[156] **viXra:1210.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-12 11:29:59*

**Authors:** Rad H Dabbaj

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

This paper describes a new scientific link between gravity and electromagnetic forces (GE-Link) in the hope of finding the origin and secret of gravity. In the GE-Link one can use only Electromagnetic (EM) and Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) principles to derive a clear residual electric force synonymous with and indistinguishable from the force of gravity. Atoms and molecules have equal amount of positive and negative charge and, as a result, interact by attractive and repulsive electric forces that almost completely cancel each other out. However, these interactions are not symmetrically identical because the experimentally-verified intermolecular van der Waals interactions exhibit a well known asymmetric characteristic property. This will differentially impact the probability amplitudes of interactions of the force carrier virtual particles under QED. When applied to large objects, this breakdown of symmetry provides the basis for the GE-Link and produces a force in line with Einstein’s General Relativity and, in the limit, Newton’s Law of Gravitation. In addition to Newton’s, the force has a velocity-dependent term and a term proportional to gravitational field strength or intensity, both of these “electrical” terms support similar ones in Einstein’s General Relativity. As an upshot, the GE-Link enables one to theoretically derive the underlying formula for the Newtonian gravitational constant G. An interesting outcome is that radial object velocity actually decreases the force of gravity due to EM/Special Relativity considerations. This feature is expected to have some potential implications for the expansion and dynamics of the universe. It is hoped that this new approach to gravity may ultimately lead to a theory of Quantum Electric Gravity compatible with quantum mechanics and in harmony with the other fundamental forces of nature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[155] **viXra:1210.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-30 22:30:16*

**Authors:** Paul Krapivsky, Fang Chen, David Grace

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The paper is focused on the primary issue of protection of transported cash and valuables during the transportation processes. This protection is implemented by workers of the commercial security industry. In this article are stated basic information about the organization and implementation of the transport towards the planning, and the use of defence resources. Emphasis is placed on information about the composition of transported means and their security features. Part of the article is devoted to tactical transport of cash and valuables by workers of the commercial security industry.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[154] **viXra:1210.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-13 06:28:17*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Changed signs in equations and changed interpretations (and figures)

Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave equations for ‘free’ space have serious draw backs in that they only determine the speed of the wave (as if unrelated to any reference frame) but do not determine the waveform, the frequency, the amplitude and the direction of propagation of the wave at every point in ‘free’ space. In short they do not show any ‘connection’ of the wave with its source. The wave is ‘detached’ from its source. The fundamental problem with Maxwell’s equations for ‘free’ space is the assumption of ‘free’ space in which even the source of the wave has no effect at all on the wave. EM waves are just travelling disturbances on (of) static electric and magnetic fields and these disturbances always originate from changing charges or changing current. Maxwell’s equations do not show how these changes in static fields will be propagated to all points in space. This means they do not show the interaction of the static and dynamic fields. Maxwell’s original equations for ‘free’ space are useful only for qualitative study and understanding of the mechanism of the propagation of electromagnetic waves, by the interaction of E and B fields. In this paper, additional terms to be added to the original Maxwell’s equations and a theory of electrostatic and magneto-static fields as the 'mediums' for electromagnetic waves have been proposed.
One of the important consequences of these equations , assuming they are correct, is if there is any dependence of the speed of the resulting electromagnetic wave function on distance r, angles Θ and ϕ relative to the source (at least on distance r for simplicity). Intuitively, we can guess that this dependence exists by looking at the equations because Es and Bs (the static fields) and E and B (the dynamic fields) depend on r. Another important consequence may be that the speed of EM waves is always greater than the ‘free’ space speed, which is the lowest limit. In this case, the speed of the EM wave (light) is defined and will be approximately constant only relative to its source and hence Einstein’s postulate of the constancy of speed of light for all observers will be wrong. An observer in relative motion with respect to a light source not only measures a different light speed, but also will observe a different light beam due to Doppler effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[153] **viXra:1210.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-30 14:52:54*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 2 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article provides a standard measure for improving communication in the financial sciences. It provides the inflator/deflator multiplier for calculating referential euros (rEUR, r€). It is based on the average annual HICP for the euro area, changing composition (European Central Bank, 2011).

