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1004 Submissions

[138] viXra:1004.0140 [pdf] submitted on 10 Mar 2010

On a Concatenation Problem

Authors: Henry Ibstedt
Comments: 13 pages.

This article has been inspired by questions asked by Charles Ashbacher in the Journal of Recreational Mathematics, vol. 29.2. It concerns the Smarandache Deconstructive Sequence. This sequence is a special case of a more general concatenation and sequencing procedure which is the subject of this study. Answers are given to the above questions. The properties of this kind of sequences are studied with particular emphasis on the divisibility of their terms by primes.
Category: Number Theory

[137] viXra:1004.0139 [pdf] submitted on 10 Mar 2010

Introduction to N-Adaptive Fuzzy Models to Analyze Public Opinion on Aids

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 236 pages.

AIDS is not simply a physical malady, it is also an artifact of social and sexual transgression, violated taboo, fractured identity-political and personal projections. Its key words are primarily the property of the powerful. AIDS: Keywords - is my attempt to identify and contest some of the assumptions underlying our current 'knowledge'. In this effort I am joined by many AIDS activists including people living with AIDS - Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[136] viXra:1004.0138 [pdf] submitted on 10 Mar 2010

General Combination Rules for Qualitative and Quantitative Beliefs

Authors: Arnaud Martin, Christophie Osswald, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 23 pages.

Martin and Osswald [15] have recently proposed many generalizations of combination rules on quantitative beliefs in order to manage the conflict and to consider the specificity of the responses of the experts. Since the experts express themselves usually in natural language with linguistic labels, Smarandache and Dezert [13] have introduced a mathematical framework for dealing directly also with qualitative beliefs. In this paper we recall some element of our previous works and propose the new combination rules, developed for the fusion of both qualitative or quantitative beliefs.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[135] viXra:1004.0137 [pdf] submitted on 10 Mar 2010

An Introduction to the Smarandache Geometries

Authors: L. Kuciuk, M. Antholy
Comments: 23 pages.

In this paper we make a presentation of these exciting geometries and present a model for a particular one.
Category: Geometry

[134] viXra:1004.0136 [pdf] submitted on 30 Apr 2010

On the 5D Extra-Force According to Basini-Capozziello-Ponce De Leon Formalism and Three Important Features: Chung-Freese Superluminal Braneworld,strong Gravitational Fields and the Pioneer Anomaly.

Authors: Fernando Loup
Comments: 91 Pages. This work was sent to arXiv.org as arXiv:0710.0924 in 4 October 2007 to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the Space Race and the launch of the Sputnik I (4 October 1957). It suffered major modifications in order to be accepted for publication. Versions #1 and #2 can be considered as a different paper from versions #3 and #4 It was published in the book Space Exploration Research Chapter IX from Nova Scientific Publishers ISBN 978-1-60692-264-4 2009. It was also published in the Volume 14 Issue 3-4 (Journal of Magnetohydrodynamics, Plasma and Space Research) ISSN: 1083-4729 The published versions are the #3 and #4 from arXiv.org - The versions #1 and #2 contains a mathematical description about how to solve the pathologies of the Einstein Field Equation known as the Superluminal Alcubierre Warp Drive. It also contains a Memorial to Serguei Pavlovitch Korolev(the creator of the Sputnik I) and a Memorial to all the Cosmonauts and Astronauts that died in Outer Space in the spaceships Soyuz I,Soyuz XI,Apollo I,Challenger and Columbia…the first 50 years of the Space Race We feel that this work in the unpublished version #1 and #2 deserves to be placed on viXra as a valid paper to overcome the limitations of the Superluminal Alcubierre Warp Drive Spacetime specially the part of the Horizons and the causally disconnected portions of the Spacetime inside the Warp Drive bubble.We use something that resembles the Apollo spacecrafts This version is exactly equal without changes to the version #2 stored in arXiv.org This paper was inspired in a TV series from the British Broadcasting Corporation called "The Space Race"

We use the 5D Extra Dimensional Force according to Basini-Capozziello-Ponce De Leon, Overduin-Wesson and Mashoon-Wesson-Liu Formalisms to study the behaviour of the Chung-Freese Superluminal BraneWorld compared to the Alcubierre Warp Drive and we arrive at some interesting results from the point of view of the Alcubierre ansatz although we used two different Shape Functions one continuous g(rs) as an alternative to the original Alcubierre f(rs) and a Piecewise Shape Function fpc(rs) with a behaviour similar to the Natario Warp Drive. We introduce here the Casimir Warp Drive.We also demonstrate that in flat 5D Minkowsky Spacetime or weak Gravitational Fields we cannot tell if we live in a 5D or a 4D Universe according to Basini-Capozziello-Ponce De Leon,Overduin-Wesson and Mashoon-Wesson-Liu Dimensional Reduction but in the extreme conditions of Strong Gravitational Fields we demonstrate that the effects of the 5D Extra Dimension becomes visible and perhaps the study of the extreme conditions in Black Holes can tell if we live in a Higher Dimensional Universe.We use a 5D Maartens-Clarkson Schwarzschild Cosmic Black String centered in the Sun coupled to the 5D Extra Force from Ponce De Leon together with Mashoon-Wesson-Liu and the definitions of Basini-Capozziello and Bertolami-Paramos for the Warp Fields in order to demonstrate that the Anomalous Effect disturbing two American space probes known as the Pioneer Anomaly is a force of 5D Extra Dimensional Nature.As a matter of fact the Pioneer Anomaly is the first experimental evidence of the "Fifth Force" predicted years ago by Mashoon-Wesson-Liu and we also demonstrate that this Extra Force is coming from the Sun.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[133] viXra:1004.0135 [pdf] submitted on 30 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (38)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that there are infinitely many primes P such that each of jP3 + k - j is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[132] viXra:1004.0134 [pdf] submitted on 30 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (37)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that there are infinitely many primes P such that each of jP3 + 7 - j is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[131] viXra:1004.0133 [pdf] submitted on 30 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (36)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that there are infinitely many primes P such that each of jP3 + 5 - j is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[130] viXra:1004.0132 [pdf] submitted on 30 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (35)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that there are infinitely many primes P such that 2P3 + 1 and P3 + 2 are all prime.
Category: Number Theory

[129] viXra:1004.0131 [pdf] submitted on 30 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (34)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that if J2 (ω) ≠ 0 then there are infinitely many primes P such that each of jP2 + k - j is a prime, if J2 (ω) = 0 then there are finitely many primes P such that each of jP2 + k - j is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[128] viXra:1004.0130 [pdf] submitted on 29 Apr 2010

The Meaning of the Singularity: 2. Astro-Sociology: Predicting the Presence of Twin Planets (Extended Version)

Authors: Alon Retter
Comments: 17 pages.

This paper presents a remarkable analogy between the human society and Astronomy. Please keep an open mind as the resemblance is not only qualitative but also quantitative. We point out many similarities between stars and people, such as properties of grouping - single stars vs. singles, binary stars vs. couples, cities vs. clusters, countries vs. galaxies, etc. Men and women are linked with cool and hot stars. We match planets with children and attribute the two genders to gas and solid planets. Moons are related with pets or grandchildren, asteroids with germs / viruses, accretion disks with bellies and jets with pukes. Suicide attempts in people are associated with supernovae in stars. Inflation is connected with the rapid growth of the embryo, and the time the universe became transparent to light is linked with the human birth. A simple analogue to the cosmic background radiation is the bellybutton, and the universe acceleration is coupled with the pace increase in modern life. The mean values of the distributions of star multiples and the number of US households are almost identical (2.04 and 2.03). Moreover, an amazing resemblance between the two curves is evident (Fig. 1). The distribution of gas (or solid) planets is similar to that of boys (or girls) as well, and the fit could improve once selection effects are considered. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that our results are significant at a confidence level higher of ~99.9%! The surprising linkage between humanity and stars can lead to many predictions. It is proposed that about a third of stars harbor planets. We predict that stars are equally divided between hot and cool stars and planets between gas and solid planets. The presence of four gas and four solid planets in the solar system supports our prediction. We also forecast that the mean number of planets around host stars should be near two, larger around binaries than in single stars and higher in hot stars than in cool stars. We vision the presence of twin planets that share the same orbit. The wealth of known extra-solar planets should already contain a few such systems. We forecast the presence of a new astronomical phenomenon, which we alias 'planova' - an eruption in a planet that may destroy it, and speculate about the presence of planet jets. The ideas and results of this paper are clearly unusual and unbelievable. A brief explanation to our findings is presented in the discussion and further developed in forthcoming papers.
Category: Astrophysics

[127] viXra:1004.0129 [pdf] submitted on 29 Apr 2010

The Meaning of the Singularity: 2. Astro-Sociology: Predicting the Presence of Twin Planets (Short Version)

Authors: Alon Retter
Comments: 7 pages.

We present a remarkable analogy between the human society and Astronomy. Please keep an open mind as the resemblance is both qualitative and quantitative. We link stars and children with persons and planets. The two genders are matched with cool and hot stars and with gas and solid planets. The mean values of the distributions of star multiples and US households are almost identical. Moreover, an amazing resemblance between the two curves is evident. In addition, the distribution of gas / solid planets is similar to that of boys / girls as well, and the fit could improve once selection effects are considered. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that our results are significant at a confidence level of 99.9%! We thus predict that about a third of stars harbor planets and that stars are equally divided between hot and cool stars and planets between gas and solid planets. The presence of 4 gas and 4 solid planets in the solar system supports our prediction. We forecast that the mean number of planets around host stars should be near two, and vision the presence of twin planets that share the same orbit. The wealth of known extra-solar planets should already contain a few such systems.
Category: Astrophysics

[126] viXra:1004.0128 [pdf] submitted on 29 Apr 2010

The Meaning of the Singularity: 1. A Single Particle Universe

Authors: Alon Retter
Comments: 6 pages.

