Astrophysics

1807 Submissions

[41] viXra:1807.0529 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 09:58:32

A Method for Calculating Orbital Velocities in Expanding or Contracting Space-Time

Authors: John S. Huenefeld
Comments: 8 Pages. Up to now, an unsolved problem in physics.

We are told that as expansion of the universe continues to accelerate, stars will eventually be ripped from galaxies, then planets will be ripped from their stars. Eventually the planets themselves will be torn apart by the force of expanding space-time and then even molecules and atoms. When asked at what specific expansion rates these things will happen, no one has an answer. Galaxy models used to estimate the amount of dark matter required to explain observed rotation rates do not account for universal expansion in the calculations, as if expansion is not happening within galaxies at all. The consensus is that expansion is very small, and is easily overcome by local forces. This may be true on Earth, or in our solar system, but galaxies are very large, and orbits in galaxies take place in a realm of very small accelerations acting over very large distances. Within a galaxy the size of the Milky Way, outward drift due to expansion may exceed inward fall due to gravity, on a per second basis, by up to thirteen orders of magnitude. It is difficult to imagine how gravity overcomes these relatively large expansion rates and calls into question the correctness of ignoring universal expansion in galaxy models. If ignoring expansion is correct, then does it mean that universal expansion does not actually happen within galaxies? And if not, why not? Why do we see red shift in the light from distant galaxies, clearly a sign of an expanding universe, and yet see no evidence of expansion going on locally in the solar system or within our galaxy? If a method for calculating the orbital velocities of gravitationally bound objects including the effect of expansion (or contraction) of space-time could be developed, these questions will have definitive answers. That is the object of this paper.
Category: Astrophysics

[40] viXra:1807.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 19:17:57

The Locations of M, L, T and Y Brown Dwarfs on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

According to establishment brown dwarfs are strange and not connected to the regular path of stellar evolution or planet formation. Unfortunately this is false, and has been false since brown dwarfs have been discovered, and will continue to be false well into the future after the failed star false knowledge is scrubbed from the science textbooks. Brown dwarfs straddle the line between strongly radiant stars and stars that no longer shine brightly, the line between very massive stars and small ones, and the line between young and old stars. They are not failed stars at all as is accepted by the establishment, but intermediate aged ones. This means M, L, T and Y type brown dwarfs can be easily placed on the Wolynski-Taylor diagram with reference to the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[39] viXra:1807.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 19:12:21

Model of Universe as Described by Dynamic Universe Model

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 36 Pages. This is a new model of Universe, where all the processes of Universe oare explained without USING bibang based physics

In this paper we will see the model of Universe according to Dynamic Universe Model of Cosmology by visualizing various processes that are happening in the Universe as per experimental evidences. For simplifying the matter here we will see in part1: about the Galaxy life cycle, where the birth and death of Galaxies discussed. Probably Universe gives guidance for the movement of Galaxies. We call this Part 1: Thinking and Reproducing Universe or Mindless Universe? (Galaxy life cycle). We see every day Sun, Stars, Galaxies etc., dissipating enormous energy in the form of radiation by the way of fusion of Hydrogen to helium. So after sometime all the Hydrogen is spent and Universe will die, is it not? … Dynamic Universe Model says that the energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation passing grazingly near any gravitating mass changes its in frequency and finally will convert into neutrinos (mass). Hence Dynamic Universe Model proposes another process where energy will be converted back into matter and the cycle energy to mass to energy continues, sustaining the Universe to maintain this present status for ever in this form something like a Steady state model without any expansion. This we will see in Part2: Energy – Mass - Energy Cycle. After converting energy into mass “how various elements are formed and where they are formed?” will be next logical question. Dynamic Universe Model says that these various particles change into higher massive particles or may get bombarded into stars or planets and various elements are formed. Here we bifurcate the formation of elements into 6 processes. They are for Elementary particles and elements generated in frequency changing process, By Cosmic rays, By Small stars, By Large Stars, By Super Novae and Man made elements By Neutron Stars. This we will discuss in Part3: Nucleosynthesis.
Category: Astrophysics

[38] viXra:1807.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 04:06:03

Making Sense of C-nu-B Anisotropies, Predictions from Antimatter Black Hole Physics

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 2 Pages.

some final predictions from antimatter black-hole physics that relate to the CMB and C-nu-B, cosmic neutrino background
Category: Astrophysics

[37] viXra:1807.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 03:30:47

The Moon Orbit Geometrical Structure (revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 39 Pages.

