[197] **viXra:1312.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-31 09:50:03*

**Authors:** Ernesto Lopez Gonzalez

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Background: In several previous articles it was exposed the hypothesis that matter could be considered as consisting of gravitational pulses in a six-dimensional space with anisotropic curvature. These pulses interact between them through various mechanisms, one of which is based on time velocity gradient due to gravitational time dilation. As time dilation can also be achieved by speed, physical consequences of this effect are explored.
Results Universe expansion, which can be expressed as Hubble's law, causes an effective time velocity gradient , resulting in a repulsive force between any particle-pulsation. This force is mass-independent and causes an acceleration that can be expressed by the relationship a=Ho^2*r ( approximation valid for distances up to 1000 Mpc).Since our best estimate of Hubble's constant value is 71 km/s/Mpc we can estimate the present value of the cosmological constant Lambda at a value of 5.89 10^-53 m^-2. This number is consistent with current observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[196] **viXra:1312.0250 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-07 08:17:31*

**Authors:** Luis Sancho

**Comments:** 59 Pages.

The 5th dimension is the dimension of spatial size and speed of temporal clocks. Both parameters are inverted: when systems grow in size the speed of its clocks, its ‘time cycles’, diminish proportionally, both in biological and physical systems. And vice versa. Smaller clocks tick faster and information processing carried by the frequency of those cycles accelerates, as it happens in chips, particles or life metabolism. ‘A Geometry is the study of the invariant properties of a space(time), under transformations within itself’ (Klein) As such, the geometry of the 5th dimension is defined by a co-invariant equation that relates 2 ‘inverse’ parameters, spatial energy and temporal information: SexTi=K, from where a series of invariant properties followed by all systems of the Universe can be deduced: the invariance of formal motions, of actions, of topological forms, of scales and of time ages. This paper will study them in it first part.
The second part will prove that ALL systems of the Universe, in all its scales, from the smallest atom to the biggest galaxy, from the simplest cell to the planetary society follow those invariances. Since the 5th dimension and its formal laws and invariances are the ultimate why that unifies the laws of each science that studies the species, cycles, structures and events of each scale of reality.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[195] **viXra:1312.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-31 10:33:33*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 59 Pages. This is an international patent application filed by the author on December 31, 2013 for nuclear “resonant fusion” technology, based on the thesis that baryons are Yang-Mills magnetic monopoles which the author has developed in a number of earlier papers.

A system and related apparatus, method and energy product-by-process for resonantly-catalyzing the release of nuclear fusion energy, comprising: a nuclear fuel; a high-frequency gamma radiation source producing gamma radiation proximate at least one of the resonant frequencies corresponding to m_u, m_d, sqrt(m_u m_d), (m_u+m_d)/2, m_u/(2pi^1.5), m_d/(2pi)^1.5, sqrt(m_u m_d)/(2pi)^1.5, (m_u+m_d)/2(2pi)^1.5, integer harmonic multiples of said resonant frequencies, and sums of said resonant frequencies and said integer harmonic multiples, wherein m_u is the current rest mass of the up quark and m_d is the current rest mass of the down quark; and said gamma radiation source configured in relation to said nuclear fuel so as to subject said nuclear fuel to said gamma radiation.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[194] **viXra:1312.0247 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-19 10:56:52*

**Authors:** Koji KOBAYASHI

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article describes about that P is not NP by using bijection reduction between each problems. If injective reduction of each directions between CNFSAT and HornSAT exist, bijection between CNFSAT and HornSAT also exist. If P is NP, this bijection is polynomial time. But HornSAT description is polynomial complex and CNFSAT description is exponential complex. It means that there is no bijection in polynomial time. Therefore P is not NP.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[193] **viXra:1312.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-31 07:35:40*

**Authors:** Germán Paz

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We make a comment on a previous paper.

**Category:** Number Theory

[192] **viXra:1312.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-31 05:07:43*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The fifth paper based on Reality

In this paper, I put forth a philosophical argument that an entity can be either quantized or
infinite, but not both; and that only a quantized entity can integrate into a system; the integration will be deterministic, and at each stage, the entity may have different emergent properties; the system thus formed settles in an infinite-loop in an infinite arena made up of non-quantized entities. Based on these, it is proposed that the universe is a system made up of matter, a quantized entity; and the arena is made up of space and time, non-quantized (infinite) entities.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[191] **viXra:1312.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-31 05:06:04*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 67 Pages.

In the contemporary classical electrodynamics exists many unresolved problems. The law of the induction of Faraday does not describe all known manifestations of induction. Unipolar generator is exception. Incomprehensible is the physical cause for induction. Long time was considered that such material parameters, as dielectric and magnetic constant they can depend on frequency. It turned out that this not thus. To the examination this problems is dedicated the article.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[190] **viXra:1312.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-30 19:08:02*

**Authors:** Mark R. Brenneman

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

An exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) in exon 12 Using the G6PD model and exon 12, may define Exon 12 an exonic splicing silencer containing other-(exons II, III-IV, V, VI-VII, VIII, IX, X, and XI-XIII)-spliced exons regions and an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) in exon 12. Using the G6PD model.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[189] **viXra:1312.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-30 21:49:03*

**Authors:** M. Gatta, P. Fragata

**Comments:** 8 pages

In a very recent book on the philosophy of space and time, Maudlin discusses Langevin's famous twin paradox, emphasizing the incorrectness of attributing the different agings of the two twins to the different accelerations they suffered. Here we extend the argument a little by considering to and fro rectilinear motions under finite accelerations (and continuous velocities).

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[188] **viXra:1312.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-31 00:02:28*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Fine Structure Constant and Boltzman's Constant may be expressed in terms of a small number of notable irrational numbers and integers.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[187] **viXra:1312.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-31 02:28:38*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 13 pages, 34 equations, 6 references

We consider the extension of the Schwarzschild metric to a counterpart that can describe an extended spherically symmetric stellar body with acceptable density distribution, and with a thermal profile. With a length parameter, apart from the Schwarzschild radius, the proposed metric can fit the values of density, pressure,
and temperature, at the stellar surface, and give a complete profile down to the core. Such a metric extension seems to describe a central core with an "energy-producing, explosive core", as well as an inflationary "coronal windy layer", two regions where the mean pressure seems to acquire negative magnitudes. Our illustrative computations and graphical illustrations refer to the sun as a reference example. We discuss the Schwarzschild limit of such metrical model. We also discuss the interior gravitational potential and its repulsive central core.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[186] **viXra:1312.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-30 11:25:19*

**Authors:** A. E. Inopin

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Devoted to the memory of my late wife Larisa Bulakova

Recently Haller has published paper about oceanic black holes with Eddie currents. Although, there is some confusion created there about nature of black holes, and analog black holes, it still makes sense to use some fruitful ideas generated by Haller. We will employ analogy between our parity doubling paper and Haller's plots. Vast ideas of vortices turbulence, Eulerian vortices, coherent vortices - whirlpools, Lagrangian vortices and black holes are at work. We will use analog of their photon sphere - surface on which light encircles a black hole without entering it. We have found the relation between our Magnification effect and Haller's photon spheres to trace light and particle's trajectory in black hole's vicinity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[185] **viXra:1312.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-30 07:03:05*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Until now, was considered that the capacity and inductance are reactive elements and cannot consume active power. In the work it is shown that under specific conditions the capacity and inductance can be the effective resistance, whose value depends on time. These special features of capacity and inductance made possible to obtain the wave equations of long lines. Is shown also, that the electron beams can possess both the kinetic, and by potential properties.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[184] **viXra:1312.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-30 07:49:51*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Is developed the concept of scalar-vector potential, in which within the framework Galiley conversions the scalar potential of charge depends on speed. This made it possible to obtain conversions pour on upon transfer of one inertial system to another and to explain such phenomena as phase aberration and transverse Doppler effect.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[183] **viXra:1312.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-30 03:21:29*

**Authors:** Essam E Maroun

**Comments:** 6 Pages. emaroun85@hotmail.com

Several theories have introduced an estimate for the total mass-energy of the observable universe, this magnitude can be determined upon the cosmic critical density, the extrapolation from number of stars or Hoyle based steady-state estimates; and all imply a finite universe. Using the assumption of the conservation of the total observable cosmic energy, and employing a form of Bohr’s quantization; we apply a different method to estimate the mass-energy of the large scale universe.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[182] **viXra:1312.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-30 01:22:31*

**Authors:** F.F. Mende

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

At present not all electrodynamic phenomena yield to the explanation within the framework of the traditional electrodynamics and special theory of relativity (STR). One of such paradoxes is described in the sixth volume of Feynman lectures on physics, where it is shown that with the examination of interaction of the charges, which move along the lines, which are intersected at right angle, third Newton's law is disrupted. Paradoxical is the fact that this phenomenon, as the electric pulse of the nuclear explosion, when the tension of electrical pour on the earth's surface it reaches several ten thousand volt per meters, until now, did not find single-valued explanation, and in regard to this to the output of work none of the scientific journals published article on the explanation of this phenomenon. In STR charge is the invariant of speed; therefore the motion of charges in the conductors, where the positive and negative charges are compensated, there must not lead to their electrization. But in the experiments with the superconductive windings and the tori, into which the current is introduced by induction method, around them is formed static electric field. These paradoxes find their explanation that also it will be shown below in the concept of scalar- vector potential.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[181] **viXra:1312.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-30 01:43:41*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Number of pages: 6

The currently popular ‘Big Bang Theory’ is based on ‘Doppler Shift Interpretation’ of the ‘cosmological-red-shift’. But it is shown here that the value of Hubble-constant matches so perfectly with the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces, that such a coincidence is very un-likely. Secondly, if the expansion of the universe is accelerating, as the recent observations suggest, e.g.( Paal, G. et al. 1992, Adam G. Riess et al.1998, and Perlmutter, S. et al.1999)[1,2,3], then very large amount of dark-energy may be needed which is still not found. Therefore, it is proposed here that extra galactic photons may be loosing some of their energy through ‘vacuum polarization’, as described by Levine, I. (1997)[4] and Brown et al (1996)[5]. It is proposed here that: when an extra galactic photon is absorbed by either electron or positron of the virtual electron positron pair, then not only the ‘electrostatic potential energy’ of the pair is increased, but also its ‘gravitational potential energy’ as well; but when these ‘potential energies’ are released, then not only a photon, but also a graviton is emitted; so the input energy gets branched out. And we find here that the energy lost by the ‘cosmologically red shifted photons’ is strikingly proportional to the ‘strength ratio’ of gravitational and electric forces. Since, according to this new interpretation for the ‘cosmological red shift, the red-shift is a function of distance traveled by the photon, rather than relative velocity of the galaxies; so his study will also do away with the need for ‘dark energy’.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[180] **viXra:1312.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-30 02:58:04*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In the article is shown that the emission laws can find their physical explanation within the framework the concept of scalar- vector potential. Within the framework this concept of find also their explanation the laws of induction.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[179] **viXra:1312.0231 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-30 06:53:13*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. fixed several typos , including calling a cite, Eq.17 instead of Eq. 16

Wormhole physics as embodied by a modified Wheeler De Witt equation as given by Crowell inter connects with how to write a quintessence version of the ‘cosmological constant’. The resulting value for the ‘cosmological constant’ is for wormholes for reasons stated in this document, using a modified form of the Weiner – Nordstrom metric, with no charge Q.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[178] **viXra:1312.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-28 19:55:28*

**Authors:** Josué Antonio Nescolarde Selva

**Comments:** 440 Pages.

Studies of the belief systems from a neutrosophic point of view.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[177] **viXra:1312.0227 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-04 08:59:20*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Prespacetime Journal, Jan.2014, vol.5, issue 1, pp.1-7

In contrast with the paradigm of effective Quantum Field Theory (EFT), realistic Renormalization Group (RG) flows approaching fixed points are neither perturbative nor linear. We argue that overlooking these limitations is necessarily linked to many unsolved puzzles challenging the Standard Model of particle physics (SM). Here we show that the analysis of non-linear attributes of RG flows near the electroweak scale can recover the full mass and flavor structure of the SM. It is also shown that this analysis brings closure to the “naturalness” puzzle without impacting the cluster decomposition principle of EFT.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[176] **viXra:1312.0225 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-16 10:57:55*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A method is proposed in this paper to generate a repulsive gravitational force field, which can strongly repel material particles, while creating a gravitational shielding that can nullify the momentum of incident particles (including photons). By nullifying the momentum of the particles and photons, including in the infrared range, this force field can work as a perfect thermal insulation. This means that, a spacecraft with this force field around it, cannot be affected by any external temperature and, in this way, it can even penetrate (and to exit) the Sun without be damaged or to cause the death of the crew. The repulsive force field can also work as a friction reducer with the atmosphere (between an aeronave and the atmosphere), which allows traveling with very high velocities through the atmosphere without overheating the aeronave. The generation of this force field is based on the reversion and intensification of gravity by electromagnetic means.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[175] **viXra:1312.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-28 15:01:16*

**Authors:** Thierry Delort

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The idea of the existence of ether has been abandoned after the theory of relativity was accepted. It appears that the existence of an ether, compatible with the main points of the classical standard Cosmological model, permits to solve some enigmas of the present Cosmological model that are very important, for instance the enigma connected to dark matter or to fossil radiation. In this article we show how the existence of an ether, being compatible with the classical standard Cosmological model on many points, permits to solve those enigmas. In particular we show how it can give the nature of dark matter, the origin of its invisibility, the curve of velocities of stars in galaxies (constant) and the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. So our theory appears to be an alternative to MOND theory. We will also justify a very simple topological form of the Universe and the position of our galaxy inside this Universe. We will also give the possible nature of the enigmatic dark energy. We will see that our theory is compatible with Special and General Relativity, despite that it is based on the concept of ether.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[174] **viXra:1312.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-28 10:23:19*

**Authors:** F.F. Mende

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

The dielectric and magnetic constant of material media are the parameters, which are used during writing Maksvell equations. However, there is still one not less important material parameter, namely a kinetic inductance of charges, which has not less important role, than the parameters indicated. Unfortunately, importance and fundamentality of this parameter in the works on electrodynamics, until now, is not noted, and kinetic inductance is present in all equations of electrodynamics implicitly. This work is dedicated to the examination of the role of the kinetic inductance of charges in the electrodynamics of material media and to the restoration of its rights as the fundamental parameter, on the importance that not less meant than dielectric and magnetic constant.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[173] **viXra:1312.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-28 11:33:03*

**Authors:** György Szondy

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Original submission to arXiv.org/gr-qc at 2008.12.28, Abstract rewritten.

It is well known, that “one of the deepest problems in theoretical physics is harmonizing the theory of general relativity […] with quantum mechanics”. In our study we dig deep to the principles of general relativity, collected results of different approaches and attempts, and tried to assemble the pieces from well-known textbooks according to the preferred approach of Lorenz and Poincaré, and finally we examined the results on the basis of fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. Using this method we succeeded in finding the correlation between the static geometry and the gravitational potential (that was given up by Brans and Dicke in 1961), and with the help of a simple quantum-particle model we found the interaction of the geometry and the matter, thus a kind of mechanism of a possible quantum gravity. In this paper we share the basic steps and the main results of the study.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[172] **viXra:1312.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-27 20:16:46*

**Authors:** Elliott Prather

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Theory to substitute GR and QED

This is to describe a theory developed by Elliott Prather about the following topics;
What actually occurs when we witness a gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear or strong nuclear interaction.
Why light appears to travel at a constant velocity from different vantage points.
The seemingly random behavior of "photons" in the dual slit experiment.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[171] **viXra:1312.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-27 09:13:38*

**Authors:** Suomy Nona

**Comments:** 4 Pages. If nothing else, my work makes great dimensional analysis test questions.

An analogy, imagine our scientific constants as a set of lego blocks. I figured out how to snap the lego blocks together to represent scientific units. My next step was to find the minimal number of blocks that I could use for a unit. Since the minimal number of constants seemed unique and invariant, I believed that the information was important. Alas, no one else agreed that my equations were unique and invariant so I made my
work into a poem. If you read it out loud, it is a poem of physics.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[170] **viXra:1312.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-27 10:55:33*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 78 Pages.

In this part of book a single theory of energy conversion process rate and productivity is suggested, which relate to the classic theory of thermal engines in the same manner as dynamics to statics.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[169] **viXra:1312.0216 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-31 03:02:38*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, the Rindler coordinate theory’s mathematics modernizes and the Rindler coordinate theory expands to be the Rindler coordinate theory of the accelerated observer that have the initial velocity. First, find the Rindler coordinate theory with initial velocity that used the tetrad on the new method and discover the new inverse-coordinate transformation of the Rindler coordinate theory with the initial velocity. Specially, if , this theory treats that the observer with the initial velocity does slowdown by the constant negative acceleration in the Rindler’s time-space.And according to the accelerated system or the decelerated system, consider the Doppler effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[168] **viXra:1312.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-27 06:22:57*

**Authors:** Nikolay v. Dibrov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

New formula for the pressure of the fation gas on the fundamental sub-particle is derived.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[167] **viXra:1312.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-28 19:47:58*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 216 Pages.