We examine the basic term 'particle'. We start by exploring a universe that contains a single particle. In such a universe there is no meaning for motion, energy, space and time. Only for a two particles universe the physical quantities can be measured. However, the determination of the physical quantities implies that the particles are not separated from each other! We thus propose that all particles are interconnected. This novel perception naturally explains the two well known paradoxes: the twin-electrons experiment and Schrödinger's cat. In fact, we argue that the twinelectrons experiment is an actual proof for global non-detachment. We state that it cannot be shown that a particle is elementary. If one is divided by two numerous times, zero is never reached. There must be a jump into zero - the singularity. The sought Higgs particle is simply the singularity itself, which cannot be found, having no properties.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[125] viXra:1004.0127 [pdf] submitted on 28 Apr 2010

How Acoustic Resonance Can Reduce the Average Velocity in a Falling Body?

Authors: V. Torres-Zúñiga
Comments: 9 pages, figures in color. Manuscript to be submitted to Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Física E

In this article, a simple experiment is described for correcting the misconception that acoustic pressure and levitation effects are hard to observe in school laboratories. Analysis of the free fall velocity of a toy parachute within a vertical tube, driven by sound in a range of frequencies around the resonant condition, exhibits the resonance frequency, the node pressure zones, and the optimal conditions to obtain acoustical levitation of a light body.
Category: Classical Physics

[124] viXra:1004.0126 [pdf] replaced on 4 May 2010

A Fifth Smarandache Friendly Prime Pair

Authors: Philip Gibbs
Comments: 4 pages

A Smarandache friendly prime pair (SFPP) is a pair of prime numbers (p,q), p < q, such that the product pq is equal to the sum of all primes from p to q inclusive. Previously four such pairs were known: (2,5), (3,13), (5,31) and (7,53). Now a fifth one is found by a brute force computer search. A heuristic approximation can be to estimate the expected number of SFPPs in a given interval. The result suggests that the probability of further pairs existing is about 0.07.
Category: Number Theory

[123] viXra:1004.0125 [pdf] submitted on 10 Mar 2010

On a Problem Concerning the Smarandache Friendly Prime Pairs

Authors: Felice Russo
Comments: 3 pages.

In this paper a question posed in [1] and concerning the Smarandache friendly prime pairs is analysed.
Category: Number Theory

[122] viXra:1004.0124 [pdf] submitted on 10 Mar 2010

Computational Modeling in Applied Problems: Collected Papers on Econometrics, Operations Research, Game Theory and Simulation

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Sukanto Bhattacharya, Mohammad Khoshnevisan
Comments: 109 pages.

Computational models pervade all branches of the exact sciences and have in recent times also started to prove to be of immense utility in some of the traditionally 'soft' sciences like ecology, sociology and politics. This volume is a collection of a few cuttingedge research papers on the application of variety of computational models and tools in the analysis, interpretation and solution of vexing real-world problems and issues in economics, management, ecology and global politics by some prolific researchers in the field.
Category: Economics and Finance

[121] viXra:1004.0123 [pdf] submitted on 27 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (33)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 pages

Using Jiang function we prove x2 + y4 (J. Friedlander and H. Iwaniec, The polynomial x2 + y4 Captures its primes, Ann. Math., 148(1998) 945-1040)
Category: Number Theory

[120] viXra:1004.0122 [pdf] submitted on 27 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (32)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 pages

Using Jiang function we prove x3 + 2y3 (D. R. Heath-Brown, prime represented by x3 + 2y3, Acta Math., 186(2001)1-84).
Category: Number Theory

[119] viXra:1004.0121 [pdf] submitted on 25 Apr 2010

Equivalence of Maxwell's Source-Free Equations to the Time-Dependent Schrödinger Equation for a Solitary Particle with Two Polarizations and Hamiltonian |cp|

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 17 pages, Also archived as arXiv:1004.1820 [physics.gen-ph].

It was pointed out in a previous paper that although neither the Klein-Gordon equation nor the Dirac Hamiltonian produces sound solitary free-particle relativistic quantum mechanics, the natural square-root relativistic Hamiltonian for a nonzero-mass free particle does achieve this. Failures of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac theories are reviewed: the solitary Dirac free particle has, inter alia, an invariant speed well in excess of c and staggering spontaneous Compton acceleration, but no pathologies whatsoever arise from the square-root relativistic Hamiltonian. Dirac's key misapprehension of the underlying four-vector character of the time-dependent, configuration-representation Schrödinger equation for a solitary particle is laid bare, as is the invalidity of the standard "proof" that the nonrelativistic limit of the Dirac equation is the Pauli equation. Lorentz boosts from the particle rest frame point uniquely to the square-root Hamiltonian, but these don't exist for a massless particle. Instead, Maxwell's equations are dissected in spatial Fourier transform to separate nondynamical longitudinal from dynamical transverse field degrees of freedom. Upon their decoupling in the absence of sources, the transverse field components are seen to obey two identical time-dependent Schrödinger equations (owing to two linear polarizations), which have the massless freeparticle diagonalized square-root Hamiltonian. Those fields are readily modfied to conform to the attributes of solitary-photon wave functions. The wave functions' relations to the potentials in radiation gauge are also worked out. The exercise is then repeated without the considerable benefit of the spatial Fourier transform.
Category: Quantum Physics

[118] viXra:1004.0120 [pdf] submitted on 24 Apr 2010

Condensed Light - A Reinterpration of Quantum Mechanics and Relativity

Authors: Niels Vandamme
Comments: 7 pages

This paper propounds several hypotheses which offer an alternate explanation to some of the real or purported effects encountered in quantum mechanics and relativity, giving a mechanical explanation for the absolute speed of light, the conversion of matter to energy, and the observed superluminal expansion of the universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[117] viXra:1004.0119 [pdf] submitted on 24 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (31)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove and P1 = P9 ± m and P1 = (2P)9 ± n
Category: Number Theory

[116] viXra:1004.0118 [pdf] submitted on 24 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (30)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove and P1 = PP0 ± m and P1 = (2P)p0 ± n
Category: Number Theory

[115] viXra:1004.0117 [pdf] submitted on 24 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (29)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove and P1 = P5 ± m and P1 = (2P)5 ± n
Category: Number Theory

[114] viXra:1004.0116 [pdf] submitted on 24 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (28)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that 1P = P ± m and 1 P = 2P ± n have infinitely many
Category: Number Theory

[113] viXra:1004.0115 [pdf] replaced on 14 Jun 2010

Corrections to the wu-Sprung Potential for the Riemann Zeros and a New Hamiltonian Whose Energies Are the Prime Numbers

Authors: Jose Javier Garcia Moreta
Comments: 10 pages

We review the Wu-Sprung potential adding a correction involving a fractional derivative of Riemann Zeta function, we study a global semiclassical analysis in order to fit a Hamiltonian H=T+V fitting to the Riemann zeros and another new Hamiltonian whose energy levels are precisely the prime numbers, through these paper we use the notation loge (x) = ln(x) = log(x) for the logarithm , also unles we specify Σγ h(γ) means that we sum over ALL the imaginary parts of the nontrivial zero on both the upper and lower complex plane.
Category: Number Theory

[112] viXra:1004.0114 [pdf] submitted on 22 Apr 2010

The Hundred Year Detour: A Comment on Arxiv:1004.2901

Authors: Ron Bourgoin
Comments: 3 pages

Arxiv:1004.2901 exposes a chink in the armor. It seems that joining general relativity with quantum mechanics is like trying to fit a square peg in a round hole. Obviously there's something terribly wrong with one of the theories. Since quantum mechanics has been far too successful in too many areas, it is felt general relativity has to go.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[111] viXra:1004.0113 [pdf] submitted on 21 Apr 2010

Multispace & Multistructure. Neutrosophic Transdisciplinarity

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 802 pages.

The fourth volume, in my book series of "Collected Papers", includes 100 published and unpublished articles, notes, (preliminary) drafts containing just ideas to be further investigated, scientific souvenirs, scientific blogs, project proposals, small experiments, solved and unsolved problems and conjectures, updated or alternative versions of previous papers, short or long humanistic essays, letters to the editors - all collected in the previous three decades (1980-2010) - but most of them are from the last decade (2000-2010), some of them being lost and found, yet others are extended, diversified, improved versions.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[110] viXra:1004.0112 [pdf] submitted on 21 Apr 2010

Some Characterisations of α-Cut in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Set Theory

Authors: V. Veeramani, Roque Batulan
Comments: 7 pages

This paper contains the Basic Definitions of an Intuitionstic Fuzzy Set theory and operations on it. Mainly we discussed the basic concepts of α - cut with examples and Characterisations.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[109] viXra:1004.0111 [pdf] submitted on 20 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (27)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 pages

Using Jiang function we prove Hardy-Littlewood conjecture P: m2 +1 and m2 + 3 [4].
Category: Number Theory

[108] viXra:1004.0110 [pdf] submitted on 20 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (26)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 pages

Using Jiang function we prove Hardy-Littlewood conjecture N: x3 + y3 + z3 [4].
Category: Number Theory

[107] viXra:1004.0109 [pdf] submitted on 20 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (25)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove Hardy-Littlewood conjecture M: x3 + y3 + k [4].
Category: Number Theory

[106] viXra:1004.0108 [pdf] submitted on 20 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (24)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove Hardy-Littlewood conjecture K: x3 + k [4].
Category: Number Theory

[105] viXra:1004.0107 [pdf] submitted on 20 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (23)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 pages

Using Jiang function we prove Hardy-Littlewood conjecture F: am2 + bm+ c [4].
Category: Number Theory

[104] viXra:1004.0106 [pdf] submitted on 20 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (22)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 pages

Using Jiang function we prove Hardy-Littlewood conjecture B: P, P + k [4].
Category: Number Theory

[103] viXra:1004.0105 [pdf] submitted on 20 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (21)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove binary Goldbach conjecture and N = P1 + ... + Pn [4]
Category: Number Theory

[102] viXra:1004.0104 [pdf] submitted on 20 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (20)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that Jiang prime k -tuple theorem is true[1-3] and Hardy-Littlewood prime k -tuple conjecture is false[4-8]. The tool of additive prime number theory is basically the Hardy-Littlewood prime tuple conjecutre, but can not prove and count any prime problems[6].
Category: Number Theory

[101] viXra:1004.0103 [pdf] submitted on 20 Apr 2010

Non Standard DE & DM, With Deceleration Parameter Q(z) In Five Dimensions

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 4 pages, one figure. Actual ( minus the address ) submission for the following conference : extended abstract of 4 pages for possibly being placed in C. Corda's section namely , "Second Big Challenge Symposium - The Big Challenge of Cosmological Understanding: Gravitation, Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Towards New Scenarios" during the 8th International Conference of Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics, at Hotel Rodos Palace, Rhodes, Greece, 19-25 September 2010.