The first question in this research was why we see the sun disc = the moon disc? i.e. why (the Sun diameter/ the moon diameter) = (Earth orbital distance/ Earth Moon distance)? The answer was "That's only Pure Coincidence" (No.1) Then I found another question… The Earth-Moon Orbit circumference at apogee radius (r=406000 km) = 2.58 mkm = Earth daily motion… why? "That's also Pure Coincidence" (No.2) Then I found the moon orbit geometrical relationships which are: 1.Earth Moon Distance at Perigee point =363000 km = Solar Outer Planets Diameters Total (error 1%) 2.Earth Moon Distance at Apogee point =406000 km = Solar Planets Diameters Total 3.The Distance between Perigee and Apogee = 40000km = Inner Solar Planets Diameters Total = Earth Circumference. 4.Saturn Circumference = Earth Moon Distance at total solar eclipse radius (377000km) 5.Note Please/ Solar Planets Diameters Total= 2 Jupiter diameters + 1 Saturn diameter (i.e. Jupiter diameter = 8 solar planets diameters total) Why the previous relationships are found? "Surely these are Pure Coincidence" (No.3) Let's think more deeply, The moon has to move daily a distance = Earth daily motion, otherwise The Earth and Moon will be separated from each other.. that means -The moon should move daily =2.58 mkm, -We know Earth moves daily = 2.58 mkm -Also the moon orbit circumference at apogee radius (406000km) = 2.58 mkm Is There any relationship between the three value 2.58 mkm… ? The answer is "No, this is Pure Coincidence" (No.4) Then Metonic Cycle question is produced Why the moon orbit regresses yearly 19 degrees? Why the moon rotates Metonic Cycle which Earth doesn't? let's think more deeply Metonic Cycle period = 6939.75 days = 19 x 365.25 days (19 sidereal years) = 235 x 29.53 days (235 Synodic Months) = 20 x 346.6 days (20 nodal years) The previous data tells us that, the Earth motion is in harmony with Moon and Moon orbit motions, that's why the three motions finish their cycles in the same time. Why? (by the way how The moon orbit regresses alone with the moon? does it occur with any other planet? "Just Pure Coincidence" (No.5) Also I found some interesting relationship Earth Circumference = inner planets diameters total i.e. diameters of (Mercury + Venus + The moon + Earth + Mars) = Earth Circumference but 2 Neptune Circumference = Jupiter diameter + Saturn diameter + Uranus diameter (error 1%) Also I found Earth Mass = Mercury Mass + Venus Mass+ Moon Mass + Mars Mass (error 1%) Neptune Mass= inner Planets masses total + Uranus mass + Pluto Mass (3.3%) Is there any geometrical reason behind all these relationships? "Simply these are only Pure coincidences" (No.6)
Category: Astrophysics

[36] viXra:1807.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 03:59:19

Gravitational Wave Disappear Clouds

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Yuter and colleagues suggested that if gravity waves are the true cause of the cloud dissipation, they are most likely to be triggered by the interaction between offshore winds flowing perpendicular to the African coastline with the more stable marine boundary layer in the atmosphere. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[35] viXra:1807.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 09:17:12

X-ray Around Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

In an international collaboration between Japan and Sweden, scientists clarified how gravity affects the shape of matter near the black hole in binary system Cygnus X-1. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
Category: Astrophysics

[34] viXra:1807.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-25 07:42:39

Inconsistences in the Big Bang Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Now researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have helped to better understand the first minutes of the universe: They collected artificially produced beryllium-7 and made it into a sample that could be investigated. [27] Researchers have developed a new way to improve our knowledge of the Big Bang by measuring radiation from its afterglow, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[33] viXra:1807.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-25 08:33:21

Preference for Dual Herbig Haro Black Hole Consumption by the Central MW Black Hole, Leaving Plasma Jets Behind.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 25 Pages.