The algebraic structures built using [0, n) interval are new and innovative. They happen to have different properties. The interval [0, n) can be realized as the real algebraic closure of the modulo ring Zn. The algebraic behavior of [0, n) is different from the ring Zn.

**Category:** Algebra

[166] **viXra:1312.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-26 19:16:40*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 211 Pages.

The concept of non associative topological space is very new and interesting. In this book we have built non associative topological spaces using subsets of non associative algebraic structures like loops, groupoids, non associative rings and non associative semirings. We also find conditions on these non associative subset topological spaces to satisfy special identities like Bol, Moufang, right alternative, etc. The new notion will find several applications.

**Category:** Algebra

[165] **viXra:1312.0211 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-20 11:50:29*

**Authors:** Guoliang Liu

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Twenty year's work finally is done, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, and is a preprint under review.

Based on several assumptions to deduce a cosmological model with three fundamental constants along with the dimensionless electroweak coupling constant turned into functions of the gravitational potential. Initial research of this model has indicated solutions to avoid the singularity in both special relativity and general relativity, and to solve several long-standing cosmological puzzles.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[164] **viXra:1312.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-26 16:26:57*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the paper [1] it was shown that extending Riemann geometry to include an asymmetric metric resulted in a calculation of 6d for these spaces. The spinors on these spaces are 4d Weyl-Majorana and are now considered to be spin 1/2. It is shown that there are 24 spin 1/2 matter states, chiral -1 SU(4) is emergent which via spontaneous symmetry breaking results in the chiral Electroweak or SU(3) gauge groups. The SU(3) right handed i.e. chiral +1 gauge group is also emergent. The chiral gauge groups SU(4) and SU(3) emerge after inflation ends with the emergence of (1,3) space. Dark matter and Dark energy are also emergent from the tensor products and tensor sums of the 6d vector spaces (3,3), (4,2), (1,5). The cosmological density ratios are Dark energy 0.6831, Dark Matter 0.2676 and Matter 0.0493 which are in agreement with the Planck Mission results [2]. Our Universe is just one of many outcomes of inflation and tensor products and tensor sums of these 3 6d vector spaces.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[163] **viXra:1312.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-26 14:55:06*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The gravitational field produced by mass is an asymmetric metric field (because of its temporal component), which interacts with and distorts the symmetric electromagnetic metric field of space. Recall these fields extend throughout the universe. Forcing the actively distorting gravitational field through the symmetric spatial metric field (as during accelerated motion) produces a natural resistance (since work must be done to distort the symmetric field), and yields the phenomenon of "inertial" mass; inertial mass is equivalent to gravitational "weight", since the accelerated flow of metric spacetime in the two cases is reciprocally equivalent (either we accelerate through spacetime or spacetime accelerates through us). (Note that this "inertial mass via the metric distortion of gravitation" hypothesis provides a universal inertial resistance to any kind of mass or bound energy, in exact proportion, and is not the same mechanism as the "Higgs boson drag" proposed by the "Standard Model", which apparently affects only elementary particles.) (See: "The Higgs Boson vs the Spacetime Metric".)

**Category:** Classical Physics

[162] **viXra:1312.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-08 13:45:51*

**Authors:** Philip J. Carter

**Comments:** 40 Pages. Version 5. Corrected and updated.

A higher-dimensional spacetime model is proposed, accounting for nonlocal quantum phenomena while embracing Special Relativity as a limiting case. The Aspect and Megidish experiments are explained within this spacetime framework. Time is understood as spatial motion relative to higher dimensions, offering the degrees of freedom demanded by nonlocal effects along with a consistent milieu for Kaluza’s 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell theory. Special Relativity and quantum mechanics converge in the higher dimensions to yield the origins of mass while providing a geometrical mechanism relating mass and spacetime curvature (gravity). Part Two introduces a consciousness model within the higher-dimensional spacetime framework, integrating elements of physics, psychology, philosophy and metaphysics. Evidence from dreams is shown to correspond to both the physical model and the consciousness model. A theory of perception is presented on the foregoing basis.
Keywords: consciousness, quantum mechanics, wavefunction, relativity, nonlocality, entanglement, space, time, spacetime, mind, perception, qualia, dreams, branes, imaginary dimensions, higher dimensions

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[161] **viXra:1312.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-26 08:49:47*

**Authors:** Asaf Farhi, Bipin Singh

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In the following manuscript we describe the implementation of a method for calculating relative free energies for a general force field (A simple, robust and efficient
method for calculating relative free energies).

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[160] **viXra:1312.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-26 03:50:56*

**Authors:** Nikolay Leonov

**Comments:** 10 Pages. English and russian texts

The quantum interpretation of energy output reactions in a “hydrogen” bomb is wrong. Using tokomaks in engineering of controlled light nuclear power reactors is unpromising.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[159] **viXra:1312.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-26 05:33:47*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 11 pages, 15 equations, 20 references

The radiational contributions, electromagnetic and gravitational, to energy density in the cosmological equation must be negative. This creates natural turning points for a cyclic cosmological model. The negative pressure of the electromagnetic radiation would prevent the collapse of the universe in a prior contracting
phase, while the positive pressure of the gravitational radiation would prevent it from expanding forever. Such a cosmological model avoids the problems of a singular past, and evades an ever-accelerating future. The picture is that of an oscillating universe full of stars, that eternally build and destroy the various forms of matter and life, all in a framework of energy conservation. Assuming that the temperature of microwave radiation is a true measure of the electromagnetic energy density of the universe, and that the supernovae data and redshifts are reliable, we can determine (tentatively) the parameters of our model, with an appropriate Hubble fraction of 0.50, and a deceleration parameter of 0.55, and estimate the time that passed, about 12.8 Gyr, since the initiation of the expansion phase, and the time that remains, about 1066 Gyr, before the return to contraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[158] **viXra:1312.0203 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-31 07:14:47*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this article, the intuitive aspects used to model mathematically God's Biblically implied attributes are presented. The findings are fully described essentially in non-technical terms. These results counter all secular statements that claim that aspects of the Biblically described God concept are "irrational." The results specifically show that they are rational from the viewpoint of (classical) everyday logical discourse.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[157] **viXra:1312.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-25 18:20:14*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Old mainly survey paper due to be updated 2014. No mechanism for where the momentum is "dumped" to is cited as unknown at present.

A new means of non-photonic electromagnetic propulsion is discussed both theoretically and practically. A history of the problem is carried out pointing out the common pitfalls in the pure experiment line of reasoning adopted by many inventors. We note the problems of all mechanical systems such as rockets and ion engines. All claims of oscillating/pendulating masses claiming free-fall propulsion are hopefully dismissed by a survey of the pitfalls inventors present themselves – we hope that this will form a useful reference at least. Then we look at nascent electromagnetic propulsion ideas - photonic propulsion/light sails. We ask if the large energy requirement for electromagnetic propulsion can be overcome by using other electromagnetic phenomena apart from radiative pressure. The hidden momentum trap is pointed out for ExB devices and a new device is presented and analysed using a well known phenomena that, seemingly doesn’t violate the laws of physics. Finally quantitatively we present an intuitive model using the Electrodynamics formalism to ask how this might be possible and not violate conservation laws that are core to the fabric of space-time we occupy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[156] **viXra:1312.0201 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-25 16:07:22*

**Authors:** D.E. Jacob

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Composite dimensionality represents a new way of looking at the universe through a detailed analysis of the concept of motion. Motion has, from the time of Zeno of Elea twenty four centuries ago, represented a great unknown. The most interesting fact is that the universe needs nine dimensions to fully account for all forms of one-dimensional motion. Physics, viewed in nine dimensions, becomes almost classical again – phenomena detailed in both quantum mechanics and relativity theory are shown to be distortions of fundamental parameters brought on by the way nature needs to fit the information flowing in nine dimensions into the three spatiotemporal dimensions we can perceive (it's not a perfect process). This, of course, is not a new concept. Unfortunately, the methodology of dimensional compactification previous theories utilize as a means of dealing with the 'extra' dimensions is not correct. Composite dimensionality does away with dimensional compactification, as it reveals the way in which the nine basic dimensions are handled by the universe, as well as to answer the question of what, exactly, are the three dimensions we currently reside within.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[155] **viXra:1312.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-24 17:36:25*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 7 pages

Using the Theorem 4 of previous paper, I evaluate the complete elliptic integral of the first kind in approximate analytical closed form, by means of Bessel functions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[154] **viXra:1312.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-24 17:43:24*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 3 pages

I evaluate the complete elliptic integral of first kind as the sum of two Gauss hypergeometric functions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[153] **viXra:1312.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-26 03:35:18*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

This article deals with philosophy, but also provides scientific background in the form of physics and cosmology. Intriguing concepts are the roles of band-gap structures, Einstein's Unified Field and Retrocausality (backward causation)in producing the SUPERHUMANS of the far future. These beings will achieve immortality via quantum entanglement with all space and all time. These superhumans would not exist without you, me and all the mortals who ever lived. However, their entanglement with all space-time means you and I are not separate from them. Is a person's mortal life therefore merely the briefest of passing moments in the grand scheme of things? Do we join those we might call gods when we leave this time and little planet?
There are already two universes in a nutshell that I know of. The first, and best known, is “The Universe in a Nutshell” – a 224-page book written by the world-famous English physicist, cosmologist and mathematician Professor Stephen Hawking (born January 8, 1942) that was published by Bantam Spectra on November 6, 2001. The second is “Michio Kaku: The Universe in a Nutshell” – a 42-minute video for The Floating University that is presented by Michio Kaku (born January 24, 1947), Henry Semat Professor of Theoretical Physics at the USA’s CUNY (City University New York). It has been viewed more than 2.6 million times, was uploaded to You Tube on August 15, 2012 and was directed / produced by Jonathan Fowler, Kathleen Russell, and Elizabeth Rodd.
Now, along comes my little version – “The Universe in Another Nutshell”, published in December, 2013 at http://vixra.org/author/rodney_bartlett. References are not listed at the article’s end but are included in the text. As a kind of index, subheadings are typed in my short article (usually after every few paragraphs) to help remind readers where specific info can be found. Subheadings are –
PARTICLES FROM GRAVITY AND NO SUPERSYMMETRY;
RELATING UNIFIED FIELD THEORY TO “PARTICLES FROM GRAVITY”;
WHY IS GRAVITY WEAK? (C^2 AND THE ATOM);
ATTRACTING & REPELLING GRAVITY;
IMAGINARY NUMBERS, FRACTAL GEOMETRY AND DARK MATTER;
ENTANGLED IMMORTALITY;
IMAGINARY MATHS OF NEGATIVE TIME (TRIPS TO PAST);
LOCALIZED UNIFIED FIELD;
THE MATRIX AND THE FIGURE-8 KLEIN BOTTLE,
INTERSTELLAR, INTERGALACTIC AND TIME TRAVEL;
BANDGAP IMPLANTS, THEN UNIFICATION, GO FAR BEYOND STAR TREK;
TIME DILATION, THE UNIFIED FIELD AND THE MATHEMATICAL COSMOS;
“DIGITAL” STRING THEORY AND RENORMALIZATION;
HIDDEN VARIABLES, VIRTUAL PARTICLES AND SUBUNIVERSES;
e∞;
QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT AND RETROCAUSALITY

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[152] **viXra:1312.0194 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-12 04:42:18*

**Authors:** Osvaldo Domann

**Comments:** 37 Pages. Copyright. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

This paper presents the mechanism of gravitation based on an approach where the energies of electrons and positrons are stored in fundamental particles (FPs) that move radially and continuously through a focal point in space, point where classically the energies of subatomic particles are thought to be concentrated. FPs store the energy in longitudinal and transversal rotations which define corresponding angular momenta. Forces between subatomic particles are the product of the interactions of their FPs. The laws of interactions between fundamental particles are postulated in that way, that the linear momenta for all the basic laws of physics can subsequently be derived from them, linear momenta that are generated out of opposed pairs of angular momenta of fundamental particles. The flattening of Galaxies' Rotation Curve is derived without the need of the definition of Dark Matter, and the repulsion between galaxies is shown without the need of Dark Energy. The mechanism of the dragging between neutral moving masses is explained (Thirring-Lense-effect) and how gravitation affects the precision of atomic clocks is presented (Hafele-Keating experiment). Finally, the quantification of the gravitation force is derived.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[151] **viXra:1312.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-24 10:53:23*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

ABSTRACT: What is dark energy and why does it exist? What is dark matter and why does it exist? Assume that the monster group and the 6 pariah groups enable M-theory to have a computational method. Wolfram’s mobile automaton might use Fredkin-Wolfram information below the Planck scale to create approximations to quantum field theory and general relativity theory. Is there some decisive way of testing this seemingly crackpot theory? CONJECTURE 1: The universe has a maximum physical wavelength if and only if the Space Roar Profile Prediction is empirically valid. CONJECTURE 2: The multiverse operates according to Wolfram’s mobile automaton if and only if the alleged Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect is empirically valid. CONJECTURE 3: Superpartners occur in nature if and only nature is infinite. CONJECTURE 4: The space roar is empirical evidence that the inflaton field occurs in nature. Photons and gluons never escape from a measurable universe into the interior of the multiverse. Gravitons travel at the speed of light on average. A statistically few gravitons travel slightly slower than the speed of light and thereby generate the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect. A statistically few gravitons travel slightly faster than the speed of light and escape from a measurable universe into the interior of the multiverse; the escape process generates both the nonzero cosmological constant and the inflaton field. CONJECTURE 5: M-theory has a satisfactory computational method if and only nature is finite.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[150] **viXra:1312.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-24 11:40:12*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Płotnicki

**Comments:** 71 Pages.

This article contains many solutions of wide class of Diophantine equations.

**Category:** Number Theory

[149] **viXra:1312.0191 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-19 02:31:52*

**Authors:** Charith Perera, Chi Harold Liu, Peter Christen

**Comments:** 42 Pages. Book Chapter abstract for public reference. In Book the Cyber-Physical Systems: Architectures, Protocols and Applications, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, USA, 2014

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) represent the expansion in computerized interconnectivity. This phenomenon is also moving towards the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. Searching functionality plays a vital role in this domain. Many different types of search capabilities are required to build a comprehensive CPS architecture. In CPS, users may want to search smart devices and services. In this chapter, we discuss concepts and techniques related to device search and selection. We briefly discuss different types of device searching approaches where each has its own objectives and applications. One such device searching technique is context-aware searching. In this chapter, we present context-aware sensor search, selection and ranking model called CASSARAM in detail. This model addresses the challenge of efficiently selecting a subset of relevant sensors out of a large set of sensors with similar functionality and capabilities. CASSARAM takes into account user preferences and considers a broad range of sensor characteristics, such as reliability, accuracy, location, battery life, and many more. Later in the chapter, we discuss three different techniques that can be used to improve the efficiently of CASSARAM. We implemented the proof of concept software using Java. Testing and performance evaluation results are also discussed. We also highlight open research challenges and opportunities in order to support future research directions.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[148] **viXra:1312.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-23 22:48:55*

**Authors:** T. Marshall Eubanks

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The attached paper will be presented at the IAA Space Exploration Conference - January 09, 2014 - and will eventually be published in Acta Astronautica.