The case for a four dimensional graviton mass (non zero) influencing reacceleration of the universe in five dimensions is stated, with particular emphasis upon if five dimensional geometries as given below give us new physical insight as to cosmological evolution. We postulate that a calculated inflaton φ(t) may re-emerge after fading out in the aftermath of inflation. The inflaton may be a contributing factor to, with non zero graviton mass, in re acceleration of the universe a billion years ago. Many theorists assume that the inflaton is the source of entropy. The inflaton also may be the source of re acceleration of the universe, especially if the effects of a re emergent inflaton are in tandem with the appearance of macro effects of a small graviton mass, leading to a speed up of the rate of expansion of the universe one billion years ago, at red shift value of Z ~ .423
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[100] viXra:1004.0102 [pdf] submitted on 20 Apr 2010

Deceleration Parameter Q(Z) in Five Dimensions, and Can a Partial re Appearance of Quinessence φ(t) Play a Role in an Increase in re Acceleration at Z ~. 423?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 4 pages, 1 figure. extended abstract of 3-4 pages for possibly being placed in C. Corda's section namely , "Second Big Challenge Symposium - The Big Challenge of Cosmological Understanding: Gravitation, Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Towards New Scenarios" during the 8th International Conference of Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics, at Hotel Rodos Palace, Rhodes, Greece, 19-25 September 2010.

The case for a four dimensional graviton mass (non zero) influencing reacceleration of the universe in five dimensions is stated, with particular emphasis upon if five dimensional geometries as given below give us new physical insight as to cosmological evolution. One noticeable datum, that a calculated inflaton φ(t) re-emerged after fading out in the aftermath of inflation. The inflaton is a contributing factor to, with non zero graviton mass, in re acceleration of the universe a billion years ago. The inflaton also may be the source of re acceleration of the universe, especially if the effects of a re emergent inflaton are in tandem with the appearance of macro effects of a small graviton mass, leading to a speed up of the rate of expansion of the universe one billion years ago, at red shit value of Z ~ .423
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[99] viXra:1004.0101 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2010

Signs of Supersymmetry

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 10 pages

Particles resulting from the breaking of symmetries are arranged symmetrically about mass levels that descend in geometric progression from the Planck Mass within three sequences, of common ratio 1/π, 2/π and 1/e. Particles arranged in this way include the weak gauge bosons W± and Z0, the quark weak isospin doublets u-d, s-c and b-t, and all hadronic isospin doublets. Many pairs of hadrons with some common quark content also form symmetric partnerships. Often, the mass difference characterising a partnership is precisely equal to the mass of a level. The spin-0 partners of the quarks and charged leptons are identified. The mass sequences may derive from the geometry of compact extra spaces of Planck scale.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[98] viXra:1004.0100 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2010

Why Create When There Is No Recognition, No Reward?

Authors: Ron Bourgoin
Comments: 2 pages

Why run the race when there is no trophy? The creative human being is often not recognized, not rewarded. What to do?
Category: Mind Science

[97] viXra:1004.0099 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2010

The Quantum Uncertainty Principle, Gravitational Waves, and Black Holes

Authors: Willi Penker
Comments: 2 pages

Following the basic rules of the uncertainty principle, gravitation itself becomes uncertain and even massive black holes go into superposition without the possibility of ending up in a real singularity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[96] viXra:1004.0098 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2010

Contextuality: A Philosophical Paradigm, with Applications to Philosophy of Cognitive Science

Authors: Carlos Gershenson
Comments: 12 pages.

We develop on the idea that everything is related, inside, and therefore determined by a context. This stance, which at first might seem obvious, has several important consequences. This paper first presents ideas on Contextuality, for then applying them to problems in philosophy of cognitive science. Because of space limitations, for the second part we will assume that the reader is familiar with the literature of philosophy of cognitive science, but if this is not the case, it would not be a limitation for understanding the main ideas of this paper. We do not argue that Contextuality is a panaceic answer for explaining everything, but we do argue that everything is inside a context. And because this is always, we sometimes ignore it, but we believe that many problems are dissolved with a contextual approach, noticing things we ignore because of their obviousity. We first give a notion of context. We present the idea that errors are just incongruencies inside a context. We also present previous ideas of absolute being, relative being, and lessincompleteness. We state that all logics, and also truth judgements, are contextdependant, and we develop a "Context-dependant Logic". We apply ideas of Contextuality to problems in semantics, the problem of "where is the mind", and the study of consciousness.
Category: Mind Science

[95] viXra:1004.0097 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2010

Processes of Consciousness

Authors: Flavian Vasile
Comments: 9 pages.

This paper presents consciousness as the sum of describable processes, without limiting it only to verbal understanding. Consciousness is presented as a buffer space of the unconscious, accessed by any mental decision-taking processes. Consciousness is composed of sequential outputs of non-conscious processes that form, as frames in a picture, the impression of our ego continuity. The functional consequences of this point of view are then further discussed.
Category: Mind Science

[94] viXra:1004.0096 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2010

A Note on Neutrosophy

Authors: Cheng-Gui Huang
Comments: 1 pages.

I claim that Neutrosophy, by Professor Florentin Smarandache, is a deep thought in human culture. That gives advantage to break the mechanical understanding of human culture. For example, according to the mechanical theory: existence and non-existence could not be simultaneously. Actually existence and non-existence are simultaneously. Everyone knows that human life is like a way in the empty space of a bird flying. Everyone can not see himself a second ago, everyone can not see himself for the time being and everyone can not see himself a second future. Everyone could not know what is the existence of self. Everyone is also difficult to say the non-existence of self. So the existence and non-existence of self are simultaneously. And the existence and nonexistence of everything are simultaneously, where, the law of excluded middle does not apply. These basic facts express the depth of Smarandache's Neutrosophy. He has a lot of friends in ancient and in nowadays, in the West and in the East.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[93] viXra:1004.0095 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2010

Notion of Neutrosophic Risk and Financial Markets Prediction

Authors: Sukanto Bhattacharya
Comments: 7 pages.

The efficient market hypothesis based primarily on the statistical principle of Bayesian inference has been proved to be only a special-case scenario. The generalized financial market, modeled as a binary, stochastic system capable of attaining one of two possible states ...
Category: Economics and Finance

[92] viXra:1004.0094 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2010

Neutrosophy in Situation Analysis

Authors: Anne-Laure Jousselme, Patrick Maupin
Comments: 7 pages.

In situation analysis (SA), an agent observing a scene receives information from heterogeneous sources of information including for example remote sensing devices, human reports and databases. The aim of this agent is to reach a certain level of awareness of the situation in order to make decisions. For the purpose of applications, this state of awareness can be conceived as a state of knowledge in the classical epistemic logic sense. Considering the logical connection between belief and knowledge, the challenge for the designer is to transform the raw, imprecise, conflictual and often paradoxical information received from the different sources into statements understandable by both man and machines. Hence, quantitative (i.e. measuring the world) and qualitative (i.e. reasoning about the structure of the world) information processing coexist in SA. A great challenge in SA is the conciliation of both aspects in mathematical and logical frameworks. As a consequence, SA applications need frameworks general enough to take into account the different types of uncertainty and information present in the SA context, doubled with a semantics allowing meaningful reasoning on situations. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the capacity of neutrosophic logic and Dezert- Smarandache theory (DSmT) to cope with the ontological and epistemological problems of SA.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[91] viXra:1004.0093 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2010

The Israel-Palestine Question - A Case for Application of Neutrosophic Game Theory

Authors: Sukanto Bhattacharya, Florentin Smarandache, Mohammad Khoshnevisan
Comments: 10 pages.

In our present paper, we have explored the possibilities and developed arguments for an application of principles of neutrosophic game theory as a generalization of the fuzzy game theory model to a better understanding of the Israel-Palestine problem in terms of the goals and governing strategies of either side. We build on an earlier attempted justification of a game theoretic explanation of this problem by Yakir Plessner (2001) and go on to argue in favour of a neutrosophic adaptation of the standard 2x2 zero-sum game theoretic model in order to identify an optimal outcome
Category: Economics and Finance

[90] viXra:1004.0092 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2010

Toward Excitation and Inhibition in Neutrosophic Logic

Authors: Feng Liu
Comments: 8 pages.

Logic should have been defined as the unity of contradiction between logic director and logic implementation. Chinese Daoism asserts that everything is defined in the unity of opposites, namely yin and yang, accordingly yang conducts change and yin brings it up (I-Ching, also known as Book of Changes). In this way logic is redefined in an indeterminate style to facilitate "both A and Anti-A" etc. in neutrosophics of logic. The unity of opposites is also described as neutrality in neutrosophy. An intermediate multi-referential model of excitation and inhibition is developed to derive a multiagent architecture of logic, based on Chinese yin-yang philosophy. This methodology of excitation/inhibition suggests a rhymed way of logic, leading to a dynamic methodology of weight strategy that links logic with neural network approach. It also confirms the crucial role of indeterminacy in logic as a fatal criticism to classical mathematics and current basis of science.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[89] viXra:1004.0091 [pdf] submitted on 19 Apr 2010

Truth and Absolute Truth in Neutrosophic Logic

Authors: Feng Liu
Comments: 12 pages.