Recent observations by the new MeerKat telescope system show unprecedented details of Herbig Haro jet alike objects around the central black hole of our Milky Way. According to the Quantum FFF Model, Herbig Haro jets are connected between the central baby star and both Stellar Anchor Black Holes ( SABHs) , which are responsible for the spacetime polarization forming a kind of vacuum/ ether pressure cooker, for fast star formation in between the two SABHs. It is well known, that all black holes are the same as electric charged dark matter, able to attract each other up to a certain distance and forming a plasma bar in between, which evaluate later into dual plasma jets, keeping the two black holes at a certain mass related distance. However only black holes of the same gravitational potential ( nuclear quantum knot size) are able to perform such a process, leading to so called Herbig Haro systems. If different sized black holes approach each other, it is assumed that the smallest black hole is able to split the larger one into two equal sized quantum knots, which will form a stable Herbig Haro system with star or even failed star formation in between. Also well known is, that the smallest black holes in galaxies seem to have a preference for group around the central galaxy position, which mostly is equipped with a central black hole. The central black hole is supposed to be the gate to the end of the galaxy and even the universe itself into a big crunch black hole as a start for a new cyclic multiverse.. As a consequence, the central black hole seem to feed mostly on the smaller dual Herbig Haro black holes, which is probably the origin of the numerous remaining former plasma jets which are found in the MeerKat ( precursor releases) observations.
Category: Astrophysics

[32] viXra:1807.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 13:46:11

The Moon Orbit Geometrical Structure

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

The first question in this research was why we see the sun disc = the moon disc? i.e. why (the Sun diameter/ the moon diameter) = (earth orbital distance/ Earth Moon distance)? The answer was "That's only Pure Coincidence" (No.1) Then I found another question… The Earth-Moon Orbit circumference at apogee radius (406000km) = 2.58 mkm = Earth daily motion… why? "That's also Pure Coincidence" (No.2) Then I found the moon orbit geometrical relationships which are: 6.Earth Moon Distance at Perigee point =363000 km = Solar Outer Planets Diameters Total (error 1%) 7.Earth Moon Distance at Apogee point =406000 km = Solar Planets Diameters Total 8.The Distance between Perigee and Apogee = 40000km = Inner Solar Planets Diameters Total = Earth Circumference. 9.Saturn Circumference = Earth Moon Distance at total solar eclipse radius (377000km) Why the previous relationships are found? "Surely these are Pure Coincidence" (No.3) Let's then with more depth, the moon has to move daily a distance = Earth daily motion, otherwise they will be separated from each other.. that means the moon should move daily =2.58 mkm, but we know that the moon orbit circumference at apogee radius (406000km) also 2.58mkm ..why? "We all know this is Pure Coincidence" (No.4) Then Metonic Cycle question is produced Why the moon orbit regresses daily 19 degrees? Why the moon rotates Metonic Cycle which Earth doesn't? let's think with some deep vision Metonic Cycle period = 6939.75 days 6939.75 days = 19 x 365.25 days (19 sidereal years) = 235 x 29.53 days (Synodic Month) = 20 x 346.6 days (nodal year) The previous data tells us that, the Earth motion is in harmony with Moon and Moon orbit motions, that's why the three motions finish their cycles in the same time \ Why? "Just Pure Coincidence" (No.5) I found we need to find some logical and physical explanation behind all these data, I can't accept any of these as Pure coincidences…
Category: Astrophysics

[31] viXra:1807.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 13:58:21

84 Minutes Are Required for Mercury Day

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 29 Pages.