Macroscopic quark matter nuggets are an alternative explanation for Dark Matter (DM) consistent with the observational constraints on this mysterious cosmological component.
Such quark matter theories have strong implications in the formation, development and current behavior of the Solar System, as primordial quark nuggets orbiting the Galaxy would be subject to capture during planetary formation, leading to the retention of condensed quark matter in the centers of the Sun, planets and asteroids today, a possibility that needs to
be taken seriously in Solar System Research.
As quark nuggets are expected to have a minimum mass set by their physics of their formation, any sufficiently small asteroid with a quark matter core would be a “strange asteroid,” with a high bulk density and strong gravitational binding. Small strange asteroids would be the easiest nugget hosts to detect observationally, and the most accessible source of quark matter once detected.
Solar System observations of small Very Fast Rotating (VFR) asteroids (those with rotation periods $\le$ 1/2 hour) support the quark matter nugget hypothesis. If VFR asteroids are assumed to be bound by quark matter cores, the inferred core mass range peaks at $\sim$ 10$^{10}$ kg, consistent with the stable quark matter mass range predicted by the detailed theory of Zhitnitsky and his colleagues \cite{Zhitnitsky-2003-b,Zhitnitsky-2006}.
As there is a prospect that quark nuggets could be used to produce large amounts of antimatter, the economic benefit from even a single ultra-dense strange asteroid could be little short of astounding. If some of the Near-Earth Objects (NEO) are indeed strange asteroids they would truly constitute a game-change resource for space exploration. It is likely that the quark nugget theory will either be rapidly refuted using Solar System observations, or become a focus of space exploration and development in the remainder of this century.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[147] **viXra:1312.0189 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-31 07:49:41*

**Authors:** V. Skorobogatov

**Comments:** 20 Pages. v.3

Hydrodynamical model of four-dimensional medium as the extension of the ideal fluid is presented in the first four sections. As the medium is supposed to be incondensable and located in a limited volume, the expansion of the Euler equation to four dimensions are applied to describe its behaviour. Electromagnetic field is derived as the consequence of the velocity field of the medium. The analogue of the Helmholtz equation for vorticity of the velocity field is obtained that states that electromagnetic field is frozen into the medium. The Maxwell's equations are obtained as the result of the basic properties of the velocity field.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[146] **viXra:1312.0188 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-29 04:05:18*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is assumed that the not numerous pairs of galaxies separated by about 150 Mpc appeared due to the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). We can use this distance as the standard ruler in cosmology. On the other hand, the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the four succeeding phase transitions of the modified Higgs field lead to the cosmic object/Protoworld which was created after the inflation but before the expansion of the Universe. The Protoworld appeared due to fluctuations in the Einstein spacetime - at first there was produced a vortex with left internal helicity. Due to the quantum entanglement, the internal structure of the Protoworld leaked to the Einstein spacetime. It caused that in the Einstein spacetime, already before the expansion of the Universe, there appeared virtual structures and flows which mimicked the structure and characteristic motions in the Protoworld. Such ordered motions in the Einstein spacetime decrease local pressure so there appears the attraction and quantum entanglement between the virtual structures and visible matter. Most important for creation of the cosmological rulers were the virtual cosmological loops produced by the Protoworld in its d = 1 state which is an analog to the d = 1 state in baryons. Calculated here the radius of such cosmological loops is 151.13 Mpc and such is the true origin of the standard ruler in cosmology. Obtained theoretical result is consistent with observational facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[145] **viXra:1312.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-23 14:48:07*

**Authors:** Gamal A.Nasser Gabr

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

This model is development of solid nuclear models. Like FCC model, this model can account for nuclear properties that have been explained by different models. This model gives more accurate explanation for some nuclear properties which are Asymmetric fission, Nuclear binding energy and the most bound nuclei, Natural radioactivity and Number of neutrons in nuclei depending on the structures of these nuclei. The structures of nuclei in this model have special advantage, as there is separation between lattice positions of similar nucleons giving new concept for nuclear force.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[144] **viXra:1312.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-23 08:41:04*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 3 Pages. rus (русский)

Logical analysis of the phenomenon of entanglement in terms of quantum theory leads to the conclusion that the anticipating measurement of entangled photons in one channel, leads to the creation in the second channel a mixture of the two plane-polarized flows with mutually perpendicular polarizations.

Путенихин П.В. Логический анализ явления запутанности с точки зрения квантовой теории приводит к выводу, что опережающее измерение запутанных фотонов в одном канале приводит к созданию во втором канале смеси двух плоскополяризованных потоков с взаимно перпендикулярными поляризациями.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[143] **viXra:1312.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-23 04:05:05*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 12 Pages. English and russian texts

Quantum physics is an approximate theory of the microworld. Its application is limited due to refusal to consider ether resistance to motion of microobjects and negligence of magnetic interactions among the same.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[142] **viXra:1312.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-23 04:44:52*

**Authors:** Luo Quan

**Comments:** 11 Pages. the author is an independent researcher in number theory. This article might include mistakes.

In this article we construct a sequence of p-tables for each prime number p and list out the p-tables for p = 3,5,7. Then we use these p-tables to study congruence equations. Some results about a spacial
family of congruence equations, called combinatorial congruence equations, have been obtained. Finally, the Twin Primes Conjecture and the Goldbach Conjecture are discussed in language of p-tables.

**Category:** Number Theory

[141] **viXra:1312.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-22 15:53:54*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In one of my previous papers I conjectured that there exist an infinity of Poulet numbers which can be written as the sum of three primes of the same form from the following eight ones: 30k+1, 30k+7, 30k+11, 30k+13, 30k+17, 30k+19, 30k+23, 30k+29. In this paper I conjecture that any Poulet number not divisible by 5 can be written as a sum of three primes of the same form from the following four ones: 30k+1, 30k+3, 30k+7 or 30k+9 respectively as a sum from a prime and the double of the another one, both primes having the same form from the four ones mentioned above. Finally, I yet made any other two related conjectures about two types of squares of primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[140] **viXra:1312.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-30 12:35:15*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper gives the self-consistent set of Q-dependent, time varying values of the basic parameters of the World: Fermi Coupling parameter, Newtonian parameter of Gravitation, Hubble’s parameter, Age of the World, and Temperature of the Microwave Background Radiation. It describes in detail the adjustment of the values of the parameters based on the World – Universe Model. The obtained set of values is recommended for consideration in CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants 2014.
Keywords: World – Universe Model, Fundamental Parameter Q , Fermi Coupling Parameter, Gravitational Parameter, Hubble’s Parameter, Temperature of Microwave Background Radiation, Size of the World, Age of the World, CODATA.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[139] **viXra:1312.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-22 09:02:34*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Though I discovered a lot of sequences of Poulet numbers based on different types of formulas, I never succeded to find a recurrent formula able to produce a subset of Poulet numbers...until now, when I incidentally noticed an interesting relation between two Poulet numbers divisible by 73. Extrapolating the result I obtained a recurrent formula based on primes of the form 30k+13 that seem to lead often to possible infinite sequences of Poulet numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[138] **viXra:1312.0176 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-22 10:30:28*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The fourth paper based on Reality

It is proposed that ‘motion at speed ‘c’ is a fundamental property of matter’ and that ‘force is
reaction to motion’. The consequent changes in the interpretations of motion, energy, force, field, interaction, integration and stability are explained, and a new force equation is proposed. This new concept removes all the singularities existing in the present theories.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[137] **viXra:1312.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-25 02:50:02*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four page paper which may obsolute 1000 page literature on Big Bang Theory!

The currently popular ‘Big Bang Theory’ is based on ‘Doppler Shift Interpretation’ of the ‘cosmological-red-shift’. But it is shown here that the value of Hubble-constant matches so perfectly with the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces, that such a coincidence is very un-likely; suggesting a need for considering alternative interpretations of the ‘cosmological-red-shift’. Secondly, if the expansion of the universe is accelerating, as the recent observations suggest, e.g.( Paal, G. et al. 1992, Adam G. Riess et al.1998, and Perlmutter, S. et al.1999), then very large amount of dark-energy may be needed which is still not found. Therefore, it is proposed here that extra galactic photons may be loosing some of their energy through ‘vacuum polarization’, as described by Levine, I. (1997) and Brown et al (1996). When an extra galactic photon is absorbed by either electron or positron of the virtual electron positron pair, then not only the ‘electrostatic potential energy’ of the pair is increased, but also its ‘gravitational potential energy’ as well; but when these ‘potential energies’ are released, then not only a photon, but also a graviton is emitted; so the input energy gets branched out. And we find here that the energy lost by the ‘cosmologically red shifted photons’ is strikingly proportional to the ‘strength ratio’ of gravitational and electric forces.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[136] **viXra:1312.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-21 16:02:55*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I studied Poulet numbers for some time but I’m still amazed by the wealth of the patterns that this set of numbers offers; it’s like everything that the prime numbers, in their stubbornly to let themselves understood and disciplined, refuse us, these exceptions of the Fermat’s “little theorem” allow us. This paper states a conjecture about a new subset of Poulet numbers that I discovered by chance.

**Category:** Number Theory

[135] **viXra:1312.0173 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-27 20:37:26*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 1 Page. fixed some stupidity

We show that when spin eigenfunctions are not fully orthonormal, Bell's inequality does allow local hidden variables. In the limit where spin eigenfunctions are Dirac orthonormal, we recover a significant extremal case. The new calculation gives a possible accounting for $\alpha_{\mathrm{MCM}}-\alpha_{\mathrm{QED}}$.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[134] **viXra:1312.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-21 22:02:52*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 18 Pages. rus (русский)

The understanding of Reality as a multidimensional space education has some logical difficulties. If Reality have four or more spatial coordinates, then would have to be observed phenomenon, that contrary to the known physical laws, logic and common sense.

Путенихин П.В. Представления о Реальности, как многомерном пространственном образовании, имеют некоторые логические сложности. Если бы Реальность имела четыре или более пространственных координат, то в ней должны были бы наблюдаться явления, противоречащие известным физическим законам, логике и обыденному здравому смыслу.

**Category:** Geometry

[133] **viXra:1312.0171 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-22 02:32:11*

**Authors:** Akihiko Shigemoto, Tomoko Amano, Ryozo Yamamoto

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Vanadium doped diamond-like carbon films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering have been investigated by X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements for the purpose of revealing electronic structures including values of work function on the surfaces. In addition to these photoelectron measurements, X-ray diffraction measurements have been performed to characterize the crystal structures.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[132] **viXra:1312.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-21 10:07:25*

**Authors:** Michael Muteru

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The universe is an expression of the deepest basic laws of nature. Natural philosophy
defines Physics as the ultimate unified framework from which its mechanical principles can
be scrutinized. These foundation laws and principles of nature, express the nature of the
universe and hence the universe itself. The universe “suffers” from ‘naturalness’- It can
only be itself. The fundamental study of the universe can easily pass casually as
complexity. I herein discuss how M-theory uses longstanding problems in classical physics
which when invoked serve as solutions to a singularity theorem. From these, the form and
function of the universe can be known, ultimately solving some stubborn, questions that
linger on in Western cosmology. I examine some of these laws and principles that in my
opinion... the universe is in no hurry to amend and how they shape the properties of the

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[131] **viXra:1312.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-21 10:09:18*

**Authors:** Michael muteru

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

M-Theory is the most sure outright TOE (Theory of Everything) conjuered by modern
physics to completely describe the universe. Cosmology is an ancient art that man used to
try to understand the universe and his place in it, reason then led to an anthropocentric
universe model. A TOE of the universe precludes and does not exclude man, in its foray. Mtheory
a typical TOE too when confronted must secrete a rat of such nature, the ancients
had conjured. For a truly fundamental theory of the universe to portray reality it must
display the anthropic principle as a thumb rule of relativity. For man is an observer and

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[130] **viXra:1312.0168 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-27 00:04:35*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 8 Pages. 9 figures, minor edits

Ambiguity in physics makes many useful calculations impossible. Here we reexamine physics' foundation in mathematics and discover a new mode of calculation. The double slit experiment is correctly described by the new mode. We show that spacetime emerges from a set of hidden boundary terms. We propose solutions to problems including the limited spectrum of CMB fluctuations and the anomalous flux of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. A fascinating connection between biology and the new structure should have far reaching implications for the understanding and meaning of life.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[129] **viXra:1312.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-21 04:22:19*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 23 Pages. rus (русский)

The greatest, even the main mystery of physics is to experiment Jung for interference (double-slit experiment). Not possibly explain it, if to suppose the photon is a particle. But recognition of photon wave properties also does not allow non-contradictory to explain the interference pattern. On the one hand, the photon always leaves point on the photo-plate, which is incompatible with the wave nature of the photon. On the other hand, the photon in fact simultaneously passes through both slits, what is incompatible with his corpuscular nature. Many of the physical and scientific mysteries are extremely complicated as in the description, and in the arrangement of the experiment, but allow for an explanation, not contrary to logic and common sense. Experiment with the interference, on the contrary, is extremely simple in execution, however their impossible to explain. All the technical characteristics of the installation are simple in description (the source of photons, the interference grating, principles of phenomena and even mathematical calculation results), but a logical explanation, with position common sense, the linking them all in a single whole is impossible.

Путенихин П.В. Величайшей, даже главнейшей загадкой физики является эксперимент Юнга по интерференции (двухщелевой эксперимент). Невозможно объяснить его, допуская корпускулярность фотона. Но и признание у фотона волновых свойств так же не позволяет непротиворечиво объяснить интерференционную картину. С одной стороны, фотон всегда оставляет на фотопластинке точку, что несовместимо с волновой природой фотона. С другой стороны, фотон фактически одновременно проходит через обе щели, что несовместимо с его корпускулярной природой.
Многие физические и научные загадки бывают крайне сложны как в описании, так и в постановке эксперимента, но позволяют привести объяснения, не противоречащие логике и здравому смыслу. Эксперимент с интерференцией, напротив, является предельно простым в исполнении и невозможным в объяснении. Все технические характеристики установки просты в описании (источник, интерференционные решётки, принципы явления и даже математические расчёты результатов), но логическое объяснение, с позиции здравого смысла, увязка всех их в единое целое невозможны.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[128] **viXra:1312.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-21 05:42:37*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 11 Pages. rus (русский)

The work was not completed, and one might even say by and large, and has not begun and is just initial thoughts about the essence of existence. Many statements, thoughts in this paper are contradictory and mutually exclusive. This means that the author until there is no unambiguous, specific position on these issues. There are considerations, thoughts, conjectures, once came to a head. Maybe someday they will be developed in a more consistent and definite views. May be.

Путенихин П.В. Работа не закончена, и даже, можно сказать по большому счету, и не начата, а является лишь начальными размышлениями о сущности бытия. Многие высказывания, мысли в данной работе противоречивы и взаимоисключающи. Это означает, что у автора пока нет однозначной, определенной позиции на эти вопросы. Здесь приведены соображения, мысли, догадки, однажды пришедшие в голову. Может быть, когда-нибудь они будут развиты в более последовательные и определенные взгляды. Может быть.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[127] **viXra:1312.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-21 06:07:53*

**Authors:** Nicolae Mazilu, Maricel Agop

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A gauge theory of contact is presented, based on the general idea that the local deformation of the nucleon surface at contact should be gauged by the variation of curvature. A contact force is then defined so as to cope with both the variation of curvature, and the deformation. This force generalizes the classical definition of surface tension, in that it depends on the mean curvature, but also depends on the variance of the second fundamental form of surface, considered as a statistical variable over the ensemble of contact spots. It turns out that the variance of the second fundamental form does not depend but on the metric of the space of curvature parameters, organized as Riemann space. This result compels us to review the definition of physical surface of a nucleon.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[126] **viXra:1312.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-20 18:31:26*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 11 Pages. rus (русский)

From the date of publication in 1964 article «On the Einstein Podolsky Rosen paradox» and to our day’s arguments Bella, better known in the form of a «bell's inequalities», are the most common and the main argument in the dispute between the ideas of non-locality of quantum mechanics and a whole class of theories on the basis of «hidden variables» or «additional parameters», formulated in the most General form. Bell showed that there are some conditions (called the «bell's inequalities»), which are correct for local theories, but their violate by quantum mechanics.
In the proposed article argues that the predictions of quantum mechanics and local theories are relevant to fundamentally different types of pairs of particles: classic EPR-pairs and probabilistic, independent (pseudo - entangled) pairs of particles. Has examined the predictions of the two theories for both classes of pairs and shown that they coincide. In the case of pseudo-entangled pairs, who examined by the theory of additional parameters, bell's inequality is not violated also to predictions of quantum mechanics. In turn, for the classic EPR pairs theory of additional parameters gives such predictions that, what and quantum mechanics, and together with it requires «non-locality», what is actually a disguised refusal from the relativism («illusionary long-range action»).

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Со дня опубликования в 1964 году статьи «On the Einstein Podolsky Rosen paradox» и до наших дней доводы Белла, более известные в форме «неравенств Белла», служат самым распространённым и главным аргументом в споре между представлениями о нелокальности квантовой механики и целым классом теорий на основе «скрытых переменных» или «дополнительных параметров», сформулированных в самом обще виде. Белл показал, что существуют некоторые условия (названные впоследствии «неравенствами Белла»), которые соблюдаются для локальных теорий, но нарушаются квантовой механикой.
В предлагаемой статье утверждается, что предсказания квантовой механики и локальных теорий относятся к принципиально разным видам пар частиц: классическим ЭПР-парам и вероятностным, независимым (псевдо-запутанным) парам частиц. Рассмотрены предсказания двух теорий для обоих классов пар и показано, что они полностью совпадают. В случае псевдо-запутанных пар, которые рассматривают теории дополнительных параметров, неравенства Белла не нарушаются и для предсказаний квантовой механики. В свою очередь для классических ЭПР-пар теория дополнительных параметров дает такие же предсказания, что и квантовая механика, и вместе с нею также требует «нелокальности», которая фактически является завуалированным отказом от релятивизма («призрачное дальнодействие»).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[125] **viXra:1312.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-21 02:25:14*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 12 Pages. rus (русский)

Here is the translation of the famous article Bell J.S. about the EPR-paradox, as well as comments to the Bell's conclusions and the original of article's. Article Bella is a convincing mathematical and logical refutation of the arguments of the Einstein about the incompleteness of quantum mechanics and its provisions about so-called «local realism». From the day publishing the article in 1964 to the present day arguments Bella, better known in the form of a «bell's inequalities», are the most common and the main argument in the dispute between the ideas of non-locality of quantum mechanics and a whole class of theories on the basis of «hidden variables» or «additional settings».
In the present work provides a translation of the Bell's article and comments to its conclusions. Made assumptions that Bell's conclusions are a compromise between special relativity theory and experimentally observed phenomenon of entanglement with all visible signs of the instant dependence of the two separated systems. This compromise known these days as the non-locality or nonseparability. Non-locality in fact, directly negates the provisions of the traditional theory of the probability of the dependent and independent events and substantiates the new provisions - quantum probability, quantum rules for calculating the probability of events (addition of probability amplitudes). Such a compromise is the soil for the emergence of mystical views on the nature.