As a philosophical analysis of some fatal paradoxes, the paper distinguishes the conceptual difference between representation of truth and source of truth, and leads to the conclusion that in order to acquire the genuine source of truth, independently of specific representations possibly belonging to different worlds, one is necessary to ignore all the ideas, logics, conceptions, philosophies and representable knowledge even himself belonging to those misleading worlds, returning to his infant nature, as a preliminary step for his cultivation of unconstrained wisdom. It also carries out some coordinative crucial issues as natural-doctrine, minded-unwitting, logic-infancy, conception-deconception, determinacy-indeterminacy. The paper tries to verify the role of neutrosophy and neutrosophic logic in religious issues and open a gateway toward the oriental classics, excavating the lost treasure.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[88] viXra:1004.0090 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-11 20:16:12

Analyzing if a Graviton Gas Acts Like a Cosmological Vacuum State and ‘cosmological’ Constant Parameter

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 21 Pages. Will be a Poster in this version for Rencontres De Moriond. Also, accepted by JHEPGC, in this new version, with some alterations added.

If a non-zero graviton mass exists, the question arises if a release of gravitons, possibly as a ‘Graviton gas” at the onset of inflation could be an initial vacuum state. Pros and cons to this idea are raised, in part based upon Bose gasses. The analysis starts with Volovik’s condensed matter treatment of GR and ends with consequences, which the author sees if the supposition is true.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[87] viXra:1004.0089 [pdf] replaced on 12 May 2010

Quantizing Time and Space - From the Standing Wave to the Primary Gas Structure of a Particle - V

Authors: V.A.Induchoodan Menon
Comments: 21 pages

The author introduces the concept of a primary gas which is an abstract gas where the microstates are occupied successively in time unlike in the case of a real gas where the microstates are occupied simultaneously. He shows that a single plane wave associated with a standing wave formed by the confinement of a luminal wave could be treated as the microstate of the primary gas that represents a particle. This approach makes it possible to understand the dynamics of a particle in terms of the thermodynamics of the primary gas. In this approach, time and space turn out to be the intrinsic properties of the primary gas that represents a particle and the quantized nature of time and space emerges from it in a natural manner. It is shown that the action (with a negative sign) of a particle could be identified with the entropy of the primary gas and the principle of least action is nothing but the second law of thermodynamics. The author shows that the uncertainty relation of quantum mechanics can be derived directly from the equation for fluctuations and he explains the statistical basis of the virtual interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[86] viXra:1004.0088 [pdf] submitted on 18 Apr 2010

The Implicit Function in the Hardy-Littewood Conjecture

Authors: Tong Xin Ping
Comments: 6 Pages, In Chinese

The implicit function in the Hardy-Littewood conjecture
Category: Number Theory

[85] viXra:1004.0087 [pdf] submitted on 10 Mar 2010

Existence and Number of Solutions of Diophantine Quadratic Equations with Two Unknowns in Z and N

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 pages.

In this short note we study the existence and number of solutions in the set of integers (Z) and in the set of natural numbers (N) of Diophantine equations of second degree with two unknowns of the general form ax2 - by2 = c .
Category: Number Theory

[84] viXra:1004.0086 [pdf] submitted on 10 Mar 2010

Smarandache Spaces as a New Extension of the Basic Space-Time of General Relativity

Authors: Dmitri Rabounski
Comments: 2 pages.

This short letter manifests how Smarandache geometries can be employed in order to extend the "classical" (Riemannian geometry) basis of the General Theory of Relativity through joining the properties of two or more (different) geometries in the same single space. Perspectives in this way seem much profitly: the basic space-time of General Relativity can be extended to not only metric geometries, but even to non-metric ones (where no distances can be measured), or to spaces of the mixed kind which possess the properties of both metric and non-metric spaces (the latter should be referred to as "semi-metric spaces"). If both metric and non-metric properties possessed at the same (at least one) point of a space, it is one of Smarandache geometries, and should be referred to as "Smarandache semi-metric space". Such spaces can be introduced according to the mathematical apparatus of physically observable quantities (chronometric invariants), if considering a breaking of the observable space metric on the continuous background of the fundamental metric tensor.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[83] viXra:1004.0084 [pdf] submitted on 9 Mar 2010

New Classes of Neutrosophic Linear Algebras

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, K. Ilanthenral
Comments: 288 pages.

In this book we introduce mainly three new classes of linear algebras; neutrosophic group linear algebras, neutrosophic semigroup linear algebras and neutrosophic set linear algebras. The authors also define the fuzzy analogue of these three structures.
Category: Algebra

[82] viXra:1004.0083 [pdf] replaced on 17 Apr 2010

Quark Lepton Braids and Heterotic Supersymmetry

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard
Comments: 8 pages. submitted to JPA

A unique matrix is easily assigned to each Bilson-Thompson braid diagram. The quark and lepton matrices are then related to bosons via a twisted quantum Fourier transform, for which fermion and boson multiplets fit the dimension structure of heterotic strings.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[81] viXra:1004.0082 [pdf] submitted on 16 Apr 2010

Morphology, Linear and Nonlinear Optical Response of Octopolar Chromophores Embedded in a Silica Sonogel Matrix

Authors: V. Torres-Zúñiga, O.G. Morales-Saavedra, G. Hennrich, J.O. Flores-Flores, R. Ortega-Martínez
Comments: 15 pages. Manuscript submitted and accepted for publication as an article in Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

In this work, a liquid crystalline octopolar molecule 1,3,5-tris(ethynylphenyl)benzene-(1) was successfully embedded as dopant chromophore within a SiO2 based sonogel network in order to prepare stable solid state hybrid materials with intense second harmonic generation (SHG). This recently synthesized octopolar compound exhibit a centrosymmetric C3-symmetry structure, which is constituted by an electron-rich core and electron-poor periphery groups. The sonogel method, induced by energetic ultrasonic (US) waves applied at the TEOS/H2O reactant mixture interface has proven to be a suitable route in the manufacture of monolithic hybrid systems suitable for optical characterizations. The octopolar-based hybrid samples were comprehensively studied in their morphology, spectroscopic, linear and second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, according to several characterization techniques: epimicroscopy, AFM, UV-Vis- and fluorescence (PL) spectroscopies, and the NLO-SHG-technique. Epimicroscopy, photoluminiscent and absorption spectra evidence an optimal and homogeneous inclusion of the octopolar compounds within the glassy sonogel network. Without necessity of molecular poling processes, the effective quadratic-NLO susceptibility χeffS(2) of the hybrid was estimated to 13.6x10-3 pm/V at 1064 nm by SHG-transmission experiments recorded far-off of the resonance regime.
Category: Condensed Matter

[80] viXra:1004.0081 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-19 16:54:17

Relativistic Spirals

Authors: Bruce Rout
Comments: 5 Pages.

A closed form analytic model has been presented and matched to the morphology of spiral galaxies[9]. This model consists of an Archemedean spiral which matches the physical attributes of spiral galaxies as a result of relativistic effects due to great distances on a rotating rigid body. This effect was first posed by Minkowski[5]. We present a derivation of this analytical model though the application of Lortentz transformations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[79] viXra:1004.0080 [pdf] replaced on 21 Apr 2010

The Tsallis Entropy and the Boltzmann Entropy Applicable to the Same Classical Generalized System

Authors: Xiangjun Feng
Comments: 3 pages and 3 figures. This paper has been published in the on-line journal of World Chinese Forum On Science of General Systems (WCFSGS), ISSN 1936-7260. The paper has also been included in the NONEXTENSIVE STATISTICAL MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS: BIBLIOGRAPHY edited by Prof. Constantino Tsallis . Â Report Number: 300-P-10-04-01 Journal Reference: WCFSGS VOL 6, NO. S1 ( A SPECIAL EDITION ON NONEXTENSIVE MECHANICS ), APRIL 2010, ISSN 1936 - 7260.

It is demonstrated clearly that for the same classical generalized system the Tsallis power-laws with both the q > 1 and the q < 1 can be induced by the constraint of the constant harmonic mean for the so-called reciprocal energies Er and at the same time the Boltzmann distribution or the negative exponential probability distribution can be generated with the constraint of the constant arithmetic mean for the generalized energies E . The author thus argues that there might be no definite "extensive system" or "classical system" and there are only "classical physical parameters" and "classical constraints". For any physical system or generalized system, it is the non-natural constraints which determine both the forms of the entropies and the nonuniform equilibrium distributions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[78] viXra:1004.0079 [pdf] submitted on 12 Apr 2010

Consequences of Squeezing Initially Coherent (Semi Classical) States with Regards to Finding if the Cosmological Constant Is, or is not a 'vacuum' Field

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 30 pages, 5 figures. One of two subject areas submitted to the conference 11th annual international meeting "Fundamental Frontiers of Physics" which will take place in the capital of France, Paris, from the 6th to the 9th of July, 2010.