Mercury Day needs 84 = 5040 seconds minutes to be 176 days This Data analysis supports my claim that "The Matter and Distance are created together by the Same Energy" i.e. The Matter is Energy The Distance is Energy The Space (distance) is a complementary to the Matter, Means the matter can't be created without Space Imagine a classroom The classroom is NOT a space will be filled with desks.. It's mistaken Each desk is brought inside the classroom, brought with it a part of the classroom floor Now, the classroom floor is created with the desks and NOT without.. That's the concept I want to suggest The matter and distance are complementary to each other … no one of both can found alone This idea can easily be concluded from Matter Theory of Creation Where the Theory supposes that the Matter is bright fringes and the distance is dark fringes We can see that the matter is created as a rate to its complementary distance.. This meaning we concluded easily from the Equation Planet orbital distance = Planet diameter * 1092 Note Please: 84 minutes = 5040 seconds but (71)2 = 5041
Category: Astrophysics

[30] viXra:1807.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 22:36:03

Star System Polymorphism

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

All star systems are polymorphic/polymorphous. This means they contain stars in various stages to their own metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[29] viXra:1807.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 04:27:14

Black Holes and Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Leiden physicists have now found a surprising connection with auxiliary black holes. [32] For a long time, physicists have tried to understand the relationship between a periodic pattern of conduction electrons called a charge density wave (CDW), and another quantum order, superconductivity, or zero electrical resistance, in the same material. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Astrophysics

[28] viXra:1807.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 12:16:10

Eternal Sun

Authors: Moninder Singh Modgil
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper seeks to explain three solar puzzles - namely - (1) Solar Neutrino Problem, (2) Coronal Temperature Problem, and (3) Ion and electron teperature discrepancy. It considers a hypertoroidal cosmological model, in which space time have the toplogy $S^3 \times S^1$ - which have also been explored by Segal and Guillemin. The retarded fluxes, emanating from the sun, interact with the advanced fluxe returning to their origin - provide solution.
Category: Astrophysics

[27] viXra:1807.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 10:10:29

Naturally Occurring Haber Process During Stellar Metamorphosis, or How to Find Water Worlds in Exoplanet Data

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 2 diagrams

Ammonia is found in late stage stars such as Neptune and Uranus. It is also present in intermediate aged stars such as Jupiter and Saturn. Given the sheer amount of hydrogen and nitrogen available to chemically combine into ammonia, it is clear that production of ammonia is a natural process in stellar evolution/metamorphosis, and we can mimic this with the Haber Process. A naturally occurring Haber process runs counter to the establishment's false worldview that stars can not cool down enough to form huge amounts of organic and non-organic molecules. We know it happens because we have direct and indirect observational evidence of it happening.
Category: Astrophysics

[26] viXra:1807.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 06:22:23

Pluto was "The Mercury Moon"

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Pluto was "The Mercury Moon" I claim the following: 1-Pluto was – The Mercury Moon- 2-Pluto had to immigrate from his original point to his new point at orbital distance =5870 mkm because of Mars immigration 3-Mars original orbital distance = 84 mkm and he immigrated from this point to his current point at orbital distance = 227.9 mkm 4-Mercury day was 176 days and decreased by 84 minutes = 5040 seconds because of Mars Immigration 5-The solar planets, found before Mars Immigration were: Pluto – Mercury- Mars – Earth- Jupiter – Uranus – Neptune (the order is incorrect) 6-The solar planets, created after Mars Immigration were: Venus – Saturn – The Earth Moon – the Sun "Pluto was The Mercury Moon" is a claim aims to supports the relationship between planet diameter and his orbital distance which supports the concept that "the Matter and distance are created together from the same Energy"
Category: Astrophysics

[25] viXra:1807.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 08:04:47

Cosmic Ray Electron Spectrum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

An international team of researchers extended their results from a previous study to directly measure the cosmic-ray all-electron (electron + positron) spectrum in an energy range from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET). [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15]
Category: Astrophysics

[24] viXra:1807.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 09:19:07

Gravitational Lensing Study

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Dark matter halos are theoretical bodies inside which galaxies are suspended; the halo's mass dominates the total mass. [26] An international team of researchers extended their results from a previous study to directly measure the cosmic-ray all-electron (electron + positron) spectrum in an energy range from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET). [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16]
Category: Astrophysics

[23] viXra:1807.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-18 06:11:38

Super-Cool Kit for Dark Matter Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

A huge U.K.-built titanium chamber designed to keep its contents at a cool-100C and weighing as much as an SUV has been shipped to the United States, where it will soon become part of a next-generation dark matter detector to hunt for the long-theorised elusive dark matter particle called a WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particle). [32] An international team of scientists that includes University of California, Riverside, physicist Hai-Bo Yu has imposed conditions on how dark matter may interact with ordinary matter—constraints that can help identify the elusive dark matter particle and detect it on Earth. [31] A Multiverse—where our Universe is only one of many—might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26]
Category: Astrophysics

[22] viXra:1807.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 13:57:41

Saturn Data Proves Mars Immigration

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 4 Pages.