Перевод знаменитой статьи Д.С.Белла об ЭПР-парадоксе, а также комментарии к выводам Белла и оригинал статьи. Статья Белла явилась убедительным математико-логическим опровержением доводов Эйнштейна о неполноте квантовой механики и сформулированных им положений так называемого «локального реализма». Со дня опубликования статьи в 1964 году и до наших дней доводы Белла, более известные в форме «неравенств Белла», служат самым распространённым и главным аргументом в споре между представлениями о нелокальности квантовой механики и целым классом теорий на основе «скрытых переменных» или «дополнительных параметров».
В предлагаемой работе приводится перевод статьи Белла и комментарии к его выводам. Высказаны предположения, что возражения Белла являются компромиссом между специальной теорией относительности и экспериментально наблюдаемым явлением запутанности, имеющим все видимые признаки мгновенной зависимости двух отделенных друг от друга систем. Этот компромисс известен в наши дни как нелокальность или несепарабельность. Нелокальность фактически отрицает положения традиционной теории вероятности на зависимые и независимые события и обосновывает новые положения – квантовую вероятность, квантовые правила вычисления вероятности событий (сложение амплитуд вероятностей). Подобный компромисс служит почвой для возникновения мистических взглядов на природу.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[124] **viXra:1312.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-20 09:55:02*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 12 Pages. rus (русский)

Matter is eternal and infinite substance, which cannot be created or destroyed. It is continuous, that is, not consist of discrete. «Matter» is translated as «substance», but in the proposed hypothesis is two different concepts. According to this hypothesis the emergence of the Genesis, the Universe, the reality, Space and Time is not associated with a Big Bang in the classical description, is not associated with a cosmological inflation. The universe has its origin from the process «transformation matter to the substance», a kind of «crystallization» of material substance. By this process, some regions of matter are transformed into one of their many forms of the existence - substance. It can be assumed, but not necessary that this process began at a single point, which can be called the epicenter of the «Big Bang» of the Universe, its geometrical center. From this center, the wave front «transformation matter to the substance» with infinitely high speed, run on the «body» of the matter, forming the substance Universe. This wave may look the same as the shock wave from a conventional explosive device. Dimensions the formed Universe is not limited to her age and may exceed the 13.7 billion light-years. Immediately trace behind the wave front «transformation matter to the substance», the fundament of the Genesis -- matter has continued this process in the form of education «atoms of space» which we can now observe how the expansion of the distances between groups of galaxies - the expansion of space.

Путенихин П.В. Материя - вечная, несотворимая и неуничтожимая бесконечная субстанция. Она сплошная, то есть не состоит из дискрет. Материя переводится как «вещество», но в предлагаемой гипотезе - это два различных понятия. По этой гипотезе возникновение бытия, Мироздания, реальности - Вселенной, Пространства и Времени не связано с Большим взрывом в классическом его описании, не связано с космологической инфляцией. Вселенная имеет своё начало от процесса веществолизации материи, своеобразной «кристаллизации» материальной субстанции. Вследствие этого процесса некоторая область материи перешла в одну из своих многочисленных форм существования - вещественную. Можно предположить, но не обязательно, что этот процесс начался в одной точке, которую можно назвать эпицентром «большого взрыва» Вселенной, её геометрическим центром. Из этого центра фронт волны веществолизации материи с бесконечно большой скоростью разошёлся по «телу» материи, образуя за собой вещественную Вселенную. Эта волна может выглядеть так же, как ударная волна от обычного взрывного устройства. Размеры образовавшейся Вселенной не ограничены её возрастом и могут многократно превышать 13,7 миллиарда световых лет. Сразу же вслед за фронтом волны веществолизации первооснова бытия - материя продолжила этот процесс в форме образования «атомов пространства», который мы можем сейчас наблюдать как расширение расстояний между группами галактик - расширение пространства.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[123] **viXra:1312.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-20 10:00:08*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 16 Pages. rus (русский)

Superluminal communication and move faster than light is incompatible with the special theory of relativity. Introduction to the theory of relativity superluminal particles - tachyons (or quantino) allows movement in the past, leads to disruption of causality denies Lorentz invariance and invariance of the speed of light - the second postulate of special relativity.
The article describes a few thought experiments. Moving of superluminal particles into the past and violation of causality - this phenomenon, inherent only the special relativity. In reality no the movement in the past, and there is no violation of causality. Reinterpretation principle does not solve the problem of violation of causality in the special relativity. Non-locality allows synchronizing the clock and it shows that in the presence of superluminal communication in all inertial frames the clock runs at the same rate. Predictions of special relativity in regards to tachyon are wrong, absurd and rejects the invariance of the speed of light. Invariant's should be the speed of tachyons. In this case, there is no movement in time and violation of causality.

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Передача информации и движение быстрее скорости света несовместимы со специальной теорией относительности. Введение в теорию относительности сверхсветовых частиц – тахионов (квантино) разрешает движение в прошлое, приводит к нарушению причинности, опровергает преобразования Лоренца и инвариантность скорости света – второй постулат специальной теории относительности.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[122] **viXra:1312.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-20 10:07:33*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. rus (русский)

Superluminal communication, move and tachyon are incompatible with the special relativity. Introduction to the special relativity superluminal particles - tachyons (quantino) allows movement to the past, leads to disruption of causality denies Lorentz invariance and invariance of the speed of light - the second postulate of special relativity. Moving of superluminal particles into the past and violation of causality - this phenomenon, inherent only the special relativity. In reality no the movement to the past and there is no violation of causality. Predictions of special relativity in regarding to tachyon are wrong, absurd and rejects the invariance of the speed of light. Invariant`s should be the speed of tachyons. In this case, there is no movement in time and violation of causality. However, in the limits of its applicability, in part of their postulates the mathematic of the special relativity is irrefutable by any thought experiments.

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Сверхсветовые связь, движение и тахион несовместимы со специальной теорией относительности. Введение в теорию относительности сверхсветовых частиц - тахионов (квантино) позволяет движение в прошлом, приводит к нарушению причинности, отрицает Лоренц-инвариантность и инвариантность скорости света - второй постулат специальной теории относительности.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[121] **viXra:1312.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-20 10:11:54*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. rus (русский)

As evidence, allegedly to refute the special theory of relativity often cited examples from сверхсветовым movement (faster than light) light, shadow, and the like. It is erroneous arguments, because such objects do not exist. The tachyon could be in conflict with a special relativity, but he has not yet discovered.

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. В качестве довода, якобы опровергающего специальную теорию относительности часто приводятся примеры со сверхсветовым перемещением (faster than light) светового пятна, тени и тому подобного. Это ошибочные доводы, поскольку таких объектов не существует. Тахион (tachyon) мог бы противоречить СТО, но он пока не обнаружен.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[120] **viXra:1312.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-25 13:39:01*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 63 Pages.

It is shown that multiple thermomechanical, thermodiffusional, thermoelectrical, thermo-magnetic, electromechanical,
thermogalvanomagnetic, etc effects are caused not by synergism (mutual intensification) of irreversible processes as commonly accepted, but, on the contrary, by their counterdirectivity and the associated partial reversibility.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[119] **viXra:1312.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-20 07:02:27*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. rus (русский)

Here is shown analysis of the properties of entangled particles (Bell-states). It is shown that after rotation of qubits on gate Hadamard, two of Bell's states transformed into each other.

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Приведён анализ свойств запутанных частиц (состояний Белла). Показано, что после поворота гейтом Адамара белловских состояний два из них переходят друг в друга.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[118] **viXra:1312.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-20 07:11:12*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. rus (русский)

It is possible the transmission of signals faster than light. Such a conclusion necessarily follows from a logical analysis of certain well-known physical phenomenas that are undisputed, recognized repeatedly proven experimental confirmation. This means that modern physics does not reject the possibility of creating not only a superluminal "the telegraph" (radio, television, communication), but does not reject also the matter's teleportation, ie transfer (transport) of material bodies in space, bypassing the intermediate points.

It is believed, that the special relativity does not forbid motion faster than light. This is a misconception. Communication faster than light, the tachyon - are incompatible with special relativity and with Lorentz-invariance. After the collapse of the wave function of entangled particles is transmitted quantum information faster than light. Only material carriers can produce the transfer of information. Such carrier quantum information may be named quantino.

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Передача сигнала со сверхсветовой скоростью возможна. Такой вывод неизбежно следует из логического анализа некоторых широко известных физических явлений, имеющих бесспорные, общепризнанные, многократно проверенные экспериментальные подтверждения. Это означает, что современная физика не отвергает возможности создания не только сверхсветового «телеграфа» (радио, телевидения, связи), но не отвергает и материальную телепортацию, то есть перенос (транспортировку) материальных тел в пространстве, минуя промежуточные точки.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[117] **viXra:1312.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-20 07:17:59*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 11 Pages. rus (русский)

This paper deals with the states of the quantum entanglement generic (non-Bell entangled states), and their creation with of a quantum gate CNOT. Transitions into each other when you rotate the entangled states of Bell, and logical entity of non-locality on the example of a thought experiment with a quantum "nonlocal dice".

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Данная работа посвящена исследованию состояний квантовой запутанности общего вида (не-белловских состояний запутанности) и их созданию с помощью квантового гейта CNOT. Рассмотрены переходы друг в друга при повороте запутанных состояний Белла и логическая сущность нелокальности на примере мысленного эксперимента с квантовым «нелокальным кубиком».

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[116] **viXra:1312.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-20 07:45:13*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. rus (русский)

There are a large number of surfaces, on which are performed hyperbolic Lobachevsky's geometry. Here are investigated the surfaces, resembling torus with locally constant negative curvature.

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Существует большое число поверхностей, на которых осуществляется гиперболическая геометрия Лобачевского. Рассмотрены тороподобные поверхности с локально постоянной отрицательной кривизной.

**Category:** Geometry

[115] **viXra:1312.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-20 08:10:34*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 3 Pages. rus (русский)

The logical relationship of the theorems the Fermat’s and the Pythagorean allow to draw conclusions that multidimensional worlds do not exist.

Путенихин П.В. Логическая взаимосвязь теорем Пифагора и Ферма позволяет сделать вывод о том, что многомерные миры не существуют.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[114] **viXra:1312.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-20 08:21:02*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. rus (русский)

Considered (for training purposes) task to measure the polarized photon streams with different polarization by the same polarizer. Calculating the probability of passing these photons are produced with the use of projective mathematics of quantum computing.

Путенихин П.В. Рассмотрена в учебных целях задача по измерению поляризованных фотонных потоков с различной поляризацией с помощью одного и того же поляризатора. Вычисления вероятности прохождения этих фотонов произведены с использованием проективной математики квантовых вычислений.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[113] **viXra:1312.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-20 03:53:31*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 81 Pages.

The objective of this Section is to consider from more general positions of energodynamics a number of consequences obtained beyond the applicability of the classic thermodynamics and resulted in a number of paralogisms appeared in it, viz. fallacious statements, though, seemingly, quite credible.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[112] **viXra:1312.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-05 08:37:27*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

According to the paradigm that existed for centuries, all thoughts and arguments in favor of (and against) absolute motion have always been associated with absolute space (or the ether) and, in fact, these two concepts have always been inseparable in our thoughts, i.e. 'absolute motion is relative to an objective absolute space'. Reconciliation of the Sagnac effect with Michelson-Morley (MM) experiment null result has always been a daunting task. The Sagnac experiments remained 'impossible' to be reconciled with all theories of relativity. This paper discloses the reason why solving this paradox remained a daunting task for almost a century: it required a paradigm shift!!! In this paper a new paradigm about motion and space is proposed: Absolute motion/ absolute space is intrinsic. Absolute motion is intrinsic to a physical object, just as consciousness is intrinsic to a conscious being. This paradigm may take us a long way, but this paper gives only a hint and much remains to be explored.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[111] **viXra:1312.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-19 21:43:32*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. rus (русский)

Considered in detail the basic mathematical calculations underlying quantum teleportation. Used a variety of "teleportation carriers" - a pair of qubits carrying out the transfer of the quantum state.

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Подробно рассмотрены базовые математические выкладки, положенные в основу квантовой телепортации. Использованы различные «телепортационные несущие» - пары кубитов, осуществляющих перенос квантового состояния.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[110] **viXra:1312.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-19 21:54:25*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 12 Pages. rus (русский)

The article contains a physical explanation of quantum entanglement (nonlocality). Entangled quantum particles do not exchange information with each other, but «knows what makes» each of them. This is traditional, absurd explanation. The Entangled particles are exchanged nonclassical, «quantum information». The non-locality contradict the special theory of relativity and classical probability theory.

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Приведено физическое объяснение квантовой запутанности (нелокальности). Запутанные квантовые частицы не обмениваются друг с другом информацией, но при этом «знают», что делает каждая из них. Это традиционное, абсурдное объяснение. Запутанные частицы обмениваются неклассической, «квантовой информацией». Тем не менее это вступает в противоречие с теорией относительности. С другой стороны, нелокальность вступает в противоречие с классической (колмогоровской) теорией относительности.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[109] **viXra:1312.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-19 23:09:35*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 9 Pages. rus (русский)

The empty curves space possesses the properties of lenses. It is possible snap the flat Euclidean space by the procedures of gluing, with the preservation of local Euclidean metric, without giving them the properties of lenses. Gluing of the extra dimensions in string theory can eliminate from it a Calabi-Yau manifold and to reduce landscape theory.

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Кривые пустые пространства обладают свойствами линзы. Плоское пространство Евклида можно замкнуть процедурой отождествления с сохранением локальной евклидовой метрики, не наделяя его свойствами линзы. Отождествление дополнительных измерений в теории струн может устранить из неё многообразия Калаби-Яу и сократить ландшафт теории.

**Category:** Geometry

[108] **viXra:1312.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-20 00:55:49*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 10 pages, 15 equations, 7 references

We present a continuous counterpart to Schwarzschild's metrical model of a constant-density sphere. The new model interpolates between a central higher-density spherical concentration of mass and lower-density layers at large distance. Whereas the radial part of pressure shows a positive distribution for all
values of radial distance, the angular part of pressure shows negative magnitudes in the upper layers of low density; both pressures vanishing for infinite distance. We speculate that the negative pressure effect might be connected with stellar winds. Studying the motions of photons and massive particles in the gravity field of the continuous model shows similar, however continuous, behaviors to those described before for Schwarzschild's constant-density model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[107] **viXra:1312.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-20 01:09:56*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Color-Flavor locking phenomenon is predicted to occur at ultra-high
densities in Quantum Chromodynamics. In this paper, we show that it does
actually exist in a particular quark model scenario at low energies. This then leads to a
proper understanding of how a constituent quark, in contrast to a current quark,
arises. This shows that increasing flavour from ${SU(2)}_F$ to ${SU(3)}_F$ is a
non-trivial physical extension with its unique physical implications. As to the
${SU(3)}_F$ symmetry breaking, it predicts that the symmetry when it first appears, is
already intrinsically broken, providing
us with masses
$m_s \rangle \left( m_u = m_d \right)$, as
the constituent quarks as input for the fundamental representation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[106] **viXra:1312.0143 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-17 02:51:16*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 21 Pages. 21

THREE observed Large Quasar Groups (LQGs) located at the start of three Lyman
Alpha Forrest Fractal systems in each of three universe.
According to Quantum FFF Theory, the FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary
particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs-
Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles.
As a result, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS dual Black Hole system
seems to be able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) efficiently into real electric energy and
even H2 production at the black hole horizon, by entropy decrease and is supposed to be
responsible for all dark matter and Galaxy formation in the universe.
As a second consequence The Lyman Alpha structure of the universe is also supposed to be
originated by this splitting and pairing process of Black holes, which should have been started
at the beginning of the universe. Thus the big bang could have been a splitting and
evaporation process of one or more central “new paradigm” black holes creating huge black
holes based Quasars at the start of the Lyman alpha forest process..
Now I suggest that we can observe a strong signal of that event by the recent observation of
TWO or even THREE Huge LQGs presented by R.Clowes. et al. as the NAVEL CORD start
of the Raspberry shaped bouncing Multiverse out of which we are living in one of them.
It is well known that the Higgs mass of 126 GeV. found at CERN, is just in between the
two values of 115 GeV and 140 GeV predicted to be a fit for respectively Super
Symmetry and the Multiverse.
The 126 GeV, indicates also that the Higgs must be unstable and as a result the
Multiverse itself should be unstable or cyclic, all of which is included in The Navel Cord
Multiverse with Raspberry shape.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[105] **viXra:1312.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-20 01:22:12*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 8 Pages. 16 formulas

The article precisely calculates the mass of the fundamental particle and its relations with masses of other particles. The results are theoretically supported by the works of Ruđer Bošković and Antonio Alfonso-Faus.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[104] **viXra:1312.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-19 06:54:40*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 9 Pages. rus (русский)

Statements about «peaceful coexistence» quantum theory and special relativity are unfounded. The views of these two theories on the rate of transmission of interactions are implacable and mutually exclusive. One of these two theories (or both) requires revision on the issue of the speed of interactions.