The following document is to prepare an analysis on if the cosmological constant is a vacuum field. Candidates for how to analyze this issue come up in terms of brane theory, modified treatments of WdM theory (pseudo time component added) and/ or how to look at squeezing of vacuum states, as initially coherent semi classical constructions, or string theory versions of coherent states. The article presents a thought experiment if there is a non zero graviton mass, and at the end, in the conclusion states experimental modeling criteria which may indicate if a non zero graviton mass is measurable, which would indicate the existence, de facto of a possible replacement for DE, based upon non zero mass gravitons, and indications for a replacement for a cosmological constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[77] viXra:1004.0078 [pdf] submitted on 12 Apr 2010

The "Measurement Problem" in Quantum Physics Can be Partly Resolved with Analysis of Relatedness Between Space-Time, Physical Time and Psychological Time

Authors: Amrit S. Sorli
Comments: 5 pages

Clocks are systems for measuring frequency, velocity, duration and numerical order t0,t1,t2,...,tn of physical events. Time t obtained with clocks is not a forth dimension X4 of space, time t is only a component of X4 = i * c * t. This view of clock/time as a measuring system sees physical phenomena running exclusively in space and not in time. This view is supported with several experiments which confirm that time t of physical event can be zero. Time is not part of space; time is run of clocks in space. Past, present and future exist as a psychological time in the mind only not in the universe. We experience motion i.e. change in the space through the frame of psychological time. We "project" linear psychological time "past-present-future" into the space, however it is not there. Observer who distinguishes between space-time, physical time and psychological time is aware that in quantum measurement he only measures physical events in space and not in time. Clock/time is merely a measuring device. With this understanding observer's observation, measurement and experience of quantum phenomena are closer to their real nature. Stream of numerical order of quantum phenomena t0,t1,t2,...,tn runs in space only and not in time. Stream of quantum phenomena has no duration on its own. Duration is result of measurement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[76] viXra:1004.0077 [pdf] submitted on 9 Mar 2010

On the Relation Between Mathematics, Natural Sciences, and Scientific Inquiry

Authors: V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 17 pages

In this article, we will shortly review a few old thoughts and recent thoughts on the relation between Mathematics and the Natural Sciences. Of course, the classic references to this open problem will include Wigner's paper (1964); a more recent review article is Darvas (2008). But it appears that this issue is partly on the domain of natural philosophy and also philosophy of inquiry. Therefore we will begin with a review on some known thoughts of Kant, Bacon, Popper, etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[75] viXra:1004.0076 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Improved Exponential Estimator for Population Variance Using Two Auxiliary Variables

Authors: Rajesh Singh, Pankaj Chauhan, Nirmala Sawan, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 pages

In this paper exponential ratio and exponential product type estimators using two auxiliary variables are proposed for estimating unknown population variance Sy2. Problem is extended to the case of two-phase sampling. Theoretical results are supported by an empirical study.
Category: Statistics

[74] viXra:1004.0075 [pdf] submitted on 11 Apr 2010

Bifurcations and Pattern Formation in Particle Physics: A Model Study

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 17 pages, This contribution is a sequel to EPL, 82 (2008), 11001. Its content has been updated and expanded with research findings from 2008 up to the present.

Quantum field theories, regardless of their content, lead to a finite or infinite number of coupled nonlinear field equations. In general, solving these equations in analytic form or managing them through lattice-based computations has been met with limited success. We argue that the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems offers a fresh approach to this challenge. Working from the universal route to chaos in coupled systems of differential equations, we find that: a) particles acquire mass as plane wave solutions of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (CGLE), without any reference to the hypothetical Higgs scalar; b) the U(1) x SU(2) and SU(3) gauge groups, as well as leptons and quarks, are sequentially generated
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[73] viXra:1004.0074 [pdf] submitted on 10 Apr 2010

Somme Remarks About Starlight Aberration

Authors: Roald C. Maximo
Comments: 2 pages

Many physicists still do not accept the obvious conclusion that (c + v) and (c - v) are valid solutions when applied to moving observers. There are actually well known experimental proofs to validate those expressions. Besides the Sagnac effect, one experiment that has been hidden and given no publicity was a measurement of the orbital periods of the Jovian satellite (Io) performed by Ole C. Römer that shows just such a velocity composition as the Earth approaches the planet or recedes in its orbit. [1] But, perhaps due to the pervading lato sensu interpretation of the second postulate of the Special Theory of Relativity in connection with the currently generalized opinion that any physical theory, to be valid, must conform to the TR, many physicists are reluctant to accept it. Whenever such a situation arises, they are eager to draw the Lorentz transformation from their pockets and apply it in some way to alleviate the discomfort.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[72] viXra:1004.0073 [pdf] submitted on 10 Apr 2010

The Wave Structure of the Electric Field

Authors: Michael Harney
Comments: 5 pages

Maxwell's equations describe the interactions of the electromagnetic field at a macroscopic level. In the 1920s, Louis DeBroglie demonstrated that every moving particle (including an electron) has a wave nature, and we know from Einstein that every wave has a particle nature, which we call the photon. Later in the 1930s, Paul Dirac's development of the famous Dirac equation showed the quantum nature of the electron at relativistic speeds. Then in 1948 Richard Feynman and Julian Schwinger extended these concepts in the development of quantum electrodynamics which gives a full accounting (although a very strange one) of how an electron can borrow energy from the vacuum of space and return it legally as long it does so within limits of the uncertainty principle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[71] viXra:1004.0072 [pdf] submitted on 10 Apr 2010

Application of Wheeler-Feynman Absorber Theory to Laser Power Output

Authors: Michael Harney, Michael Weber, Milo Wolff
Comments: 2 pages

The method described is designed to increase laser output power using a concept from Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory [1,2] and the work of Tetrode [3], where photons are modeled as sources of energy that must also have a sink (an electron) to be absorbed. According to Wheeler-Feynman and Tetrode, if an electron is not present to absorb the photon, then the photon can never be emitted. In Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory, advanced and retarded potentials resemble time-reversal equations because there must be communication faster than light between the source-photon and the sink-electron, reasoned Feynman, so that the source photon's atom would know whether to emit a photon. This enigma was resolved by Milo Wolff in his work "Exploring the Physics of the Unknown Universe" [4], where he describes the use of spherical scalar in-waves and out-waves that travel at c and whose local speed is based on local-mass density. The in-out waves form electrons and also allows communication between them.
Category: Quantum Physics

[70] viXra:1004.0071 [pdf] submitted on 10 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (19)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that such that (see paper) has infinitely many prime solutions.
Category: Number Theory

[69] viXra:1004.0070 [pdf] submitted on 10 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (18)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 pages

Using Jiang function we prove Hardy-Littlewood conjecture E : x2 + 1
Category: Number Theory

[68] viXra:1004.0069 [pdf] submitted on 10 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (17)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that such that Pn = 2 P1P2 ... Pn-1 has infinitely many prime solutions.
Category: Number Theory

[67] viXra:1004.0068 [pdf] submitted on 10 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (16)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that there exist infinitely many primes P such that each of (j)n P + (k - j)n is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[66] viXra:1004.0067 [pdf] submitted on 10 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (15)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that there exist infinitely many primes P such that each of (j)3 P + (k - j)3 is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[65] viXra:1004.0066 [pdf] submitted on 10 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (14)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 3 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that there exist infinitely many primes P such that each of (j)2 P + (k - j)2 is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[64] viXra:1004.0065 [pdf] replaced on 17 Nov 2010

S-Denying a Theory

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 pages

In this paper we introduce the operators of validation and invalidation of a proposition, and we extend the operator of S-denying a proposition, or an axiomatic system, from the geometric space to respectively any theory in any domain of knowledge, and show six examples in geometry, in mathematical analysis, and in topology.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[63] viXra:1004.0064 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Improvement in Estimating Population Mean using Two Auxiliary Variables in Two-Phase Sampling

Authors: Rajesh Singh, Pankaj Chauhan, Nirmala Sawan, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 pages

This study proposes improved chain-ratio type estimator for estimating population mean using some known values of population parameter(s) of the second auxiliary character. The proposed estimators have been compared with two-phase ratio estimator and some other chain type estimators. The performances of the proposed estimators have been supposed with a numerical illustration.
Category: Statistics

[62] viXra:1004.0063 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Optimum Statistical Test Procedure

Authors: Rajesh Singh, Jayant Singh, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 16 pages

Optimum Statistical Test Procedure
Category: Statistics

[61] viXra:1004.0062 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Ratio-Product Type Exponential Estimator For Estimating Finite Population Mean Using Information On Auxiliary Attribute

Authors: Rajesh Singh, Pankaj Chauhan, Nirmala Sawan, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 15 pages

In practice, the information regarding the population proportion possessing certain attribute is easily available see Jhajj et.al. (2006). For estimating the population mean Y of the study variable y, following Bahl and Tuteja (1991), a ratio-product type exponential estimator has been proposed by using the known information of population proportion possessing an attribute (highly correlated with y) in simple random sampling. The expressions for the bias and the mean-squared error (MSE) of the estimator and its minimum value have been obtained. The proposed estimator has an improvement over mean per unit estimator, ratio and product type exponential estimators as well as Naik and Gupta (1996) estimators. The results have also been extended to the case of two phase sampling. The results obtained have been illustrated numerically by taking some empirical populations considered in the literature.
Category: Statistics

[60] viXra:1004.0061 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Almost Unbiased Exponential Estimator for the Finite Population Mean

Authors: Rajesh Singh, Pankaj Chauhan, Nirmala Sawan, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 12 pages

In this paper we have proposed an almost unbiased ratio and product type exponential estimator for the finite population mean Y-bar. It has been shown that Bahl and Tuteja (1991) ratio and product type exponential estimators are particular members of the proposed estimator. Empirical study is carried to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed estimator.
Category: Statistics

[59] viXra:1004.0060 [pdf] submitted on 8 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (13)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that n x an ± 1 has infinitely many prime solutions and n x 2n ± 1 have finite prime solutions.
Category: Number Theory

[58] viXra:1004.0059 [pdf] submitted on 8 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (12)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 1 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that 3 x a3 ± 1 has infinitely many prime solutions
Category: Number Theory

[57] viXra:1004.0058 [pdf] submitted on 8 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (11)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 1 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that 2 x a2 ± 1 has infinitely many prime solutions
Category: Number Theory

[56] viXra:1004.0057 [pdf] submitted on 9 Apr 2010

Importance of Sources Using the Repeated Fusion Method and the Proportional Conflict Redistribution Rules #5 and #6

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert
Comments: 6 pages

We present in this paper some examples of how to compute by hand the PCR5 fusion rule for three sources, so the reader will better understand its mechanism. We also take into consideration the importance of sources, which is different from the classical discounting of sources.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[55] viXra:1004.0056 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Almost Unbiased Ratio and Product Type Estimator of Finite Population Variance Using the Knowledge of Kurtosis of an Auxiliary Variable in Sample Surveys

Authors: Rajesh Singh, Pankaj Chauhan, Nirmala Sawan, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 pages