Abstract Saturn Data proves that, Saturn is created after Mars Immigration Saturn Data Analysis provides us the following conclusions: -The Planets were found before Mars Immigration: Mercury – Pluto – Mars – Earth – Jupiter- Uranus – Neptune (7 planets) -The Planets were found after Mars Immigration: Venus – Saturn – The Earth Moon - (and the sun) Please Note: I claimed Mars immigrated from his original point in 84 mkm to his new point in 227.9 mkm Please review "Mars Immigration Proves (Revised)" http://vixra.org/abs/1807.0268
Category: Astrophysics

[21] viXra:1807.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 16:41:14

Neo-Heraclides Model, Part 2

Authors: John Roach
Comments: Pages.

Neo-Heraclides Model, Part 2 Dedicated to the memory of Dr. Russell Arndts. "The Truth Will Win Out"
Category: Astrophysics

[20] viXra:1807.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 17:36:01

The Cosmic Thread

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 2 Pages.

Think of a tennis net - if you pulled on opposite diagonal corners of the net: the threads would fold-up into a thick section. That is what is happening with a cosmic thread.
If a section of space compresses and flattens in 2 directions it will become a thread or string-like object approximately the thickness of a proton.
Category: Astrophysics

[19] viXra:1807.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 03:49:01

Antimatter Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14]
Category: Astrophysics

[18] viXra:1807.0277 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-24 01:15:10

The Corrections of Pressure And Mass Limit of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 9 Pages.

Traditional explanation for the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas to produce the pressure against gravity. This theory predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf star is 1.44 Mʘ although the Fermi electron gas is calculated at the temperature T of absolute zero. In this research, first considering the electron-electron interaction in the high-density Fermi electron gas at T=0 K, this interaction causes the pressure 2/137 time less than the original value. However, the pressure of the Fermi electron gas should have something to do with temperature at 10^7 K. Then we estimate the temperature effect using statistical mechanics and find the total pressure depends on temperature weakly at the given particle number N and volume V. According to this, the relationship between radius and mass of the white dwarf star is obtained and it mainly depends on temperature, electron mass, and proton mass. An unknown parameter δ=34.75 is calculated by using an example of a white dwarf star with the mass of our sun and the radius of Earth. This relationship is useful for estimating the inner temperature of a white dwarf star. The lowest limit of M/R^3 depends on neutron mass, electron mass, and temperature.
Category: Astrophysics

[17] viXra:1807.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 13:13:38

Mars Immigration Proves (Revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 16 Pages.

The solar planets order tells us clearly that there's a relationship between the planet diameter and his orbital distance… this conclusion we get easily from the following planets order: Mercury – Venus – Earth.. The previous planets order tells us a clear rule "Planet Greater Diameter has A Greater Orbital Distance" Something was happened with Mars After Mars this rule is reversed as we see in the following planets: Jupiter – Saturn - Uranus – Neptune – Pluto The rule became "Planet Greater Diameter has A Shorter Orbital Distance" (Please Note/ Uranus greater in diameter and less in Mass from Neptune that tells us the planets order depends on their diameters and NOT on their Masses) What happened with Mars? Mars immigration from his original point in 84 mkm to his new point in 227.9 mkm Let's return Mars to his original point at orbital distance = 84 mkm What the solar planets order will be: Mercury – Mars - Venus – Earth.. This follows completely the rule "Planet Greater Diameter has A Greater Orbital Distance" Based on this description there are 2 planets at least immigrated from their original points: 1-Mars immigrated from his original point in 84 mkm to his new point in 227.9 mkm 2-Pluto who belonged before to the solar inner planets (my hypothesis) and had to move to the End of the solar group because the rule became reversed… \ This paper tries to prove these facts To do that we have to prove the following: 1-Mars moved from his original point (Mars is exceptional Planet) 2-Pluto belonged before to the solar inner planets.. This paper contains 2 points 3- Mars Original orbital distance was 84 mkm 4- An Alternative Solar Group Description
Category: Astrophysics