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Утверждения о «мирном сосуществовании» квантовой теории и специальной теории относительности необоснованны. Взгляды этих двух теорий на скорость передачи взаимодействия являются непримиримыми и взаимоисключающими. Одна из этих двух теорий (или обе) требует пересмотра по вопросу скорости передачи взаимодействий.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[103] **viXra:1312.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-18 15:37:14*

**Authors:** Kaya Forest, Sierra Rayne

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

istorical monthly and annual temperature (1955-2011) and precipitation (1961-2011) datasets at three representative climate stations (Calgary, Alberta; Swift Current, Saskatchewan; and Estevan, Saskatchewan) in the southern Canadian prairies were examined to determine whether the region is trending toward a more variable climate. Few significant absolute year-to-year or five-year 75-25 interquartile range temperature and precipitation temporal trends in the study area were identified. No clear and consistent signature was found for increasing temperature or precipitation variability on monthly or annual timescales.

**Category:** Climate Research

[102] **viXra:1312.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-19 01:27:20*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 10 pages, 28 equations, 7 references

We study Schwarzschild's metrical model of an incompressible (liquid) sphere of constant density and note the tremendous internal pressures described by the model when applied to a stellar body like the sun. We also study the relativistic radial motion of a photon and a massive particle in the associated gravitational field, with due regard to energy conservation. We note the similarities and the differences between this case and the case of a Schwarzschild singular source with special regard to repulsive effects and penetrability.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[101] **viXra:1312.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-19 03:23:34*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper are stated four conjectures about three subsets of pairs of twin primes, i.e. the pairs of the form (p^2 + q – 1, p^2 + q + 1), where p and q are primes (not necessarily distinct), the pairs of the form (p + q – 1, p + q + 1), where p, q and q + 2 are all three primes and the pairs of the form (p^2 + q – 1, p^2 + q + 1), where p, q and q + 2 are all three primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[100] **viXra:1312.0132 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-18 04:47:23*

**Authors:** Sserubogo Zaid

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We demonstrate the theory of gravity through the dual nature of energy regulation and coordination (particle entanglement) and discus its complex mechanics in both local and non local dynamics based on the principle of Action-Reaction. We show how complex mechanics lead to gravitational vortical singularity, gravitational balance, gravitational pull and push, quantum gravity and consciousness. We prove that quantum mechanics, general relativity and consciousness are unified through complex mechanics based on non local waves (torsion waves).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[99] **viXra:1312.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-18 08:02:12*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 3 Pages. rus (русский)

Reviewed the essence of local realism in the spirit of Einstein and its relationship with the quantum mechanical non-locality. «Illusionary long-range action» according to Einstein, is the same phenomenon, and that a quantum «non-locality», does not contradict the special theory of relativity and fully in conformity with the local realism.

Путенихин П.В. Рассмотрена сущность локального реализма в духе Эйнштейна и его связь с квантово-механической нелокальностью. «Призрачное дальнодействие» по Эйнштейну, являющееся тем же самым явлением, что и квантовая «нелокальность», не противоречит специальной теории относительности и полностью соответствует положениям локального реализма.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[98] **viXra:1312.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-18 08:27:16*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Published in General Science Journal

Light is sensed by rational beings. Only real entities can produce sensory perception. Matter alone provides substance needed for objective reality in space. Hence, light or its components are essentially made of matter. Universal medium (formed by matter), under suitable conditions, creates components of light from itself. For existence, it is essential for light’s components to move at the highest possible linear speed, at which universal medium can move them and spin at frequency, proportional to their matter-contents. Flow of these components constitutes radiation of light or similar radiations. This essay very briefly describes mechanism of creation and development of light’s components, as envisaged in alternative concept, presented in the book, ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’. For details, kindly refer same [1].

**Category:** Classical Physics

[97] **viXra:1312.0129 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-19 11:27:35*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 9 Pages. wrong PDF uploaded: Title has Gedankenexperiment put in place in place of thought experiment, abstract has been modified, and several typos as to the bibliography corrected, with needed formatting. The article is the same as what was submitted to Hindawi

Although very unlikely to be observed, the phenomena of particle emission by super radiance of particles/energy by a black hole is examined as a thought experiment (gedankenexperiment). In doing so, the idea is to come up with bounds to the mass of a graviton. Values for the following perturbations of space-time represented as metric gij being perturbed from flat space values by h00 , h0i, and hij make the case, due to the mass dependence of the black hole, that super radiance would almost certainly not be observable, but the considerations so evidenced in giving mass bounds to emitted particles via Padmanabhan’s derivation of super-radiance allows massive gravity to be consistent with black hole physics and GR

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[96] **viXra:1312.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-18 02:00:35*

**Authors:** Helmut Hansen

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In 1078 Anselm of Canterbury proposed an argument for the existence of God, which became known as ontological proof. It based on the finding that the non-existence of God led to a contradiction. Consequently, the existence of God appears as a logical necessity. Though this conclusion is nowadays critized as being meaningless, it is still object of philosophical and theological considerations. In this paper a scientific Metaphysics is presented that led to the same conclusion like the ontological proof but on a quite different ground. It shows that in a physical universe which bases explicitly on a invisible foundation (i.e. the ONE), the existence of the ONE turns out to be a logical necessity, because otherwise this universe would be internally of contradictory nature.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[95] **viXra:1312.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-17 15:32:36*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the Planck Model, low energy scales are related to Planck scale by exponential factors that arise from the geometry of an AdS6 x S4 spacetime. The dark energy (vacuum energy) density, manifested in the cosmological constant, is similarly related to Planck scale. By assuming that the characteristic scale of the vacuum is the Bohr radius, the dark energy density may be calculated from the zero-point energy at Planck scale. The dark energy density is found to be 123 orders of magnitude smaller than Planck scale and to be equal to the value calculated from the results of the fit made with WMAP9 data to the base ΛCDM model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[94] **viXra:1312.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-17 11:16:14*

**Authors:** Martin Lopez-Corredoira

**Comments:** 57 Pages. Accepted for publication in "Astrophysical Journal"

In order to test the expansion of the universe and its geometry, we carry out an Alcock & Paczynski cosmological test, that is, an evaluation of the ratio of observed angular size to radial/redshift size. The main advantage of this test is that it does not depend on the evolution of the galaxies, but only on the geometry of the universe. However, the redshift distortions produced by the peculiar velocities of the gravitational infall do also have an influence, which should be separated from the cosmological effect. We derive the anisotropic correlation function of sources in three surveys within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS): galaxies from SDSS-III/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopy Survey--Data Release 10 (BOSS-DR10), and QSOs from SDSS-II and SDSS-III/BOSS-DR10. From these, we are able to disentangle the dynamic and geometric distortions and thus derive the ratio of observed angular size to radial/redshift size at different redshifts. We also add some other values available in the literature. Then, we use the data to evaluate which cosmological model fits them. We used six different models: concordance Lambda-CDM, Einstein-de Sitter, open-Friedman Cosmology without dark energy, flat quasi-steady state cosmology, a static universe with a linear Hubble law, and a static universe with tired-light redshift. Only two of the six models above fit the data of the Alcock & Paczynski test: concordance Lambda-CDM and static universe with tired--light redshift; whereas the rest of them are excluded at a >95% confidence level. If we assume that Lambda-CDM is the correct one, the best fit with a free Omega _m is produced for Omega _m=0.24^{+0.10}_{-0.07}.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[93] **viXra:1312.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-17 11:22:25*

**Authors:** Martin Lopez-Corredoira

**Comments:** 41 Pages. Accepted for publication in "Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics", in the special issue of "Philosophy of Cosmology" (2014)

I review some theoretical ideas in cosmology different from the standard "Big Bang":
the quasi-steady state model, the plasma cosmology model, non-cosmological redshifts,
alternatives to non-baryonic dark matter and/or dark energy, and others. Cosmologists do not usually work within the framework of alternative cosmologies because they feel that these are not at present as competitive as the standard model. Certainly, they are not so developed, and they are not so developed because cosmologists do not work on them. It is a vicious circle. The fact that most cosmologists do not pay them any attention and only dedicate their research time to the standard model is to a great extent due to a sociological phenomenon (the "snowball effect" or "groupthink"). We might well wonder whether cosmology, our knowledge of the Universe as a whole, is a science like other fields of physics or a predominant ideology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[92] **viXra:1312.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-24 08:40:42*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This article presents a very strict (common) language rendering of Genesis 1.1 - 2.1. It employs a deep analysis of the language employed and presents, in an appropriate manner, the intent of the words as originally transcribed. Aspects of this analysis are related to a major interpretation of the cosmogony - The General Grand Unification Model (GGU-model). A few alterations are made in this revision due to recent findings.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[91] **viXra:1312.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-17 08:12:58*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 9 Pages. rus (русский)

Mathematics of special relativity is not refutable. Last chance for opponents of relativism - is to try to show the discrepancy of the mathematical theory special relativity for the real physical world. There is the quantum non-locality, which requires superluminal agent - tachyon, quantino. The superluminal information transfer rejects the invariance of speed of light, and allows you to show the real physical experiment that clocks in all inertial frames synchronous, thus rejecting the second postulate of special relativity. Therefore, you should expect other experiments that show not the invariance of speed of light. The article describes one of the possible experiments to disprove the second postulate.

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Математика специальной теории относительности принципиально неопровержима. Последняя возможность противников релятивизма - это попытаться показать несоответствие математической теории СТО реальному физическому миру. Существует квантовая нелокальность, которая требует наличия сверхсветового агента – тахиона, квантино. Сверхсветовая информация отвергает инвариантность скорости света и позволяет показать в реальном физическом эксперименте, что часы во всех ИСО идут синхронно, отвергая тем самым второй постулат СТО. Следовательно, следует ожидать и других экспериментов, которые прямо покажут не инвариантность скорости света. В статье рассматривается один из возможных экспериментов, опровергающих второй постулат.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[90] **viXra:1312.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-17 08:34:33*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. rus (русский)

Is approved by the identity of matter and ether, and the difference between them and substance. «Big Bang», the speed of light and quantum nonlocality is a manifestation of the properties of matter (the aether).

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Утверждается тождество материи и эфира и различие между ними и веществом. Большой Взрыв, скорость света и квантовая нелокальность – проявление свойств материи (эфира).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[89] **viXra:1312.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-16 16:55:53*

**Authors:** Douglas L. Weller

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Schwarzschild metric is rearranged to manifest inherent limitations based on the conservation of energy. These limitations indicate that a collapsing surface will not compact below a critical radius to form a black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[88] **viXra:1312.0116 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-19 02:40:51*

**Authors:** Charith Perera, Prem Prakash Jayaraman, Srimal Jayawardena, Chi Harold Liu, Peter Christen

**Comments:** 41 Pages. Book Chapter abstract for public reference. In Book the Cyber-Physical Systems: Architectures, Protocols and Applications, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, USA, 2014

A cyber-physical system (CPS) is a system of collaborating computational elements con- trolling physical entities. CPS represents the next stage on the road to the creation of smart cities through the creation of an Internet of Things, data and services. Mobility is one of the major characteristic of both CPS and IoT. In this Chapter, we discuss mobile sensing platforms and their applications towards dierent but interrelated paradigms such as IoT, sensing as a service, and smart cities. We highlight and brie y discuss dierent types of mobile sensing platforms and functionalities they oer. Mobile sensing platforms are more oftenly integrated with smart phones and tablet devices. The resource constrained nature of the mobile devices requires dierent types of designs and architectural implementations. We proposed a software-based mobile sensing platform called Mobile Sensor Data Engine (MOSDEN). It is a plug-in-based scalable and extendible IoT middleware for mobile devices that provide an easy way to collect sensor data from both internal and external sensors. MOSDEN act as intermediary device that collects data from external sensors and upload to the cloud in real-time or on demand. We evaluate MOSDEN in both stand-alone and collaborative environments. The proof of concept is developed on Android platform.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[87] **viXra:1312.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-16 07:16:45*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 14 Pages. rus (русский)

Special relativity is based, in particular, on the postulate about the invariance of the speed of light, which defies logical description and is contrary to common sense. Common sense and logic are not even allowed to simply describe the mechanics of that Foundation of the theory, the chief cornerstone of the theory - of the second postulate. Implementation of the second postulate of special relativity does not have even a schematic description: how did all this happen.

Путенихин П.В. Специальная теория относительности основана, в частности, на постулате об инвариантности скорости света, который не поддаётся логическому описанию и противоречит здравому смыслу. Здравый смысл и логика не позволяют даже просто описать механику этого основания теории, главного, краеугольного камня теории - второго постулата. Реализация второго постулата специальной теории относительности не имеет даже схематического описания: как же всё это происходит.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[86] **viXra:1312.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-16 07:33:26*

**Authors:** Demjanov V.V.

**Comments:** 11 Pages. 11 Engl, 12 Russ.

The hypothesis "of Field materiality" of infinite space continuum contradicts everything accumulated experience in the 20th century of the finite discretely-of quantum manifestations of matter. In this paper, we will see a completely different non-Field model of materiality is not only particles, but also of Space-Time (S-T). In this paper three first the essences of material reality are connected following by chains of cause-and-effect relationships. 1)The
apriori-hidden discrete-quantized substance of the aether – the root cause of all reality, and the next two, a posteriori:
2)substance-manifestations discrete particles from the aether (the first consequence:1 of real manifestations by the quantum aether) and 3)quantum-excited by a particles electromagnetic waves (EMW) in aether with particles
(second consequence:2 manifestations aether). It was only in the distant consequences:n>2 "activities" of these three types of substances manifestations as S-T in the unknown to us forms, as well as the apparent diversity of the known real macrosystems reality. I will show that this chain of cosmological evolution explains all the known phenomenology of the world, without involving of excess of entities type "field-forms" of matter and without dualisms
"particle-wave" of the particles, "wave-particle" y EMW and without other tales.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[85] **viXra:1312.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-16 04:34:30*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. rus (русский)

Dark energy is an imaginary, illusory, not existing substance, are emulated by the process of expansion of the Universe. Space is expanding and it looks like on the galaxy operates some pushing force (energy). Running away galaxies do not change their coordinates and distance change due to the fact that between them there is a new additional space. The change in distance and manifests, looks like movement, recession of galaxies in space. This movement of galaxies accelerated, therefore it is applied some power. However, actually the galaxy's no real physical «pushing» forces did not act, therefore, accelerated motion is credited with dark energy. In turn, the energy cannot exist by itself, it can only be an attribute of any material substance. This substance represents some pretty exotic body, has antigravitational properties and, apparently, has the same name «dark energy». Substance, apparently, is distributed across the Universe and inspires mutual repulsion of galaxies without the occurrence of the forces acting on them.

Путенихин П.В. Тёмная энергия – это мнимая, иллюзорная, не существующая субстанция, имитируемая процессом расширения пространства Вселенной. Пространство расширяется и это выглядит так, будто на галактики действует какая-то расталкивающая сила (энергия). Разбегающиеся галактики не изменяют своих координат, а изменение расстояния вызвано тем, что между ними появляется новое, дополнительное пространство. Изменение расстояния и проявляется, выглядит как движение, разбегание галактик в пространстве. Это движение галактик ускоренное, следовательно, к ним приложена некая сила. Однако, на самом деле на галактики никакие реальные физические «расталкивающие» силы не действуют, поэтому ускоренное движение приписывают темной энергии. В свою очередь энергия не может существовать сама по себе, она может быть только атрибутом какой-либо материальной субстанции. Эта субстанция представляет собой некое довольно экзотическое тело, обладает антигравитационными свойствами и, видимо, имеет одноименное название «темная энергия». Субстанция, судя по всему, распределена по Вселенной и вызывает взаимное отталкивание галактик без возникновения при этом сил, действующих на них.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[84] **viXra:1312.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-16 05:33:08*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 23 Pages. rus (русский)

Bell's inequality is used as the main argument in the dispute between the local realism Einstein and quantum non-locality. If we carefully analyze an argument, you can recognize: Einstein rights - quantum mechanics is incomplete, and «modern physics has turned, in fact, a continuation of mathematics, completely lost all hope of understanding the nature of the studied phenomena».

