac's and Twin Prime Conjectures using Information-Complexity Conservation" (http://viXra.org/abs/1703.0115).
Category: Number Theory

[9] viXra:1703.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-11 10:45:33

An Engineer’s Approach to the Riemann Hypothesis and Why it is True

Authors: Pedro Caceres
Comments: 25 Pages.

PrimeNumbers are the atoms of mathematics and mathematics is needed to make sense of the real world. Finding the Prime number structure and eventually being able to crack their code is the ultimate goal in what is called Number Theory. From the evolution of species to cryptography, Nature finds help in Prime numbers. One of the most important advance in the study of Prime numbers was the paper by Bernhard Riemann in November 1859 called “Ueber die Anzahl der Primzahlen unter einer gegebenen Grösse” (On the number of primes less than a given quantity). In this paper, Riemann gave a formula for the number of primes less than x in terms the integral of 1/log(x) and the roots (zeros) of the zeta function, defined by: (1)ζ(z) = ∑1/n^z The Zeta function, ζ(z), is a function of a complex variable z that analytically continues the Dirichlet series. Riemann also formulated a conjecture about the location of these zeros, which fall into two classes: the "trivial zeros" -2, -4, -6, etc., and those whose real part lies between 0 and 1. Riemann's conjecture Riemann hypothesis [RH] was formulated as this: [RH]The real part of every non-trivial zero z* of the Riemann Zeta function is 1/2. Thus, if the hypothesis is correct, all the non-trivial zeros lie on the critical line consisting of the complex numbers 1/2 + i ß, where ß is a real number and i is the imaginary unit. In this paper, we will analyze the Riemann Zeta function and provide an analytical/geometrical proof of the Riemann Hypothesis. The proof will be based on the fact that if we decompose the ζ(z) in a difference of two functions, both functions need to be equal when ζ(z)=0, so their distance to the origin or modulus must be equal and we will prove that this can only happen when Re(z)=1/2 for certain values of Im(z). We will also prove that all non-trivial zeros of ζ(z) in the form z=1/2+iß have all ß related by an algebraic expression. They are all connected and not independent. Finally, we will show that as a consequence of this connection of all ß, the harmonic function Hn can be expressed as a function of each ß zero of ζ(z) with infinite representations. We will use mathematical and computational methods available for engineers.
Category: Number Theory

[8] viXra:1703.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-11 02:01:57

High Degree Diophantine Equation C^q=a^p+b^p

Authors: Wu ShengPing
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main idea of this article is simply calculating integer functions in module. The algebraic in the integer modules is studied in completely new style. By a careful construction the result that two finite numbers is with unequal logarithms in a corresponding module is proven, which result is applied to solving a kind of diophantine equation: $c^q=a^p+b^p$.
Category: Number Theory

[7] viXra:1703.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-09 09:40:06

Elementary Proof That There are Infinitely Many Primes p such that p − 1 is a Perfect Square (Landau's Fourth Problem)

Authors: Stephen Marshall
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper presents a complete and exhaustive proof of Landau's Fourth Problem. The approach to this proof uses same logic that Euclid used to prove there are an infinite number of prime numbers. Then we use a proof found in Reference 1, that if p > 1 and d > 0 are integers, that p and p+ d are both primes if and only if for integer m: m = (p-1)!( 1/p + ((-1)^d (d!))/(p+d)) + 1/p + 1/(p+d) We use this proof for d = 2n + 1 to prove the infinitude of Landau’s Fourth Problem prime numbers. The author would like to give many thanks to the authors of 1001 Problems in Classical Number Theory, Jean-Marie De Koninck and Armel Mercier, 2004, Exercise Number 161 (see Reference 1). The proof provided in Exercise 6 is the key to making this paper on the Landau’s Fourth Problem possible.
Category: Number Theory

[6] viXra:1703.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-08 10:45:40

Exponential Diophantine Equation

Authors: Wu ShengPing
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main idea of this article is simply calculating integer functions in module. The algebraic in the integer modules is studied in completely new style. By a careful construction a result is obtained on two finite numbers with unequal logarithms, which result is applied to solving a kind of diophantine equations.
Category: Number Theory

[5] viXra:1703.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-04 11:30:54

The Asymptotic Riemann Hypothesis (ARH)

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 3 pages, written in French

We propose in the present paper to consider the Riemann Hypothesis asympotically (ARH) ; it means when the imaginary part of the zero in the critical band is great. We show that the problem, expressed in these terms, is equivalent to the fact that an equation called the * equation has only a finite number of solutions, but we have not proved it.
Category: Number Theory

[4] viXra:1703.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-03 15:32:44

Using the Method of Infinite Rise to Obtain Certain Types of Solutions of Three-Term Equation th (Elementary Aspect)

Authors: Reuven Tint
Comments: 5 Pages. original papper in russian

Keywords: three-term equation, the method of infinite growth, elementary aspect. Annotation. An infinitely lifting method for making certain types of three-term equations, which is completely refuted by the ABC conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[3] viXra:1703.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-03 10:27:01

Addendum to Paper Entitled "Do Prime Numbers Obey a Three Dimensional Double Helix?"

Authors: Peter Bissonnet
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper elucidates the major points of the above referenced paper. 1. Emphasizes the derivation of the double helices and that they are not arbitrarily chosen. 2. Explains why multiples of 42 appear in prime number theory. 3. Why s in 6s-1 and 6s+1 is really a composite number. 4. Why 2 and 3 are not true prime numbers based upon characteristics. 5. Philosophical reason as to the double helices falling more into a discoverable category (as in experimental physics), as opposed to being postulate driven.
Category: Number Theory

[2] viXra:1703.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-02 16:52:23

Elementary Proof that an Infinite Number of Pell Primes Exist

Authors: Stephen Marshall
Comments: 15 Pages.

This paper presents a complete proof of the Pell Primes are infinite. We use a proof found in Reference 1, that if p > 1 and d > 0 are integers, that p and p + d are both primes if and only if for integer m: m = (p-1)!( + ) + + We use this proof for d = - to prove the infinitude of Pell prime numbers. The author would like to give many thanks to the authors of 1001 Problems in Classical Number Theory, Jean-Marie De Koninck and Armel Mercier, 2004, Exercise Number 161 (see Reference 1). The proof provided in Exercise 6 is the key to making this paper on the Pell Prime Conjecture possible.
Category: Number Theory

[1] viXra:1703.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-01 04:34:21

Rsa Encryption 2048 NPQ

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 3 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to provide algorithm that is 5 lines of code and that finds P & Q when N is given. It will work for RSA-2048 if the computer can float large numbers in PyCharm or Python. Also, the P&Q from Part I of the algorithm becomes the range for a for loop in Part II that returns and solves P*Q=N (True).
Category: Number Theory