It is well recognized that the use of auxiliary information in sample survey design results in efficient estimators of population parameters under some realistic conditions. Out of many ratio, product and regression methods of estimation are good examples in this context. Using the knowledge of kurtosis of an auxiliary variable Upadhyaya and Singh (1999) has suggested an estimator for population variance. In this paper, following the approach of Singh and Singh (1993), we have suggested almost unbiased ratio and product-type estimators for population variance.
Category: Statistics

[54] viXra:1004.0055 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

District Level Analysis of Urbanization from Rural-to-Urban Migration in the Rajasthan State

Authors: Jayant Singh, Hansraj Yadav, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 pages

Migration has various dimensions; urbanization due to migration is one of them. In Rajasthan State, District level analysis of urbanization due to migrants shows trend invariably for all the districts of the state though the contribution in urbanization by the migrants varies from district to district. In some districts the share of migrants moving to urban areas is very impressive though in others it is not that much high. The migrants' contribution in urbanization is on the rising over the decades. In this paper district level migration in the Rajasthan state is examined in relation to total urbanization and urbanization due to migration.
Category: Social Science

[53] viXra:1004.0054 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Alternatives To Pearson's and Spearman's Correlation Coefficients

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 9 pages

This article presents several alternatives to Pearson's correlation coefficient and many examples. In the samples where the rank in a discrete variable counts more than the variable values, the mixture of Pearson's and Spearman's gives a better result.
Category: Statistics

[52] viXra:1004.0053 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Immediate Calculation of Some Poisson Type Integrals Using Supermathematics Circular ex-Centric Functions

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Mircea Eugen Șelariu
Comments: 10 pages

This article presents two methods, in parallel, of solving more complex integrals, among which is the Poisson's integral, in order to emphasize the obvious advantages of a new method of integration, which uses the supermathematics circular ex-centric functions. We will specially analyze the possibilities of easy passing/changing of the supermathematics circular ex-centric functions of a centric variable α to the same functions of ex-centric variable &theta. The angle α is the angle at the center point O(0,0), which represents the centric variable and θ is the angle at the ex-center E(k,ε), representing the ex-centric variable. These are the angles from which the points W1 and W2 are visible on the unity circle - resulted from the intersection of the unity/trigonometric circle with the revolving straight line d around the ex-centric E(k,&epsilon) - from O and from E, respectively.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[51] viXra:1004.0052 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

A Simple Proportional Conflict Redistribution Rule

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert
Comments: 21 pages

One proposes a first alternative rule of combination to WAO (Weighted Average Operator) proposed recently by Josang, Daniel and Vannoorenberghe, called Proportional Conflict Redistribution rule (denoted PCR1). PCR1 and WAO are particular cases of WO (the Weighted Operator) because the conflicting mass is redistributed with respect to some weighting factors. In this first PCR rule, the proportionalization is done for each non-empty set with respect to the non-zero sum of its corresponding mass matrix - instead of its mass column average as in WAO, but the results are the same as Ph. Smets has pointed out. Also, we extend WAO (which herein gives no solution) for the degenerate case when all column sums of all non-empty sets are zero, and then the conflicting mass is transferred to the non-empty disjunctive form of all non-empty sets together; but if this disjunctive form happens to be empty, then one considers an open world (i.e. the frame of discernment might contain new hypotheses) and thus all conflicting mass is transferred to the empty set. In addition to WAO, we propose a general formula for PCR1 (WAO for non-degenerate cases). Several numerical examples and comparisons with other rules for combination of evidence published in literature are presented too. Another distinction between these alternative rules is that WAO is defined on the power set, while PCR1 is on the hyper-power set (Dedekind's lattice). A nice feature of PCR1, is that it works not only on non-degenerate cases but also on degenerate cases as well appearing in dynamic fusion, while WAO gives the sum of masses in this cases less than 1 (WAO does not work in these cases). Meanwhile we show that PCR1 and WAO do not preserve unfortunately the neutrality property of the vacuous belief assignment though the fusion process. This severe drawback can however be easily circumvented by new PCR rules presented in a companion paper.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[50] viXra:1004.0051 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: Haibin Wang, Florentin Smarandache, Yan-Qing Zhang, Rajshekhar Sunderraman
Comments: 4 pages

Neutrosophic set is a part of neutrosophy which studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. Neutrosophic set is a powerful general formal framework that has been recently proposed. However, neutrosophic set needs to be specified from a technical point of view. To this effect, we define the settheoretic operators on an instance of neutrosophic set, we call it single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS). We provide various properties of SVNS, which are connected to the operations and relations over SVNS.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[49] viXra:1004.0050 [pdf] submitted on 8 Apr 2010

A Proof of Smarandache-Pătrașcu's Theorem using Barycentric Coordinates

Authors: Claudiu Coandă
Comments: 4 pages

In this article we prove the Smarandache-Pătrașcu's Theorem in relation to the inscribed orthohomological triangles using the barycentric coordinates.
Category: Geometry

[48] viXra:1004.0049 [pdf] submitted on 8 Apr 2010

Toward an Exciting Rebuilding of Modern Physics

Authors: Alex Ceapa
Comments: 80 pages

At the time factors of unknown origin and physical meaning (like β in the Lorentz transformation, the Dirac matrices, etc.) are embedded in some underlying equations and, by way of consequence, the physical significance of the terms of these equations rests undisclosed, we validate the principle of the physical determination of equations in special relativity theory and relativistic quantum theory, as first step toward an exciting foundation of modern physics on this principle (yet all restraints of the principle are off in modern physics).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[47] viXra:1004.0048 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2010

Non-Equilibrium Dynamics as Root Cause of Some Anomalies in Particle Physics

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 16 pages, This contribution is a sequel to a paper published in Hadronic Journal, Vol. 31(6), p.179, 2008.

Despite its remarkable predictive power, the Standard Model for particle physics (SM) leaves out many open questions. Two representative examples are the issue of CP violation and the anomalous magnetic moment of leptons (AMM). Our work develops from the premise that the postulate of unitary evolution no longer holds near or above the scale of electroweak interaction or near the "new physics" sector of SM. Results suggest that CP violation in kaon physics and the AMM problem are manifestations of nonequilibrium dynamics. Numerical predictions are found to be in close agreement with experimental data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[46] viXra:1004.0047 [pdf] replaced on 6 Jun 2010

Transformation of the Compton Effect and Fundamentals About Electromagnetism

Authors: Arman.V.zadeh
Comments: 33 pages

In this article we want to say about the Compton Effect and the Zeeman Effect. (Both of them are almost one effect (in the fundament and with considering just the refraction proposition of them). We know both of them are about the electromagnetism waves (the waves) and some special properties of them. For example the Zeeman effect is about the refraction of the magnetic fields (or the other made fields by that) of the electromagnetism waves since we put the source of that near the source of the magnetic or electrical field (we'll see the breaking or refraction of the wave) and this proposition is possible that the wave refracts to some part for example two or three part but we should remember that these effects (Zeeman, Compton) aren't just for the light(the electromagnetism type) and of course these proposition are less about the light (and some part of the light like the x-ray or β-ray or γ-ray or ...) But it can't be impossible that these effects be correct also about the light. Of course the Compton Effect is depending on the angle θ with coefficient (1 - cosθ). Now we want to justify that. We can say; if we want to consider the thing's (or waves or the atoms or...) properties we can consider the moving of them and we say that when an electron or another thing is turning around the nucleus quickly we'll take a special force that caused it, and now during the moving or after the moving we can get a special force and we can with this subject say the reason of many effects and now we try to justify simply with this method. For the first time this proposition is so easy but we can take this easy proposition as a principle of our discussion.
Category: Classical Physics

[45] viXra:1004.0046 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2010

Looking For Roots In All The Wrong Places: A Comment on ArXiv:1003.5008

Authors: Ron Bourgoin
Comments: 4 pages

The authors of ArXiv:1003.5008 tell us they are searching for the foundations of quantum mechanics, a theory they say was born early in the twentieth century. As a matter of fact, the theory was born in the eighteenth century.
Category: Quantum Physics

[44] viXra:1004.0045 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (10) there Are Finite Mersenne Primes and there Are Finite Repunits Primes

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 pages

Using Jiang function we prove the finite Mersenne primes and the finite repunits primes.
Category: Number Theory

[43] viXra:1004.0044 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (9) there Are Finite Fermat Primes

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 pages

Using Jiang function we prove the finite fermat primes.
Category: Number Theory

[42] viXra:1004.0043 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2010

The Prime Principle In Clusters And Nanostructures

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 7 pages

Why we have five fingers. We suggest two principles: (1) the prime principle and (2) the symmetric principle. We prove that 1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 23, 47, and 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 22, 46, 94 are the most stable numbers, which are the basic building-blocks in clusters and nanostructures. The prime principle is the mathematical foundations for clusters and nanosciences. It is a theory of everything.
Category: Number Theory

[41] viXra:1004.0042 [pdf] submitted on 6 Apr 2010

Prime Theorem: P2 = AP1 + b, Polignac Theorem and Goldbach Theorem

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 pages

Using Jiang function we prove prime theorem: P2 = aP1 + b, Polignac theorem and Goldbach theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[40] viXra:1004.0041 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

K-Factorial

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 1 pages

As a generalization of the factorial and double factorial one defines the kfactorial of n as the below product of all possible strictly positive factors (see paper)
Category: Number Theory

[39] viXra:1004.0040 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Back and Forth Factorials

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 pages

Back and Forth Factorials
Category: Number Theory

[38] viXra:1004.0039 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Some Unsolved Problems, Questions, and Applications of The Brightsen Nucleon Cluster Model