[16] viXra:1807.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-14 14:03:42

Mars Immigration Proves

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

I claim that Mars immigrated from his original Point at orbital distance =84 mkm to dwell in his point at orbital distance 227.9 mkm.. And this immigration causes the following results: 1- A disturbance for the planet diameter and orbital distance relationship (which is proven clearly from the solar planets order) 2- Pluto Immigration, because Pluto had to move to the Solar group End where he before belonged to the inner planets. This study tries to prove these facts Also I provide in this Study my suggested description for the solar group.
Category: Astrophysics

[15] viXra:1807.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 10:39:56

Dark Matter Interact with Ordinary Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

An international team of scientists that includes University of California, Riverside, physicist Hai-Bo Yu has imposed conditions on how dark matter may interact with ordinary matter—constraints that can help identify the elusive dark matter particle and detect it on Earth. [31] A Multiverse—where our Universe is only one of many—might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[14] viXra:1807.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 14:26:31

Solar Planet Motion

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 7 Pages.

Theory of Matter Creation supposes that, the matter is bright fringes and the distance is dark fringes.. i.e. The planet is bright fringes and his orbital distance is dark fringes both of them are created from the same light coherence that explains the planet diameter and his orbital distance relationship… Please review Solar Group Geometrical Structure http://vixra.org/abs/1805.0081 This study tries to answer the question "How does the planet move?" let's summarize the answer in following: -The planet is created and connected with a light beam.. -So this light beam moves firstly -Then the Planet moves following this light beam with different rate of time (the planet original motion) -This motion (action) has a reaction (another motion) which =99% of the original one i.e. -The planet motion contains 3 motions together (the light beam motion- the planet original motion and the planet reacted motion which =99% of the original one) (hypothesis) -Do these 3 motions of the solar planet interpret the planet 3 cycles (Planet rotation cycle – Planet day – Planet orbital period)? This paper discusses this idea trying to prove it…
Category: Astrophysics

[13] viXra:1807.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 20:37:00

Stages of Iron Absorption and Deposition in a Star

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Stars deposit iron in three basic levels. First they form the core in a very pure form alloyed with nickel. Secondly once that inner core is formed, material then deposits that is chemically combined with the iron forming molecules. Third, anymore deposited iron lands on the surface as meteorites. This shows how different the star was throughout its metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[12] viXra:1807.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 13:30:35

Mercury Velocity

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Solar Data Analysis tells us that…… Mercury has 2 velocities 1st Velocity = 47.4 km/sec which is registered in NASA Planetary Fact Sheet 2nd Velocity= 47.8 km/sec which is necessary velocity to cover Mercury Orbital Circumference 57.9 mkm x 2π= 364 mkm in Mercury Orbital Period 88 days The difference between both velocities = 1% Why are there 2 velocities for the same Planet? And how that can be possible? This question is similar to the old question concerning Newton 3rd Law "why for Each Action there's reaction equal in value and opposite in direction? In brief… why the forces are created in double?
Category: Astrophysics

[11] viXra:1807.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 23:29:39

Anti-Neutron Stars Within the Milky Way

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

a very brief article about them
Category: Astrophysics

[10] viXra:1807.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 14:18:52

Solar Planet Diameter Creation Rule

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 34 Pages.

Abstract D =R *1092 Where D= Planet Orbital Distance R= Planet Diameter This equation can be concluded easily from Mercury Data Where Mercury Orbital distance 57.9 million km = Mercury Diameter 4879 km * 1092 The previous Equation works perfectly with Mercury, Earth and Saturn only But doesn’t work with the rest planets data… Why? Because Mars immigrated from his original point at 84 mkm to the sun and dwell in his current point in 227.9 mkm to the sun I claim Mars immigration causes the planet diameter and orbital distance relationship disturbance This paper tries to prove that, Mars immigration causes the following results: 1-The planet diameter and orbital distance relationship disturbance 2-Metonic Cycle 3-A Cycle happened once each 2737 years
Category: Astrophysics

[9] viXra:1807.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 11:07:56

Dark Matter Effect on Early Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the " dark photon " and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[8] viXra:1807.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 11:53:54

PDS 70 on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. It is suggested to abandon the nebular hypothesis and all disk theories.