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Неравенства Белла используются в качестве основного аргумента в споре между локальным реализмом Эйнштейна и квантовой нелокальностью. Если тщательно проанализировать доводы, то можно признать: Эйнштейн прав – квантовая механика неполна, а «современная физика, превратилась, по сути дела, в продолжение математики, совершенно утратив все надежды на понимание природы изучаемых явлений».

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[83] **viXra:1312.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-15 17:21:55*

**Authors:** Hoa Van Nguyen

**Comments:** 13 Pages. 18 figures

This is a theory on the spin and radiation of the extended electron which moves in a time-varying electric field . The induced magnetic field gives rise to spinning forces fs and pulsating forces fm on the electron due to the perpendicular and parallel components of its velocity in the electric field .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[82] **viXra:1312.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-15 23:04:51*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Two fields of space are needed to characterize the inertial and gravitational interactions: 1) the temporal-inertial (TI) field that is subject to gravity and is involved in the inertial reaction of matter particles and 2) the static field that is not subject to gravity, but is coupled with the TI field and counteracts the acceleration of particles of the TI field in their response to gravity. When a matter particle or an object composed of matter particles is accelerated by an external force, its motion is resisted by its acceleration relative to the TI field. This reaction force of space is the familiar inertial force. The inertial mass of an object is a measure of the object’s resistance to acceleration. We can say that the inertial mass couples the acceleration of the object to its reaction force. The feedback model of the inertial interaction exposes the existence of not one but two coupling factors that affect this interaction. In the inertial interaction, an object responds to the net force on the object, a net force that is the difference between the applied force and the reaction force. The net force is very much smaller than either the applied force or the reaction force. The second coupling factor, that I’ll call the K factor, couples this net force to the acceleration of the object. Gravity works in an analogous manner. The flux of gravitons on particles of the TI field provides a force that accelerates these particles relative to the static field and the gravitational body. Coupling between the TI and static fields resists this acceleration. The acceleration of particles of the TI field in response to gravity is thus the acceleration of gravity. Matter particles within the TI field are accelerated at the same rate as those of the TI field toward the gravitational body. Thus the gravitational force is transmitted through the intermediary of the TI field to massive particles and objects comprising massive particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[81] **viXra:1312.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-15 23:52:32*

**Authors:** A.Paramashivam

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

With technology growing everyday, more observations and discoveries are being done about the star formation and galaxy evolution. At the same rate, contradictions are equally growing in the other side. Questions that arrive out of modern observation still remains unsolved and the fundamental problems of star formation still remains a mystery. For instance, young star formation near SMBH (Supermassive Black Holes), where it was thought star formation is never possible, existence of massive galaxies soon after Big Bang, problems in low and high mass star formation and as such. This paper proposes an alternative theory of Star formation which tries to answer some fundamental questions and explains modern observations.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[80] **viXra:1312.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-16 03:48:13*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 10 Pages. rus (русский)

The geometry of Euclid is the original, primary geometry of smooth недеформированного space. Only there is indeed a direct and really plane. The geometry of Euclid is possible to deform and get the geometry of Lobachevsky and the Riemann - the geometry on the twisted, deformed Euclidean planes. The third postulate is a necessary and sufficient condition for the justice of the fifth postulate. If there is a third postulate, only then the fifth postulate has the force strictly in the formulation of Euclid, is its consequence.

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Геометрия Евклида – это исходная, первичная геометрия гладкого недеформированного пространства. Только в ней существует действительно прямая и действительно плоскость. Геометрию Евклида можно деформировать и получить геометрии Лобачевского и Римана – геометрии на искривлённых, деформированных евклидовых плоскостях. Третий постулат является необходимым и достаточным условием справедливости пятого постулата. Если существует третий постулат, то и пятый имеет силу строго в формулировке Евклида, то есть является его следствием.

**Category:** Geometry

[79] **viXra:1312.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-15 08:41:46*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 5 pages

The main objective this paper is to develop asymptotic formulas for the exponential of prime number, using Dedekind eta function.

**Category:** Number Theory

[78] **viXra:1312.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-15 09:14:24*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 7 pages

I evaluate the constant 1/π using the Babylonian identity and complete elliptic integral of first kind. This resulted in two representations in terms of the Euler’s gamma functions and summations.

**Category:** Number Theory

[77] **viXra:1312.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-14 09:34:31*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. PACS 03.67.-a, 03.30.+p, 12.38.Qk, 12.90.+b, 14.70.Bh, 14.80.-j;

ГРНТИ 29.05.15, 29.05.19, 29.05.49, 90.27.37, 59.41.71;

УДК 53.072.11, 530.145.1, 535.14, 52.08;

rus (русский);

It is proposed a physical experiment to determine the speed of propagation of quantum information of the collapse of the wave function of entangled photons. To transfer the information need the carrier. Because the speed of the carrier faster than light, this role can perform the tachyon. The superluminal carrier of quantum information is not Lorentz invariant, it is incompatible with the mathematics of the theory of relativity. In connection with this I propose option experiment to determine the rate of transfer of information on the state of entangled particles in the fixed installation within a fixed reference system. In this case, the question of invariance does not rise at all, and no need to use mathematics of the special theory of relativity.

Путенихин П.В. Предложен физический эксперимент по определению скорости распространения квантовой информации при коллапсе волновой функции запутанных фотонов. Для переноса информации необходим носитель. Поскольку скорость носителя выше скорости света, в этой роли может выступить тахион.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[76] **viXra:1312.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-14 10:11:30*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. rus (русский)

Statements about «peaceful coexistence» quantum theory and special relativity are unfounded. The views of these two theories on the rate of transmission of interactions are implacable and mutually exclusive. One of these two theories (or both) requires revision.

Утверждения о «мирном сосуществовании» квантовой теории и специальной теории относительности необоснованны. Взгляды этих двух теорий на скорость передачи взаимодействия являются непримиримыми и взаимоисключающими. Одна из этих двух теорий (или обе) требует пересмотра.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[75] **viXra:1312.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-14 11:34:15*

**Authors:** Henry Gu Cao, Zhiliang Cao

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Please read http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijp/1/6/5/index.html for additional details

A recently published paper entitled "Unified Field Theory and the Hierarchical Universe" claims that the Big Bang did not create the universe and that the universe has a hierarchical structure. Also, The Black Holes are not "black". This paper gives two pages explanation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[74] **viXra:1312.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-14 11:50:17*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 diagram, 3 references

The nebular hypothesis has been falsified again by the discovery of a brown dwarf star that orbits too far from its host. The conceptual, not mathematical, model called stellar metamorphosis can explain this.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[73] **viXra:1312.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-05 00:29:40*

**Authors:** Masahito Morimoto

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Published by Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience. vol.14, pp.4121–4132 (2017)

We show single photon and electron interferences can be calculated without quantum-superposition states by using tensor form (covariant quantization). From the analysis results, the scalar potential which correspond to an indefinite metric vector forms an oscillatory field and causes the interferences. The results clarify the concept of quantum-superposition states is not required for the description of the interference, which leads to an improved understanding of the uncertainty principle and resolution of paradox of reduction of the wave packet, elimination of infinite zero-point energy and derivation of spontaneous symmetry breaking. The results conclude Quantum theory is a kind of deterministic physics without ''probabilistic interpretation''.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[72] **viXra:1312.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-13 10:56:05*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. rus (русский)

Matter is the basis of Existence. It is eternal and infinite. Matter has spawned a substance, fields, the plasma, particles, consciousness in the process of веществолизации. Real Genesis sooner or later cease to exist, becoming the original Matter. Consciousness is a property of matter, therefore, with the disappearance of the substances it can go from substance in Matter. Consequently, consciousness is eternal.

Путенихин Петр Васильевич. Материя – основа Бытия. Она вечна и бесконечна. Материя породила вещество, поля, плазму, частицы, сознание в процессе веществолизации. Вещественное Бытие рано или поздно прекратит своё существование, превратившись в исходную материю. Сознание - свойство материи, поэтому при исчезновении вещества оно может перейти из вещественной формы в материальную. Следовательно, сознание вечно.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[71] **viXra:1312.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-13 11:03:49*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This conjecture supports the existence of a field of particles in space that I’ll call the temporal-inertial (TI) field. This field provides a frame of reference for motion such that the acceleration of an object with respect to the field causes the familiar inertial reaction force. The inertial mass of a massive particle or object comprising massive particles is a measure of the object’s resistance to acceleration relative to the TI field. We can say that the inertial mass couples the acceleration of the object to its reactive force. Particles of the TI field permeate space including the space within atoms. A massive particle or object moving through the TI field at constant velocity experiences a constant flux of particles of the TI field and is unrestrained in its motion. If the object is accelerated, the object experiences a change in the flux. The inertial reaction force is proportional to the rate of change of flux. The rate of change in flux for a given acceleration is, relativistic effects notwithstanding, independent of the velocity of the particle. The basic coupling of a matter particle with the TI field is fixed and does not change with the velocity of the particle relative to the TI field. This coupling is the particle’s rest mass. As the velocity of a massive particle increases, its resistance to
acceleration increases in proportion to the Lorentz factor γ. This apparent increase in mass reflects an increase in the interaction of the particle with the TI field. The relativistic effect causing the increase in resistance to acceleration is length contraction of the TI field and it produces an increase in the density of particles of the TI field encountered by the massive particle. A given acceleration of an object thus produces a change in particle flux of the TI field proportional to the product of the acceleration and the Lorentz factor γ. Relativistic mass is the measure of this total resistance to acceleration at relativistic velocity. Both mass and relativistic mass are emergent properties of matter arising from the interaction between matter particles or objects comprising matter particles and particles of the TI field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[70] **viXra:1312.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-16 11:55:57*

**Authors:** Aleksandar Mutavdzic

**Comments:** 4 Pages. version 2 with some text editing and changes in wording

We propose some basic principles for a new kind of dynamics. We start with modification of the most elementary notion in physics by assuming that the absolutely arbitrary Motion is a paradigm of uninfluenced physical state instead of the rest state. Such Motion can turn into a usual motion only by the influence of a multitude of various Constraints. Interactions among Motions through various Motion Contacts and Motion Connections establish the foundation of the emerging Space-Time and matter particles. Constraints are utterly responsible for appearance of deterministic physical effects.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[69] **viXra:1312.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-13 09:06:53*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 4 pages. The third paper based on Reality. The derivation of the constant for cold bodies given in this paper has been modified. Please refer: http://vixra.org/abs/1505.0042

I propose that bodies have hot and cold states, the temperature of the cold bodies being below 0K. Temperature- wavelength relation for a cold state is suggested as λ = b^2T (where b is the Wien’s constant), and the wavelength for absolute zero is derived. It is proposed that black holes have cold energy, their interiors resembling hot stars. Black holes and stars represent symmetrically opposite potential states created by ‘a pulsating
universe’ that oscillates between hot and cold states.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[68] **viXra:1312.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-28 04:30:05*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons, we described the down to up antiquark asymmetry of the nucleonic sea which depends on the momentum fraction i.e. the fraction of a proton’s momentum that the sea antiquarks carry. The obtained theoretical results are consistent with the E866/NuSea-Experiment data. We should modify the internal structure of nucleons and the strong interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[67] **viXra:1312.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-13 00:03:42*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 10 pages, 33 equations, 4 references

We give an elementary analysis of the classical motion of a particle in the spherically symmetric gravitational field of a Schwarzschild source, with due regard to energy conservation. We observe that whereas a massive particle at large distances could be attracted towards the central source, it would however encounter repulsion as it comes close to the Schwarzschild surface. We also note that there is a limited energy range for which the radial motion is ruled by attraction. An attracted incoming particle reaches a maximum speed at a specific distance greater than the Schwarzschild radius, before decelerating to zero, then bouncing back. Like the radial motion, the orbital motion around a Schwarzschild source would stop at the Schwarzschild radius. A massless photon would always be repelled, with its speed decreasing as it approaches the source, ultimately getting reflected at the Schwarzschild surface. The timing
problem associated with surface singularity is resolved by regarding particles as Schwarzschild sources themselves. We depict a picture of ideal Schwarzschild sources as mutually repulsive bubbles endowed with reflecting surfaces.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[66] **viXra:1312.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-12 17:32:10*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Spinors and their doubling up to Cl(16) 64+64-dim half-spinors can be seen as an alternate (but substantially equivalent) way to look at E8 Physics which is outlined in vixra 1312.0036 as being based on a Cl(k) -> Cl(Cl(k)) Clifford process. For details about E8 Physics see 377-page viXra 1310.0182 and 11,445-page viXra 1311.0094.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[65] **viXra:1312.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-12 07:52:06*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 13 Pages. rus (русский)

The basis of the SR Einstein put two principles. However, to get the Lorentz transformations and all relativistic effects, needed only one principle (postulate) - invariance of the speed of light. This principle is the cause of the Lorentz transformations, the only necessary and sufficient condition for their output, and for the proclamation of the principle of relativity and the equality of all inertial reference systems. Receipt of the Lorentz transformation from the principle of relativity is possible, but mandatory accounting principle of the constancy of the speed of light.

Путенихин П.В. В основу СТО Эйнштейн положил два принципа. Однако, для того чтобы получить преобразования Лоренца и все релятивистские следствия из них, достаточно только одного принципа (постулата) - инвариантности скорости света. Этот принцип является первопричиной преобразований Лоренца, единственным, необходимым и достаточным условием для их вывода, а также для провозглашения принципа относительности и равноправия всех инерциальных систем отсчета. Получение преобразований Лоренца из принципа относительности возможно, но при обязательном учёте принципа постоянства скорости света.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[64] **viXra:1312.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-12 08:29:17*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 30 Pages. rus (русский)

Many researchers of those wishing to refute special relativity (SR), do not seek to explore it. Mathematics SR is fundamentally irrefutable. The last possibility to refute SR - it is to try to show the inconsistency of the mathematical theory of special relativity in real physical world. And in these attempts should be based on the results of experiments in the style Marinov.

Путенихин П.В. Многие из желающих опровергнуть СТО не стремятся изучить её. Математика СТО принципиально неопровержима. Последняя возможность - это попытаться показать несоответствие математической теории СТО реальному физическому миру. И в этих попытках необходимо опираться на результаты опытов в стиле Маринова.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[63] **viXra:1312.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-21 07:17:42*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 4 pages - [v2] general revision - [v3] added discussion to s. 2.2 & reformatted

The fact that the length of an object, relative to its rest frame, is independent of the object’s spatial orientation always holds and cannot be violated or demonstrated to be otherwise by any experimental or analytical means. Therefore, this fact becomes a principle that, by definition, can be brought to the level of a physics law. However, according to the Special Relativity (SR) this law is not applicable in an inertial reference frame in relative motion with respect to the object, thus violating the principle of relativity, the SR first postulate that states: “The laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference”. This violation leads to many contradictions between the SR and its first postulate. Indeed, simple thought experiments in different areas of physics are examined showing how the SR predictions result in outcomes inconsistent with the principle of relativity. Relatively moving apparatuses physical measurements such as pressure vessel discharge time, optical lens focal length, and electrical resistance are shown―according to SR―to vary with the respective apparatus orientation in the space relative to the stationary reference frame. This is merely a violation of the relativity principle, since these measurements, in line with the applicable physics laws they’re subjected to, are independent of the apparatuses orientation with respect to the reference frames they travel with (i.e. with respect to their rest frames).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[62] **viXra:1312.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-12 04:52:06*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A 16-page-manuscript presenting new insight into the nature of fundamental-particles, wave-particle-duality, quantum-mechanical-waves and gravity.