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 pages

According to the Brightsen Nucleon Cluster Model [1] all nuclides of beta stable isotopes can be described by three fundamental nucleon clusters {NPN,PNP,NP), with halo clusters (NN,PP,NNN) now experimentally observed. The Brightsen model builds on the early cluster models of the Resonating Group Structure of John Wheeler [2] and the Linus Pauling Close-Packed Spheron Model [3], which predict mathematically that the wave function of a composite nucleus can be viewed quantum mechanically as a combination of partial wave functions that correspond to the multiple ways nucleons (protons, neutrons) can be distributed into closepacked clusters, thus rejecting the standard model Hartree-Fock formalism of average field interactions between independent nucleons in nuclear shells. Presented in this section are a number of unsolved problems, questions, and future experimental pathways based on the Brightsen Nucleon Cluster Model formalism--many additional applications can be gleamed from careful study of the literature cited in the references provided
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[37] viXra:1004.0038 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Souvenirs from the Empire of Numbers

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 20 pages

Browsing through my fifth to twelfth grade years of preoccupation for creation I discovered a notebook of Number Theory. I liked to play with numbers as Tudor Arghezi (1880-1967) - our second national Romanian poet {after the genial poet Mihai Eminescu (1850-1889)} - played with words. I was so curious and amazed by the numbers' properties. Interesting theorems, equations, and inequalities! Such fascinating people who dedicated their research to numbers, just for the sake of science! I collected many results and tried to write a handbook of mathematicians and their results.
Category: Number Theory

[36] viXra:1004.0037 [pdf] submitted on 3 Apr 2010

Rank Distance Bicodes and Their Generalization

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, N. Suresh Babu, R.S. Selvaraj
Comments: 152 pages

In this book the authors introduce the new notion of rank distance bicodes and generalize this concept to Rank Distance n-codes (RD n-codes), n, greater than or equal to three. This definition leads to several classes of new RD bicodes like semi circulant rank bicodes of type I and II, semicyclic circulant rank bicode, circulant rank bicodes, bidivisible bicode and so on. It is important to mention that these new classes of codes will not only multitask simultaneously but also they will be best suited to the present computerised era. Apart from this, these codes are best suited in cryptography.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[35] viXra:1004.0036 [pdf] submitted on 5 Apr 2010

Higgs Field and the Creation of Mass - Standing Wave Structure of the Electron-IV

Authors: V.A.Induchoodan Menon
Comments: 12 pages

The author develops his idea of the standing electromagnetic half wave structure of the electron and proposes that the confinement of the wave is effected by the interactions with the Higgs field which can be explained on the basis of the uncertainty principle. These interactions allow vacuum to act like a thermal bath with the standing half wave in equilibrium with it. It is shown that this equilibrium is not destroyed even when it is in uniform translational motion. This invariance of the equilibrium to the velocity transformation is another way of looking at the theory of relativity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[34] viXra:1004.0035 [pdf] replaced on 8 Aug 2010

The Moebius Strip: a Biology of Elementary Particles

Authors: Giuliano Bettini
Comments: v3 169 pages In Italian, v4 164 pages in English.

A book of semi qualitative ideas on electron, quarks and life. We intend to make us a purely electromagnetic image of all interactions and elementary particles, in particular electron, and quarks. This would force even the idea of a single universal vibration, a single field. The electron is interpreted as a small electric current carrying the elementary charge, elementary mass and Planck quantum of action. With the aid of a few math we identify the electron as an electromagnetic half wave closed on a Moebius strip. This is equivalent to a full wavelength making two turns on the border. It is also probably not totally irrelevant to note that this leads to interesting numerics on the fine structure constant. We identify a quark with a confined electromagnetic wave which is not sufficient in itself to complete a closed loop in space. So quarks are pictured as 1/3 and 2/3 of a full wavelength. A space model of their combination leads in a unique way to the entire set of all and only the mesons and baryons. In a quite spontaneous way also the color theory is interpreted. Finally the various helices of quarks are interpreted as living organisms and similarities with a biological behaviour are showed. Arguments here are of course admittedly primitive and mainly qualitative, also if supported with some math, but to my knowledge this overall conjecture has not been discussed elsewhere, and therefore may be useful for further research.
Category: Quantum Physics

[33] viXra:1004.0034 [pdf] submitted on 4 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (8)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 1 page

Using Jiang function we prove that x6 + 1091 has no prime solutions.
Category: Number Theory

[32] viXra:1004.0033 [pdf] submitted on 4 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (7)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 1 page

Using Jiang function we prove that there exist infinitely many primes P such that each jP + 15 - j is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[31] viXra:1004.0032 [pdf] submitted on 4 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (6)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 1 page

Using Jiang function we prove that there exist infinitely many primes P such that each jP + 9 - j is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[30] viXra:1004.0031 [pdf] submitted on 4 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (5)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 1 page

Using Jiang function we prove that there exist infinitely many primes P such that each jP + k - j is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[29] viXra:1004.0030 [pdf] submitted on 4 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (4)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 1 page

Using Jiang function we prove that there exist infinitely many primes P such that each jP + 7 - j is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[28] viXra:1004.0029 [pdf] submitted on 4 Apr 2010

The New Prime Theorem (3)

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 1 page

Using Jiang function we prove that there exist infinitely many primes P such that each jP + 5 - j is a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[27] viXra:1004.0028 [pdf] submitted on 5 Apr 2010

Disproofs of Riemann's Hypothesis

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 13 pages

As it is well known, the Riemann hypothesis on the zeros of the ζ(s) function has been assumed to be true in various basic developments of the 20-th century mathematics, although it has never been proved to be correct. The need for a resolution of this open historical problem has been voiced by several distinguished mathematicians. By using preceding works, in this paper we present comprehensive disproofs of the Riemann hypothesis. Moreover, in 1994 the author discovered the arithmetic function Jn(ω) that can replace Riemann's ζ(s) function in view of its proved features: if Jn(ω) ≠ 0, then the function has infinitely many prime solutions; and if Jn(ω) = 0, then the function has finitely many prime solutions. By using the Jiang J2(ω) function we prove the twin prime theorem, Goldbach's theorem and the prime theorem of the form x2 + 1. Due to the importance of resolving the historical open nature of the Riemann hypothesis, comments by interested colleagues are here solicited.
Category: Number Theory

[26] viXra:1004.0027 [pdf] replaced on 9 Jul 2011

Foundations of Santilli's Isonumber Theory

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 413 pages

In my works (see the bibliography at the end of the Preface) I often expressed the view that the protracted lack of resolution of fundamental problems in science signals the needs of basically new mathematics. This is the case, for example, for: quantitative representations of biological structures; resolution of the vexing problem of grand-unification; invariant treatment of irreversibility at the classical and operator levels; identification of hadronic constituents definable in our spacetime; achievement of a classical representation of antimatter; and other basic open problems.
Category: Number Theory

[25] viXra:1004.0026 [pdf] replaced on 22 Apr 2010

Neutrosophic Diagram and Classes of Neutrosophic Paradoxes

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 14 pages

These paradoxes are called "neutrosophic" since they are based on indeterminacy (or neutrality, i.e. neither true nor false), which is the third component in neutrosophic logic. We generalize the Venn Diagram to a Neutrosophic Diagram, which deals with vague, inexact, ambiguous, illdefined ideas, statements, notions, entities with unclear borders. We define the neutrosophic truth table and introduce two neutrosophic operators (neuterization and antonymization operators) give many classes of neutrosophic paradoxes.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[24] viXra:1004.0025 [pdf] submitted on 3 Apr 2010

An Application of a Theorem of Orthohomological Triangles

Authors: Ion Pătraşcu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 pages

In this note we prove a problem given at a Romanian student mathematical competition, and we obtain an interesting result by using a Theorem of Orthohomological Triangles.
Category: Geometry

[23] viXra:1004.0024 [pdf] submitted on 3 Apr 2010

Neutrosophic Logic as a Theory of Everything in Logics

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 pages

Neutrosophic Logic (NL) is a Theory of Everything in logics, since it is the most general so far. In the Neutrosophic Propositional Calculus a neutrosophic proposition has the truth value (T, I, F), where T is the degree of truth, I is the degree of indeterminacy (or neutral, i.e. neither truth nor falsehood), and F is the degree of falsehood, where T, I, F standard or non-standard subsets of the non-standard unit interval ]-0, 1+[. In addition, these values may vary over time, space, hidden parameters, etc. Therefore, NL is a triple-infinite logic but, by splitting the Indeterminacy, we prove in this article that NL is a n-infinite logic, with n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ... . Also, we present a total order on Neutrosophic Logic.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[22] viXra:1004.0023 [pdf] replaced on 7 Apr 2010

Blogs on Applications of Neutrosophics and Multispace in Sciences

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 21 pages

The following blogs on applications of neutrosophics and multispace in sciences include meditations / reflections on science, comments, hypotheses, proposals, comparisons of ideas, possible projects, extensions or deviations or alternatives to classical knowledge, etc. selected from e-mails, letters, drafts, conversations, impressions, my diary, etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[21] viXra:1004.0021 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Statistical Modelling of Primary Ewing Tumours of the Bone

Authors: Sreepurna Malakar, Florentin Smarandache, Sukanto Bhattacharya
Comments: 12 pages

This short technical paper advocates a bootstrapping algorithm from which we can form a statistically reliable opinion based on limited clinically observed data, regarding whether an osteo-hyperplasia could actually be a case of Ewing's osteosarcoma. The basic premise underlying our methodology is that a primary bone tumour, if it is indeed Ewing's osteosarcoma, cannot increase in volume beyond some critical limit without showing metastasis. We propose a statistical method to extrapolate such critical limit to primary tumour volume. Our model does not involve any physiological variables but rather is entirely based on time series observations of increase in primary tumour volume from the point of initial detection to the actual detection of metastases.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[20] viXra:1004.0020 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Back and Forth Summands

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 pages

Back and Forth Summands
Category: Number Theory

[19] viXra:1004.0019 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Self Knowledge and Knowledge Communication

Authors: Liu Feng, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 pages

To deal with tough issues in knowledge management, the paper reexamines knowledge structure and has proposed a novel knowledge communication model based on the oriental cultural foundation. Knowledge discovery is not a simple addition or accumulation of information, but needs a feasible structural description. As an oriental approach, the paper constructs the structure on the bases of unity of opposites and their neutralities (as in neutrosophy; neutralities are the included middle of two opposites), which stresses the individualized self knowledge pattern or self knowledge structure. It signifies the dynamics in knowledge management - the principle of attraction between opposite natures and the neutralities in between them. It implies an identity in the opposites which serves as the impartial knowledge (since the opposites tend towards their neutralities), the completeness of knowledge, which is defined in the paper as imaginary part of knowledge.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18] viXra:1004.0018 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Vectored Route-Length Minimization - a Heuristic and an Open Conjecture

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Sukanto Bhattacharya
Comments: 7 pages

We have posed a simple but interesting graph theoretic problem and posited a heuristic solution procedure, which we have christened as Vectored Route-length Minimization Search (VeRMinS). Basically, it constitutes of a re-casting of the classical "shortest route" problem within a strictly Euclidean space. We have only presented a heuristic solution process with the hope that a formal proof will eventually emerge as the problem receives wider exposure within mathematical circles.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[17] viXra:1004.0017 [pdf] replaced on 19 Apr 2010

Conditional Probability of Actually Detecting a Financial Fraud a Neutrosophic Extension to Benford's Law

Authors: Sukanto Bhattacharya, Kuldeep Kumar, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 9 pages.