PDS 70 and its companion PDS 70b are claimed to be a new born star at ~10 million years old, with a companion new born planet. This is replaced with stellar metamorphosis and a diagram shows why. PDS 70 is a normal orange dwarf star that is slightly less massive than the Sun at about 130 million years old, and PDS 70b is a low mass brown dwarf about 330-350 million years old.
Category: Astrophysics

[7] viXra:1807.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 17:00:18

Pregeologic Time or Pregeology, a Bridge for Geology and Astronomy

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 illustrative graph

Earth predates its own prescribed geological record. The case is made that Earth was too hot and energetic in its past to have even formed crystalline structure such as rocks/minerals, much less allowed them to be in their molten state. This is not a fact that disregards the geological history, it just shows that the geological record can only draw conclusions from rocks and minerals, long after the majority of the primary processes that formed them have ceased. As well, it shows that the assumption of Earth having always been solid/liquid material is flawed, due to overwhelming observational evidence of stars in all stages of evolution. A simple graph is provided showing the issue.
Category: Astrophysics

[6] viXra:1807.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 01:43:49

Shapiro Delay, A Frequency Dependent Transit Time Effect, Not A Space Time Effect

Authors: Ghanzanshahi, Shahin, Dowdye, Edward H.
Comments: 9 Pages. The Shapiro Delay has been very much misinterpreted as having something to do with Space Times or a Relativistic Effect. In fact, it is very much frequency dependent, which totally separates its effect from that of Relativity.

Irvin L. Shapiro first noticed in 1964 that the transit time required for a microwave signal to propagate through space, arrive at a satellite orbiting Venus or Mercury and then return back to the earth by the sun to be received at the observatory, had a measurable time delay that varied as a function of the impact parameter of the microwave beam relative to the sun. The delays were observed to be in the order of 100's of microseconds when the impact parameter of the microwave beam was at a minimum. These measurements permitted a precise determination of the electron density profile of the solar wind as a function of the radial distance r from the sun. The electron density profile of the solar wind is found to behave very nearly as an inverse square of the radial distance r from the sun. The solar wind is found to engulf the outmost planets of the solar system. The bulk of all the measurements were done using microwave frequencies from 500 MHz to 8.8MHz. Significant findings of this research reveal that, for all microwave signals propagating in the solar wind atmosphere of the solar system, the waves are subjected to a frequency dependent plasma index of refraction n that exceeds unity, i.e., n > 1.0. For optical, IR and UV wavelengths, the plasma index of refraction n is 1.0000000000 for these wavelengths which are virtually unaffected by the solar wind electron density. As a consequence of these findings, the Shapiro delay cannot be related to a space-time effect of General Relativity which is independent of frequency.
Category: Astrophysics

[5] viXra:1807.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 09:39:12

Gauss's Law of Gracvity and Observational Evidence Reveal no Solar Lensing in Empty Vacuum Space

Authors: Edward H Dowdye
Comments: 10 Pages. Supporting references pertaining to the Author of this original work are found on the Website: http://www.extinctionshift.com

Findings show that the rays of star light are lensed primarily in the plasma rim of the sun and hardly in the vacuum space just slightly above the rim. Since the lower boundary of this vacuum space is only a fraction of a solar radius above the solar plasma rim, it is exposed to virtually the same gravitational field. The thin plasma atmosphere of the sun appears to represent an indirect interaction involving an interfering plasma medium between the gravitational field of the sun and the rays of star light. The very same light bending equation obtained by General Relativity was derived from classical assumptions of a minimum energy path of a light ray in the plasma rim, exposed to the gravitational gradient field of the sun. The resulting calculation was found to be independent of frequency. An intense search of the star filled skies reveals a clear lack of lensing among the countless numbers of stars, where there are many candidates for gravitational lensing according to the assumptions of General Relativity. Assuming the validity of the light bending rule of General Relativity, the sky should be filled with images of Einstein rings. Moreover, a lack of evidence for gravitational lensing is clearly revealed in the time resolved images of the rapidly moving stellar objects orbiting about Sagittarius A*. Subject headings: black hole – gravitational lensing – galaxy center – plasma atmosphere – Gauss’s law
Category: Astrophysics

[4] viXra:1807.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-27 22:06:48

The Significant Improvement of The Upper Mass Limit of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 14 Pages.