Based on the statements of Robert B. Laughlin, Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, Paul Anderson
Dirac, and the logical reasoning presented in the previous article, titled “On the nature of Consciousness, Space and the Ultimate-Reality” (Journal of Consciousness Explorations and Research, Nov. 2013, Vol.4, Issue 9), 'space' is not an 'empty', 'void extension of nothingness'; rather, there exists an ultimately real entity (UR), which is all-pervading in space and everpresent in time. This Ultimate-Reality can be visualized as 'Mutually-Balanced-Field'. It is discussed here that "matter‟ is just a "process‟ or a "phenomenon‟
of "fluctuations‟ spontaneously generated in the ultimate reality. Then it is logically derived that only spherical patterns of fluctuations are sustained for longer durations, so there are integer number of spherical fluctuation-patterns, which we perceive as the "fundamental particles‟ of "matter‟. Then
a mathematical-derivation is presented which supports the logic, that a 'particle' of 'matter' is 'a localized spherical standing-wave'. This attempt leads to: (i) a new insight into the "waveparticle-duality‟ of all 'fundamental-particles'; (ii) to a new understanding that the currently
considered 'quantum-mechanical-waves' are 'envelop-variations' or 'modulations' of the actual more-fundamental-waves, considered here. This understanding, of true nature of "particles‟, leads us to 'wave-theoretical-understanding' of 'gravity'; and an explanation for the observed
'relative-strengths' of 'gravitational' and 'electric' forces.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[61] **viXra:1312.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-21 12:07:50*

**Authors:** Silas Sacheli Santos

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

To explain the energy levels of the atoms, we use a new equation of quantization. This equation is a modified potencial Coulomb energy multiplied by the period which has the SI unit of angular moment (J.s). The calculations are in agreement for the atoms of H, He, Li, Be and C. The maximum error is 3.6% but only using the Coulomb force. It is necessary to continue the research for the others forces too.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[60] **viXra:1312.0082 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-05 13:39:28*

**Authors:** Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Roselló

**Comments:** 14 Pages. v2 is the Spanish version and last version is in English

In this paper it is shown a proof of the so-called “Fermat’s Last Theorem” by means of application of three general principles: the converse of Pythagoras’ Theorem, Dimensional Analysis and the connection algebra-geometry. These simple concepts were within the reach of Fermat himself, what allows us to infer that he could have used them for the “marvelous proof” that he claimed to have.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[59] **viXra:1312.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-11 13:09:34*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Formulas 7, Table 1

Abstract. The Dirac large numbers hypothesis LNH [2] is related to the ratios which constitute very large, dimensionless numbers: some 40 orders of magnitude. According to Dirac's hypothesis, the apparent equivalence of these ratios might not be a mere coincidence but instead could imply a cosmology with these unusual features. Mainstream physics consider those large numbers as mere coincidences more suited to numerology than physics. I will present the relations of macro and micro phenomena of the universe as immanent relations of the whole and parts. There are too many coincidences for them all to be coincidences.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[58] **viXra:1312.0080 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-12 07:15:31*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 graph, 1 picture

According to stellar metamorphosis the youngest exoplanets can be viewed with human eyes, as a star by definition is a new planet.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[57] **viXra:1312.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-11 11:41:55*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

If a low density electromagnetic wave hits an electron, it does not only perform the well-known transverse movement, but also a longitudinal movement with double frequency. This leads to an energy loss of the original electromagnetic wave without change of direction which was previously unknown and is no elastic or inelastic collision. The "lost" energy is radiated in two different frequency ranges and the relative energy loss increases with decreasing frequency of the primary wave. An experimental confirmation of this phenomenon could influence the debate about “tired light”. The derivation is based solely on classical electrodynamics and therefore contains no ad hoc hypothesis. The only adjustable parameters are the duration and the envelope of the wave packet.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[56] **viXra:1312.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-11 06:59:27*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 122 Pages.

It is shown, that distribution of a thermodynamic method of research on other fundamental disciplines «building a bridge» between classical and quantum mechanics; classical and nonequilibrium thermodynamics, heat- and mass transfer theories, hydrodynamics and electrodynamics, allowed to argue the fundamental principles of these disciplines, to prove their main laws and to deduce their basic equations as mathematical and logic consequences of energodinamics, not resorting thus to any hypotheses, postulates or modelling representations about the molecular mechanism of investigated processes.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[55] **viXra:1312.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-11 08:09:05*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 9 Pages. 9

Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) Theory states, that new paradigm Black holes are the
same as dark matter, they don't emit gravitons (as Fermions do) but suffer under the "Casimir
push" (pushing Gravity) of the energetic oscillating Higgs Aether field, equipped with a chiral
(spiraling) lattice shape.
That this new physics Black hole has a real nucleus of Higgs particles called “Quantum Knot”
and are equipped with a Fermion repelling horizon.
The new Micro black hole can reach all scales and is assumed to be the origin of Ball
Lightning and Micro-Comet phenomena and at the same time the origin of Comets, Sunspots,
Herbig Haro Objects evolving into Stellar- or Galaxy Anchor Black Holes in space.
As a consequence, Sunspots are assumed to be “new physics” black holes, equipped with the
accompanying gravity effects and Higgs field deformation around the sun.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[54] **viXra:1312.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-23 13:54:55*

**Authors:** Igor Nikolaev

**Comments:** 181 Pages. Chapters 4 and 6 are posted

The text consists of an introduction, table of contents and Chapters 1, 4, 5 and 6 of a 300 pages book

**Category:** Geometry

[53] **viXra:1312.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-26 18:42:52*

**Authors:** Michael Pogorsky

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The theorem is proved by means of general algebra. It is based on deduced polynomials a=uwv+v^n; b=uwv+w^n; c=uwv+v^n+w^n and their modifications required to satisfy equation a^n+b^n=c^n. The equation also requires existence of positive integers u_p and c_p such that a+b is divisible by (u_p)^n and c is product of (u_p)(c_p). Based on these conclusions two versions of proof are developed. One of them reveals that after long division of two divisible by c polynomials obtained remainder is coprime with it. In another version transformation of a^n+b^n into expression that allows to apply the Eisenstein’s criterion reveals a contradiction.

**Category:** Number Theory

[52] **viXra:1312.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-10 13:01:41*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this work, it is shown a method to build a type of kinetic projectile, which can reach relativistic velocities (≲300,000 km/h), with specific kinetic energy of ~10 Megatons/kg. This type of projectile can be very useful in a defense system that launches kinetic projectiles from Earth orbit to asteroids, meteoroids or comets in collision route with Earth.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[51] **viXra:1312.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-10 14:57:20*

**Authors:** Nyagudi Musandu Nyagudi

**Comments:** 20 pages

In today's world, almost any armed conflict involving national military forces or non-state actors,results in allegations of war crimes and calls for investigations and prosecutions. As continuedpenetration of the Internet in the society leads to ever more thorough scrutiny of military operations,the world's military forces are in a continuous struggle for situational awareness via their own networkcentric Battlefield Management Systems(BMS). But in many publications on the subject matter, little attention is paid as pertains to improving the humanitarian conditions in the Battle-space. The focus for the moment seems to be geared towards the attainment of tactical military objectives, by conducting
military operations against, seemingly virtual adversaries. Pragmatically speaking 'claiming that a war can be conducted without atrocities, is akin to claiming that a market can be free from fraud'.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[50] **viXra:1312.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-10 10:31:31*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

As opposed to the classical logic of true and false, viewed as an axiomatised theory, ordinary arithmetic conveys the three logical values: provable, negatable and logically independent. This research proposes the hypothesis that Axioms of Arithmetic are the fundamental foundation running arithmetical processes in Nature, upon which physical processes rest. And goes on to show, in detail, that under these axioms, quantum mathematics derives and initiates logical independence, agreeing with indeterminacy in quantum experiments. Supporting arguments begin by explaining logical independence in arithmetic, in particular, independence of the square root of minus one. The method traces all sources of information entering arithmetic, needed to write mathematics of the free particle. Wave packets, prior to measurement, are found to be the only part of theory logically independent of axioms; the rest of theory is logically dependent. Ingress of logical independence is via uncaused, unprevented self-reference, sustaining the wave packet, but implying unitarity. Quantum mathematics based on axiomatised arithmetic is established as foundation for the 3-valued logic of Hans Reichenbach, which reconciles quantum theory with experimental anomalies such as the Einstein, Podolsky & Rosen paradox.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[49] **viXra:1312.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-10 11:49:55*

**Authors:** Nyagudi Musandu Nyagudi

**Comments:** 10 pages

The Informatics of Selecting Military Commanders

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[48] **viXra:1312.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-10 04:39:09*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 12 pages, 72 equations, 5 references

We give detailed computations and results of the application of our divergence-free framework for quantum field theory to a scalar field model with quartic coupling. Computations up to two loops are illustrated, and expressions for the renormalized mass and coupling parameters are obtained. It is shown how it is possible to obtain a divergence-free effective action. Moreover, the ambiguous logarithmic mass contributions of conventional renormalization theory are fixed perturbatively in favour of a well-defined vacuum that is consistent with flat-space perturbative quantization.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[47] **viXra:1312.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-09 12:33:46*

**Authors:** P.R. Silva

**Comments:** 05 pages, no figures

In this paper we propose that the inertial masses of the proton and of the electron can be associated to volumes of the unit cells of hyper-cubic lattices constructed in the momentum space. The sizes of the edges of these cells are given by the Planck’s momentum in the case of the electron, and by a modified Planck’s momentum in the case of the proton. We introduce a “conservation of information principle” in order to obtain the wave function which leads to this modified momentum. This modification is attributed to the curvature of the space-time, and in doing this, the concept of the entropy of a black hole has been considered. The obtained proton-electron mass ratio reproduces various results of the literature, and compares well with the experimental findings.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[46] **viXra:1312.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-09 13:36:01*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Through an analysis rigorously logical of physical quantities, in this case the length and time, I tried to show by making use of the positional representation of natural numbers in base b, that you can get the formulas of time dilation and length contraction of Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity, and we can prove that the speed of light is an insuperable limit.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1312.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-14 17:39:45*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In the hyperverse model, particles of matter are collapsed and coalesced quanta of space, created by a condensation process to conserve angular momentum and centripetal force. We have proposed that the component quanta have spin, and hypothesize here that upon particle formation, the collapsed and coalesced component quanta are fixed in orientation so that either their north or south poles face the particle center. Six coalesced vortices produce structures that can account for all charge variations, including fractional charges and anti-particles. Fractional charges are net charges, where charge is a consequence of the spin orientations. The model suggests that protons carry a hidden negative one charge, speculated to be what stops the electron from falling into the proton. We hypothesize that "condensation neutrinos" exist, neutrinos made by the natural condensation route of particle creation, and these lack the high kinetic energy of "emission neutrinos", created as a result of atomic decay and collision. Condensation neutrinos would be the most numerous particle, but difficult to detect, and may be the dark matter particle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1312.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-09 06:02:56*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 12 pages, 55 equations, 24 references

We present the basic effective action framework for divergence-free quantum field theory. We describe the loopwise perturbative development of the effective action for a generic field theory, and indicate the manner by which this development is defined in order to evade the conventional divergences of the associated Feynman integrals.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[43] **viXra:1312.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-09 17:21:12*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 282 Pages.

Acest volum antologic probează un mai vechi gând al meu de a reuni într-o carte poeţi şi scriitori, născuţi sau transferaţi în aria noastră geografică, pe Olt şi Olteţ; spaţiul însemnând,
poate, un nucleu de inspiraţie.
Scriitori eleganţi, cu radicale convingeri, abordează în operele lor atotcuprinderea, atracţia vagului prinsă în zbateri de lumină, tumultul vieţii, toate constituindu-se în semen distinctive ale unui memento.
Se urmăreşte evolutiv parcursul scriitorilor, care-şi agaţă ispitele sufleteşti de vaierul vorbelor purtate pe aripi de timp. Dubla determinare, trecut şi viitor, dăruieşte oamenilor şi locurilor în care au trait înţelepciunea şi diversitatea preocupărilor.
Simţul neobosit al detaliului, sublimele gânduri, dinamismul nepotolit al veacului, necum al scriitorilor, împodobesc atmosfera de idei, desprinsă din creaţiile celor prezentaţi în volum, în ordine strict alfabetică. (FS)
Scriitori antologaţi: Valeriu Anania, Bogdan Amaru, Nicolae Bălaşa, Ştefan Dumitrescu, Dumitru Gherghina, Virgil Ierunca, Gib Mihăescu, Alexandru Oprea, Petrache Poenaru, Ioan Şt. Popa, Irineu Popa, Marin Popescu – Diculescu, Elena Adriana Răducan, Dinu Săraru, Florentin Smarandache, Beatrice Silvia Sorescu, George Sorescu, Ion Sorescu, Marin Sorescu, George Ţărnea, şi Al. Florin Ţene.
Alte scriitori din Bălceşti, Bulzeşti, Rusăneşti, Tetoiu, Valea Mare,
şi personalităţi din judeţul Vâlcea sunt de asemenea incluse cu scurte prezentări.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[42] **viXra:1312.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-08 07:37:18*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 3 pages

We use the contradiction method for prove, again, that the Catalan’s constant is irrational.

**Category:** Number Theory

[41] **viXra:1312.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-08 04:44:20*

**Authors:** Gananath R, Sreenath R

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The quality of being liked or accepted by peoples is called as popularity. Popularity is calculated by different methods according to the area of application. To calculate the popularity of websites in internet; methods like ‘Click Popularity’ and ‘Link Popularity’ were used. Developmental Psychologist uses sociometric tests to calculate popularity among peer groups. In this paper we have formulated a simple algorithm through which popularity of a candidate can be calculated and also we carried out monte carlo simulation studies of the algorithm. Popularity of either living or nonliving (eg: a commercial product) candidates can be measured using this algorithm.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[40] **viXra:1312.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-19 15:35:30*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

We show a group of equations that appear to represent target values for the mass, radius, and number of elementary particles in the universe: the values of an 'ideal particle'. Quanta and particles are not static; they change with time. The angular momentum of the universe is continually increasing, and this requires a dynamical response to conserve angular momentum. The creation, collapse, and coalescence of quanta conserves angular momentum, resulting in the creation of particles of matter. Matter is condensed space. The increase in the gravitational potential energy of particles matches the accretion rate of energy predicted by this model. This gives a simple, universe-wide mechanism for the creation of matter, and is the reason all elementary particles, of a kind, are identical. The centripetal force of a particle of matter matches the gravitational force; they are the same entity. Gravity is the ongoing accretion of the quanta of space by particles of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1312.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-14 18:54:17*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 10 Pages. An isolated section of Part 2 of the Origins of Matter and Gravity paper.

Part two of the Origins of Matter and Gravity paper.
We show a group of equations that appear to represent target values for the mass, radius, and number of elementary particles in the universe: the values of an 'ideal particle'. Quanta and particles are not static; they change with time. The angular momentum of the universe is continually increasing, and this requires a dynamical response to conserve angular momentum. The creation, collapse, and coalescence of quanta conserves angular momentum, resulting in the creation of particles of matter. Matter is condensed space. The increase in the gravitational potential energy of particles matches the accretion rate of energy predicted by this model. This gives a simple, universe-wide mechanism for the creation of matter, and is the reason all elementary particles, of a kind, are identical. The centripetal force of a particle of matter matches the gravitational force; they are the same entity. Gravity is the ongoing accretion of the quanta of space by particles of matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[38] **viXra:1312.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-14 21:11:18*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

We explore indications that the universe is undergoing a geometric mean expansion. Developing this concept requires the creation of two quantum levels, one being the quantum of our quantum mechanics, and another that is much smaller. The generation of quanta is what allows space to expand. We find that quanta are not static entities, but change with time; for example, the energy of quanta decreases, and the number of quanta increases, with time. The observable universe grows while the quantum levels shrink, giving a simple mechanism to explain the expansion of the universe. The universe does not come from nothing; it comes from itself.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1312.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-19 15:30:02*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

We present a model relating the expansion of space to time. We previously modeled the universe a hyperverse, expanding into the fourth dimension at twice the speed of light. We claim here that the 2c radial expansion gives us the one-way arrow of time. We further hypothesize that the surface of the hyperverse consists of a matrix of vortices, self-similar to the observable hyperverse, and that these vortices, which have the same energy, tangential velocity, and frequency, are the building blocks of both space and matter. Their 2c radial expansion allows a quantization of time. We show that there is an energy connected to time, derived from the centripetal velocity of the vortices. Relative motion decreases centripetal velocity, and consequently, perceived frequency. The time dilation function of special relativity is derived from the ratio of the centripetal velocities of the observer and the observed. Time is created by hyperverse radial expansion and the energy and spin characteristics of the quanta of space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1312.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-14 21:40:11*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We postulate the universe to be the three dimensional surface volume of an expanding, hollow, four dimensional hypersphere, called the hyperverse. Using current measurements, we find that a hyperverse, whose surface volume matches the volume of the observable universe, has a radius of 27.7 billion light years, giving a radial expansion rate of twice the speed of light, and a circumferential expansion rate that matches the Hubble constant. We show that the Hubble constant is a measure of the increase in the energy of the universe, implying the hyperverse surface, our universe, is composed of energy. The 2c radial expansion both sets the speed limit in the universe, and is the basis of time. The hypersphere model provides a positively curved, and closed universe, and its 2c radial expansion rate, and circumferential expansion rate matching the Hubble expansion, give strong support that the universe is the 3D surface volume of an expanding 4D hypersphere.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1312.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-12 11:54:30*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The stochastic nature of quantum physics can best be comprehended by shifting to another space-progression model. This other model is called a paginated space-progression model and uses a universe wide time clock that ticks synchronously at the location of all observable items/events. As a consequence this model proceeds with universe wide progression steps from each static status quo to the next one. A straight forward consequence is that the whole universe is recreated at every progression step. This recreation is used to explain the stochastic structure of elementary particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[34] **viXra:1312.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-06 15:20:30*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 2 pages

The main goal this paper is to develop an asymptotic formula for the prime number, using elliptic integral function.