This study actually draws from and builds on an earlier paper (Kumar and Bhattacharya, 2002). Here we have basically added a neutrosophic dimension to the problem of determining the conditional probability that a financial fraud has been actually committed, given that no Type I error occurred while rejecting the null hypothesis H0: The observed first-digit frequencies approximate a Benford distribution; and accepting the alternative hypothesis H1: The observed first-digit frequencies do not approximate a Benford distribution. We have also suggested a conceptual model to implement such a neutrosophic fraud detection system.
Category: Economics and Finance

[16] viXra:1004.0016 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

N-norm and N-conorm in Neutrosophic Logic and Set, and the Neutrosophic Topologies

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 pages

In this paper we present the N-norms/N-conorms in neutrosophic logic and set as extensions of T-norms/T-conorms in fuzzy logic and set. Also, as an extension of the Intuitionistic Fuzzy Topology we present the Neutrosophic Topologies.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[15] viXra:1004.0015 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Neutrosophic Relational Data Model

Authors: Haibin Wang, Rajshekhar Sunderraman, Florentin Smarandache, André Rogatko
Comments: 25 pages

In this paper, we present a generalization of the relational data model based on interval neutrosophic set [1]. Our data model is capable of manipulating incomplete as well as inconsistent information. Fuzzy relation or intuitionistic fuzzy relation can only handle incomplete information. Associated with each relation are two membership functions one is called truth-membership function T which keeps track of the extent to which we believe the tuple is in the relation, another is called falsity-membership function F which keeps track of the extent to which we believe that it is not in the relation. A neutrosophic relation is inconsistent if there exists one tuple a such that T(α) + F(α) > 1. In order to handle inconsistent situation, we propose an operator called "split" to transform inconsistent neutrosophic relations into pseudo-consistent neutrosophic relations and do the set-theoretic and relation-theoretic operations on them and finally use another operator called "combine" to transform the result back to neutrosophic relation. For this data model, we define algebraic operators that are generalizations of the usual operators such as intersection, union, selection, join on fuzzy relations. Our data model can underlie any database and knowledge-base management system that deals with incomplete and inconsistent information.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[14] viXra:1004.0014 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

A Triple Inequality with Series and Improper Integrals

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 pages

As a consequence of the Integral Test we find a triple inequality which bounds up and down both a series with respect to its corresponding improper integral, and reciprocally an improper integral with respect to its corresponding series.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[13] viXra:1004.0013 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

n-ary Fuzzy Logic and Neutrosophic Logic Operators

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, V. Christianto
Comments: 15 pages

We extend Knuth's 16 Boolean binary logic operators to fuzzy logic and neutrosophic logic binary operators. Then we generalize them to n-ary fuzzy logic and neutrosophic logic operators using the smarandache codification of the Venn diagram and a defined vector neutrosophic law. In such way, new operators in neutrosophic logic/set/probability are built.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[12] viXra:1004.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2 Apr 2010

Gravity

Authors: Arman.V.zadeh
Comments: 10 pages

In this article we want to say about the gravity between the atoms to the new and special way. We know that the atom and the gravity between them are stable by moving the electron on the circuits around the nucleus(from the past articles) and know in this article we want to point to some interesting and new methods (at the new theory) to explain the events happened between the atoms and some materials in the gravity system. For this calculate some equation about the gravity.
Category: Classical Physics

[11] viXra:1004.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2 Apr 2010

Measurement of One-Way Speed of Light

Authors: Emil D. Gigov
Comments: 4 pages

Wave theory of light was tested by the Michelson's interferometer, whereas Newtonian corpuscular theory can be tested with the new interferometer, which can show whether the speed of light in empty space is variable during Doppler effect. Such measurement is possible due to the effect of Fizeau.
Category: Classical Physics

[10] viXra:1004.0010 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Strategy on T, I, F Operators.

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 pages

The paper presents an initial explorations on T, I, F operations based on genetic concept hierarchy and genetic referential hierarchy, as a novel proposal to the indeterminacy issue in neutrosophic logic, in contrast to the T, I, F values inherited from conventional logics in which those values would fail to demonstrate the genetic aspect of a concept and accordingly loose the connection between generality and practicality. Based on the novel definition of logic and on the relativity of T, F concept, it illustrates that T, F are hierarchical operations which inter-consist and inter-complement each other, that "I" relates to a learning behavior profiled by an inspiration from I-ching, and that the neutralization operation, as the means to solve contradictions, will eventually come to the unification of opposites, leading to the fundamental issues in Buddhism and such alike. It also implies that Buddhism and Daoism are not religions.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[9] viXra:1004.0009 [pdf] replaced on 31 Aug 2010

Neutrosophic Set - A Generalization of the Intuitionistic Fuzzy Set

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 7 pages

In this paper one generalizes the intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS), paraconsistent set, and intuitionistic set to the neutrosophic set (NS). Many examples are presented. Distinctions between NS and IFS are underlined.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[8] viXra:1004.0008 [pdf] replaced on 31 Aug 2010

Neutrosophic Logic - A Generalization of the Intuitionistic Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 7 pages

In this paper one generalizes the intuitionistic fuzzy logic (IFL) and other logics to neutrosophic logic (NL). The differences between IFL and NL (and the corresponding intuitionistic fuzzy set and neutrosophic set) are pointed out.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[7] viXra:1004.0007 [pdf] replaced on 12 Apr 2010

Algebraic Generalization of Venn Diagram

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 pages

It is easy to deal with a Venn Diagram for 1 ≤ n ≤ 3 sets. When n gets larger, the picture becomes more complicated, that's why we thought at the following codification. That's why we propose an easy and systematic algebraic way of dealing with the representation of intersections and unions of many sets.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[6] viXra:1004.0006 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Toward Dialectic Matter Element of Extenics Model

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 10 pages

Based on the authors intensive investigation on the oriental dialectics, the paper presents a novel theoretical frame of matter element in the world leading science, extenics dealing with inconsistency or incompatibility, covering the widest range of application area from informatics, system engineering to management and finance. The dialectic matter-element is defined as the integral of all existing and prospecting ones based on all the infinite possible cognitive models. The novel model serves as the origin of constraint matter elements, the unity of both state description and cognitive action (cognition force with respect to neural science), a latent part of extenics, and possibly as essence of matter element. It explains, in a novel perspective, the origin of a name, and uncovers the source of contradiction and even the impetus of cognition.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[5] viXra:1004.0005 [pdf] replaced on 21 Jul 2011

Uniform and Partially Uniform Redistribution Rules

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert
Comments: 4 pages

This short paper introduces two new fusion rules for combining quantitative basic belief assignments. These rules although very simple have not been proposed in literature so far and could serve as useful alternatives because of their low computation cost with respect to the recent advanced Proportional Conflict Redistribution rules developed in the DSmT framework.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[4] viXra:1004.0004 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Neutrosophic Logic Based Semantic Web Services Agent

Authors: Haibin Wang, Yan-Qing Zhang, Rajshekhar Sunderraman, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 15 pages

In this paper we propose a framework called Semanic Web Services (see paper for full abstract)
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[3] viXra:1004.0003 [pdf] submitted on 8 Mar 2010

Super-Mathematics Functions

Authors: Mircea Eugen Șelariu
Comments: 14 pages, translated from Romanian by Marian Nitu and Florentin Smarandache

In this paper we talk about the so-called Super-Mathematics Functions (SMF), which often constitute the base for generating technical, neo-geometrical, therefore less artistic objects. These functions are the results of 38 years of research, which began at University of Stuttgart in 1969. Since then, 42 related works have been published, written by over 19 authors, as shown in the References.
Category: Geometry

[2] viXra:1004.0002 [pdf] submitted on 1 Apr 2010

Polarization

Authors: Arman.V.zadeh
Comments: 9 pages

In this article we want to consider the polarization for matters and atoms. We know that if a special ray go down to the surface of a transparent matter and if it was not polarized when it beats to the transparent matter like glass and water it will reflex to polarized way (of course it be in a special angle from water to the ray or from ray to perpendicular line to the water. Now we want to say the reason of that which why effect this event. We know that the special angle is different for different matters like glass or water or... and that's because which the (n) or refracture index for different matters is different and we easily can get the special number for different matters but to this way that we should get the angle between the refracted ray and reflected way to 90o and this subject that why we should take the angle to 90o is a experiment number. So we can get the angle with the Snell law and Brewster law. And in this article we want to consider that why the angle should be 90o (to theory way).
Category: Classical Physics

[1] viXra:1004.0001 [pdf] submitted on 1 Apr 2010

Magnetism

Authors: Arman.V.zadeh
Comments: 7 pages

This article is about the magnetism particular's of matters and here we try to say easily the magnetism effects of matters in the small system like atom also we try to say the magnetism field with the electrical field.
Category: Classical Physics