The explanation for the pressure against gravity in the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas at the temperature of absolute zero. It predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf star is 1.44 Mʘ. However, more conditions have to be considered like temperature and charges. In this research, first we use the grand partition function in statistical mechanics to build the expressions of the electron gas pressure and the particle number depending on temperature. At 10^7 K, there is about 1.50x10^(-4) of total electrons exceeding the Fermi energy. Because some of this Fermi electron gas are the relativistic electrons, then we consider that some of them can escape the gravity resulting in a positively charged star. These rest positive charges produce the strong repulsive force and the pressure to against gravity. Furthermore, due to the quantum effect, some electrons can tunnel the potential barrier even their energy is less than the maximal potential. By theoretical analysis, it is possible to be a positively charged star with 2.708x10^20 C as long as the attraction force is strong enough. The increases pressure is almost the same as that of the Fermi electron gas.
Category: Astrophysics

[3] viXra:1807.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 16:00:14

The Mesogranulation Convective Power Spectrum

Authors: Laurence J. November
Comments: 17 Pages.

Some authors have pointed out that the observed spectrum of long-lived solar horizontal velocity shows only a single peak at wavelength ≃35 Mm, ‘supergranulation’. However the corresponding verticalvelocity spectrum looks very different with power shifted to higher wavenumber in a broad divided peak representing a range of plume sizes or half wavelengths from 4–12 Mm, i.e. ‘mesogranulation’. Vertical-velocity spectra derived from the Hathaway et al. (2000) SOHO-MDI 62 day full-disk Dopplervelocity spectrum and based upon the Koutchmy (1994) granulation intensity spectrum show expected Kolmogorov-inertial and eddy-noise power-law wavenumber subranges, giving evidence for energy injection into the vertical flow around three coherent length scales &1.01, 5.4, and 10.5 Mm, i.e. granulation, and ‘mesogranular’ and ‘supergranular’ subsurface counterparts. The three energy-injection scales correspond reasonably to interior-model convective mixing lengths for H I, He I, and He II 50% ionization depths, respectively. The two larger scales are nearly one-to-two also suggestive of a possible resonant overtone structure. The horizontal supergranulation flow seems evident as a distinct scale of eddy noise without energy injection around wavelength 45.3 Mm, consistent with the first subharmonic of the supergranular subsurface counterpart.
Category: Astrophysics

[2] viXra:1807.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 09:09:05

Heavier Elements Made in the Cosmos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Nuclear binding energies of several rare-earth isotopes have been measured for the first time. [9] Analyses of the gravitational waves from the neutron star merger observed by LIGO and Virgo improve models describing the dense nuclear matter inside a neutron star. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[1] viXra:1807.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 23:53:20

Gravitational Effect on the Final Stellar to Planetary Mass Ratio

Authors: Steven Suan Zhu
Comments: 35 Pages. This is the 2nd version originally published on Feb 26th, 2018 on Researchgate, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.32829.77288

The discovery of exoplanets and possible future detection of exomoons led to the question if any relationship holds between the mass of its host star and mass of its planets. That is, if the mass of planets is constrained by the final mass of the hosting star. If relationship such as this exists, then several key questions can be answered. First of all, based on the mass of the star, what is the upper limit mass budget available for the creation of terrestrial planets. Secondly, if we know the mass budget availability, then what is the upper limit of the mass budget for the water in the system. Thirdly, finding the probability of the formation of exomoons with sizes comparable to earth around Jovian planets. Fourthly, explaining the rare occurrence of Jupiter sized planets around red dwarf systems.
Category: Astrophysics