**Category:** Number Theory

[33] **viXra:1312.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-25 11:46:50*

**Authors:** Anton A. Lipovka

**Comments:** 20 Pages. published

In the present work we suggest a non-local generalization of quantum theory which include quantum theory as a particular case. On the basis of the idea, that Planck constant is an adiabatic invariant of the free/coupled electromagnetic field, we calculate the value of Plank constant from first principles, namely from the geometry of our Universe. The basic nature of the quantum theory is discussed. The nature of the dark energy is revealed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[32] **viXra:1312.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-06 10:53:27*

**Authors:** Peter Eklind

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

All modern physics is based on one assumption. An assumption that no one has any evidence, other than gut feeling, that it is true. The assumption is that space-time is fundamental. Space is required in order for matter to exist. But, what if it is the other way around – what if matter is the origin of space-time? This paper argues that using the assumption, that matter is fundamental to space as a starting point, would open up for solution of a lot of the unanswered questions in physics today.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[31] **viXra:1312.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-06 07:22:25*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In 2007, John P. Lestone of Los Alamos National Laboratory, U.S.A., suggested a possible approach to calculating the value of the fine structure constant based upon a heuristic string theory. The electron, the muon, and the tau might each consist of a 2-sphere having precisely three vibrating superstrings.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[30] **viXra:1312.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-06 07:59:24*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

I propose an idealized electron interference experiment with a light-port/dark-port configuration and consider the possible outcomes for the average energy of electric potential that is present in a statistically relevant set of single electron measurements. The changes in energy of electric potential of the electron during its evolution will cause a shift in the kinetic energy or momentum of the electron, and this calculated shift may be interpreted differently for the case of interference and non-interference. I also propose an idealized single electron spatial interference effect and the associated changes in states of electric potential.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[29] **viXra:1312.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-08 19:44:16*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

This is a 24-point Outline of E8 Physics. For details see 377-page viXra 1310.0182. For more details and supplemental material see 11,445-page viXra 1311.0094. Material about spinors and history is added after the main body of the outline.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[28] **viXra:1312.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-05 17:54:48*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Comment on Phys. Rev. D. 87 no. 8, 085025 (2013), preprint at http://arxiv.org/abs/1206.6936

Approaches to confinement which employ “monopole condensation” and “Abelian dominance” conjectures to explain chromodynamic color confinement are on the right track, but simply do not go far enough. These are complementary, not competing conjectures. They reach their logical conclusion when married together in the view that baryons are one and the same as the magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory and that confinement results from the Abelian aspects of these Yang-Mills monopoles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[27] **viXra:1312.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-06 02:32:13*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

There are many interesting, yet not studied enough, properties of Poulet numbers. In particular, the study of the 2-Poulet numbers appears to be most seductive because in their structure are found together three of the most important concepts in number theory: those of primes, semiprimes and pseudoprimes. In this paper we make few conjectures about primes or pairs of primes, including twin primes, that could be associated to the pairs of primes represented by the two prime factors of a 2-Poulet number.

**Category:** Number Theory

[26] **viXra:1312.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-05 13:39:29*

**Authors:** Essam E Maroun

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The conditions of the early universe are not known with any measure of certainty — they are only theories. Therefore, using the assumption that the estimated total energy of the observable universe is conserved, we propose a different lower limit for the gravitational energy; we attempt to unify the subatomic and the large scale universe into one coherent whole; thus, showing that the cosmos behaves like a quantum object. It uses a form of Bohr’s quantization to strengthen the unification of quantum gravity. Our model is simple, yet comprehensive.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[25] **viXra:1312.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-05 09:44:22*

**Authors:** Tigran MAYTESIAN

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Actes Musées de la Ville de Liège, 2014

L’article décrit les relations musicales entre la Reine Élisabeth de Belgique et le violoniste et compositeur Eugène Ysaÿe, surnommé le Paganini belge, et le violoniste russe David Oïstrakh, gagnant de la première édition du concours international Eugene Ysaÿe crée par la Reine.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[24] **viXra:1312.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-05 11:03:27*

**Authors:** Iván Guzmán de Rojas

**Comments:** 5 Pages. English version

In a previous publication [5] it was shown the need and usefulness of the independent scalar variable t, as an absolute time though keeping the coordinate x4=ict, where t is the relative time, in order to handle accelerated movement in Mankowski space M4. Here I show how to formalize the concept of time-arrow using the independent scalar t and thus prove that Einstein's peculiar consequence of relativity due to time dilation[2] in end effect implies no contradiction, in this manner the so called symmetrical twin's paradox[3] definitively vanishes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1312.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-05 00:04:31*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In a previous article I defined the Smarandache-Coman divisors of order k of a composite integer n with m prime factors and I sketched some possible applications of this concept in the study of Fermat pseudoprimes. In this paper I make few conjectures about few possible infinite sequences of Poulet numbers, characterized by a certain set of Smarandache-Coman divisors.

**Category:** Number Theory

[22] **viXra:1312.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-26 06:10:45*

**Authors:** Christina Munns

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

INTRODUCTION
This article is written with the intention of explaining the quantum physics of the process of potentisation of a homeopathic medicine. It is proposed as a theory at present, since it has not yet been scientifically proven to be correct by undergoing experimentation in a quantum scale research laboratory. This paper represents a revised version of this theory, since new information has come to light regarding the true nature of the quantum mechanics of the succussion process.
I propose that the key to understanding how homeopathic medicines operate is through the understanding of quantum mechanics. When the understanding of quantum mechanics is applied to the process of homeopathic potentisation (i..e succussion and dilution), it is apparent how a homeopathic medicine is able to become increasingly more powerful (and thus potentially more curative) the more it is succussed and diluted. Of particular importance are the dynamics of electrons within the quantum state, since it is these free-standing fundamental particles that configure themselves in increasingly larger and larger numbers with each increasing orbital number, with each subsequent succussion process. With each increase in orbital size there is a concomitant increase in the energy of the atom, which represents an increase in the level of the homeopathic potency.
Dr Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), the German medical doctor who founded homeopathy, discovered that in order for a homeopathic medicine to effect a cure it needed to be increasingly potentised or made increasingly powerful. This increase in potency takes place not only through the process of serial dilution but also through the process of serial succussion. I have come to understand that it is the dynamics of succussion and dilution at the quantum scale that are the keys that open the door to the mystery of exactly how a homeopathic medicine works within an organism. This theory of the quantum physics of the potentisation process will now be explained in detail.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[21] **viXra:1312.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-03 09:16:30*

**Authors:** Marco Fioroni

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Transition Metals (TM) are proposed to play a role in astrophysical environments in both gas and solid state astrochemistry by co-determining the homogeneous/heterogeneous catalysis represented by the gas/gas and gas/dust grain interactions. Their chemistry is function of temperature, radiation field and chemical composition and, as a consequence, dependent from the astrophysical object in which the TM are localized, i.e interstellar medium (ISM), molecular clouds, hot cores and corinos. Five main categories of TM compounds classified as: a) pure bulk and clusters; b) TM naked ions; c) TM oxides/minerals or inorganic; d) TM-L (L = ligand) with L = sigma and/or pi-donor/acceptor species like H/H2, N/N2, CO, H2O and e) TM-organoligands such as Cp, PAH, R1=°=°=R2 are proposed. Such variety of TM compounds opens the door to an enormous potential contribution to a fine astrochemical synthesis. Particular attention and interest has been applied to the chemistry of simple TM compounds with general formula: [TMm-Xy]+n with +n=total charge and X = non-TM element. Constraining the TM and the X elements on the basis of their reciprocal reactivity and cosmic abundances, the chemistry of TM = Fe coupled with N, O, S open the pathway to the correlated organic chemistry. In particular the chemistry of the iron molecular oxide [FeO]+1 and nitride [FeN]+1 will be analyzed, due to their ability to perform C-C and C-H bond activations, opening the pathway to the oxydation/hydroxylation and nitrogenation/amination of organic substrates contributing, for example, to explain the detected presence of NH, NH2 and CH3OH in diffuse gas, where actual gas-phase and grain surface chemical models cannot adequately explain the data. Summarizing the TM fine chemistry is expected to contribute to the known synthesis of organic compounds leading towards a new path in the astrochemistry field whose qualitative (type of compounds) and quantitative contribution must be unraveled.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[20] **viXra:1312.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-03 05:01:11*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. English and russian texts

Could it be possible that our Universe is one of numerous “black holes” in the material world?

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[19] **viXra:1312.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-04 01:07:40*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Main difference is in the addition of appendix VIII, from Wesson, and also expansion and generalization of the conclusion

Repeating cyclical multiverse construction as opposed to repeating cyclical single universe construction with considerations as to the problem of do perfect initial singularities exist, as differentiated between the two cases stated above.
The conclusion also raises questions as to the appropriateness of the braneworld picture in the multiverse setting, with appendix VIII as a counter part geometry which may be relevant to multiverse cosmology

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] **viXra:1312.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-03 00:25:37*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We will define in this paper the Smarandache-Coman divisors of order k of a composite integer n with m prime factors, a notion that seems to have promising applications, at a first glance at least in the study of absolute and relative Fermat pseudoprimes, Carmichael numbers and Poulet numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[17] **viXra:1312.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-02 13:19:11*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The Riemann R-function can be used to estimate the number of primes in an interval, where its accuracy is affected by the interval to which it is applied. Here, the successive intervals defined by the Fibonacci sequence will be shown to cause more cycles of R-function over- and under-estimation of primes than any of a large landscape of related sequences (calculations were continued up to one billion). The size of this landscape suggests that a special relationship exists between the Fibonacci sequence and the distribution of primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[16] **viXra:1312.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-02 14:28:29*

**Authors:** Hoa Van Nguyen

**Comments:** 20 Pages. 18 figures

This is a theory on Spin and Radiation of the extended electron in the time-varying magnetic field . It proves that when the electron is subject to a time-varying magnetic field , it spins and radiates by forces which are produced on the electron . This mechanism of spin and radiation can explain the process of radiation of Synchrotron Radiation (SR) and Free Electron Laser (FEL).
It also proves that electrons can radiate when travelling parallel to a magnetic field that is time-varying or constant . The radiation of the electron is therefore related to its spin , but not to its acceleration .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[15] **viXra:1312.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-02 14:33:14*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In works [1-3] author offered and considered possible super strong nuclear matter. In given work he continues to study the problem of a stability and production this matter. He shows the special artificial forms of nuclear AB-matter which make its stability and give the fantastic properties. For example, by the offered AB-needle you can pierce any body without any damage, support motionless satellite, reach the other planet, and research Earth’s interior. These forms of nuclear matter are not in nature now, and nanotubes are also not in nature. The AB-matter is also not natural now, but researching and investigating their possibility, properties, stability and production are necessary for creating them.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[14] **viXra:1312.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-02 10:18:32*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The experimental value of the fine structure constant inverse from physics (approximately 137.036) is shown to also have an interesting role in pure mathematics. Specifically, 137.036 is shown to occur in the minimal solution to one of several slightly asymmetric equations (that is, equations whose left- and right-hand sides are very similar).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[13] **viXra:1312.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-02 11:06:57*

**Authors:** Thomas Scott Zolotor

**Comments:** 12 Pages. English

Rev. and captain Thomas Scott Zolotor's discoveries and hypotheses that have been proven true.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[12] **viXra:1312.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-01 15:38:34*

**Authors:** Grzegorz Marek Michalski

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The basic financial purpose of a firm is to maximize its value. An inventory management
system should also contribute to realization of this basic aim. Many current
asset management models currently found in financial management literature were
constructed with the assumption of book profit maximization as basic aim. However
these models could lack what relates to another aim, i.e., maximization of enterprise
value. This article presents a modified value-based inventory management model.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[11] **viXra:1312.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-01 17:23:36*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

ALL of the methods to determine Avogadro’s Number (N) should give the same value! x-ray crystallography has commanded the quest since the 1930's. This brief paper provides a plot of many values of N from various methods over the last century. N's reciprocal change to Planck's Constant is noted. A 'power of two' expression for Avogadro's Number provides a simple compromise between the old and currently suggested values.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10] **viXra:1312.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-01 17:42:12*

**Authors:** Robert Tetlow

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Summarized results of a formula which links the four fundamental coupling constants to basic mathematical constants.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1312.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-01 18:06:17*

**Authors:** DaeHyeon KANG

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Agualar momentum j in the Dirac equation and j in the schronger equation are
eqaul or different ? they are equal. but, j=0 in the dirac equation is forbidden, j=0 in the schronger equation is allowed. from this fact, it seems Dirac equation is not appropriate to study atomic phenomenon. maybe, only in a central field of force.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1312.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-06 19:17:53*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We propose a modification of Einstein-Cartan gravity equations and study the related
applications to cosmology, in an attempt to account for cosmological mass discrepancies
without resorting to dark matter. The deviation from standard model of
cosmology is noticeable when the Hubble parameter becomes comparable to or less
than a characteristic scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1312.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-01 18:40:56*

**Authors:** Thomas Scott Zolotor

**Comments:** 1 Page. English

We all know that windshield wipers are in the front windshield but what if they were in the back and sides of the windshields on a car. Think about it. One can wipe the back glass whiling backing up during a rain storm.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[6] **viXra:1312.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-01 19:21:43*

**Authors:** Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We analyze the anatomy of critical line. As the result, we disprove the Riemann hypothesis.

**Category:** Number Theory

[5] **viXra:1312.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-01 20:47:05*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 4 Pages. first draft

Time shifts beyond the correlation time of the logic and reference signals create new elements that are orthogonal to the original components. This fact can be utilized to increase the number of dimensions of the logic space while keeping the number of reference noises fixed. Using just a single noise and time shifts can realize exponentially large hyperspaces with large numbers of dimensions. Other, independent applications of time shifts include holographic noise-based logic systems and changing commutative operations into non-commuting ones. For the sake of simplicity, these ideas are illustrated by deterministic time shifts, even though random timing and random time shifts would yield the most robust systems.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[4] **viXra:1312.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-02 02:08:44*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Considering r being equal to the positive rational number 1/(d1 – 1) + 1/(d2 – 1) +...+ 1/(dn – 1), where d1,..., dn are the prime factors of a Poulet number, the Egyptian fraction expansion applied to r leads to interesting results.

**Category:** Number Theory

[3] **viXra:1312.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-02 02:56:50*

**Authors:** Yong Tao

**Comments:** 33 Pages. 4 figures; 5 appendixes

The origin of quantum behaviour (or equivalently, wave-particle duality) is an important problem for physics; moreover, Euclidean geometry and Riemannian geometry may be invalid if the small scales of real universe exhibit fractal structure. With this purpose, we attempt to develop a mathematical framework -call it the "non-local geometry"- and meanwhile propose a set of non-local calculus theory for analytically describing fractal (Euclidean geometry and Riemannian geometry are two special cases of fractal whenever the dimension equals an integer). Our study shows that the "Heisenberg Uncertainly Principle" and "non-local entanglement" would naturally emerge in the theoretical framework of non-local geometry. More interestingly, using the non-local geometry we show that if the dimension of time axis is slightly less than 1, then we can directly derive Planck's formula of energy quantum. This means that non-zero Planck's constant itself requires that the dimension of space-time is slightly less than 4; thus, our theory presents a natural explanation for the dimensional regularization of quantum field theory. Our further study shows that all computing results obtained by quantum field theory can be reproduced in the theoretical framework of non-local geometry. To discriminate our theory from current quantum field theory, we suggest a method of measuring the dimension of time axis.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1312.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-01 03:57:21*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The second paper based on Reality

In this paper, I propose that any independent physical system is closed and isolated, and that the system as well as its subsystems has entropy. An increase in entropy of the system causes a decrease in entropy of its subsystems. So ‘normal entropy’ is the preferred state of a static system. A dynamic system, however, oscillates between high and low entropy states. The proposed concept limits ‘the role of second law of thermodynamics’, and predicts ‘a pulsating model’ for the universe, and ‘a reversible low-entropy state’ for black holes.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[1] **viXra:1312.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-01 04:50:58*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The main objective this paper is to develop asymptotic formulas for the exponential of prime number, using Dedekind eta function, and afterwards an elliptic modular function.

**Category:** Number Theory