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[152] **viXra:1210.0180 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-31 10:40:01*

**Authors:** Gary Heen

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Title change

The model of this paper presupposes that space-time is not a mathematical abstraction, but that space-time is an expanded state of matter. The fundamental quantum of matter is designated the S-brane, (for String/D-brane complex). The S-brane quanta of particle matter and space-time differ from one another only in the volumetric state of the S-brane. The Type I strings and D-branes that comprise the sub-structures of the S-brane are mathematically interpreted as 10-dimensional, 11-dimensional, or 26-dimensional. The relationship of the S-brane quanta to Planck’s natural constants is shown, and a mathematical argument is presented demonstrating the conversion of space-time into particle matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[151] **viXra:1210.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-30 14:13:03*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The recent Theory of Everything leads to some relevant conclusions about God. They are summarized in this article that shows a God with similar characteristics to those postulated by the Religions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[150] **viXra:1210.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-30 10:39:33*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 graph

It is required for a human to travel to various Star Systems to approach the velocity of light in vacuo. Mainstream and popular interpretation of travel velocity requirements is flawed. An explanation is provided.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[149] **viXra:1210.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-30 12:14:51*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 23 Pages. 23

Abstract,
According to Q-FFF theory, we material humans live in one of an even number of CPT symmetrical copy universes however, then we need an instant correlation medium between these universes to synchronize all wavefunction collapses and even our conscious decisions.
Thus, we need an INSTANT timeless Broglie Bohm pilot wave.
Then Schrödinger’s Cat and correlated anti-material Copy Cats, are alive or dead in all universes at the same time and God plays dice in an even number of correlated universes.
The main characteristics of the Quantum-FFF Theory are:
1: Sub Quantum Microstructure of elementary particles including photons, being convertibles of the oscillating dark energy Higgs particle shaping the vacuum lattice..
2: The energetic oscillating Higgs is by collision the origin all particle motion and spin states and even dark energy (125 Gev) inside a truncated tetrahedron shaped chiral vacuum lattice. 3:The lattice chirality (left or right handed) is the origin of our material universe and the a-symmetry of some decay phenomena.
4: The Higgs vacuum lattice is transportation medium of all photonic information and able to mimic relativity rules down to a measurable level.
5: Nothing sucks in physics and everything is Entangled by INSTANT communication between at least two anti-copy Universes or the Multiverse, being entangled since the big bang. (the Broglie-Bohm pilot wave) or between entangled particles in the lab.
6: Black holes of all sizes (down to ball lightning) can not emit gravitons themselves, as a consequence, they must be massless but also counter intuitive the origin of all dark matter due to a gravitational Casimir pressure effect.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[148] **viXra:1210.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-05 15:38:13*

**Authors:** Nolan L. Aljaddou

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This work is an analytic establishment of the proper underlying theoretical foundation of the science of physics, in terms of its most fundamental precept - measurement - in order to formulate the proper solution to some of its ultimate problems as well as to explain some of its greatest mysteries. It is grouped into two primary sections, the first covering the purely mathematical foundation, with the latter the application of the mathematical tools derived in order to construct the proper physical foundation. These two groups are further divided into subsections exemplifying a dual logic premise/implication structure of establishing necessary first principles alone, followed by the ultimate extent of the logical consequences of those principles. In the mathematical section this takes the form of first addressing the mathematical principle common to all physical measurement and then demonstrating the extent of its logical application in deriving the various branches of mathematics necessary for physics. In the following physical section, the nature of fundamental measures such as space and time and their exact interrelationship is established, followed by an examination of their consequential manifest properties in producing the existence of matter and its counterpart anti-matter, as well as the nature of their mutual interaction. The origin of fundamental particle variety is then established, following its effects through to the cosmological phenomena of black holes and the big bang, and the organization of subatomic structure. The exposition concludes in deducing the fundamental universal principle which governs all physical phenomena in their varied forms. Broadly speaking, the categories of foundation established are listed in order as follows: Foundations of Mathematics, Fundamental Branches of Mathematics, Quantum Physics, General Relativity, Classical Physics, Elementary Particle Physics, Cosmology, and Unification Physics - covering the spectrum of general mathematical physics classification. Fundamental problems solved include: the identity of the most fundamental axiom of mathematics, the proper axiomatic establishment of the calculus, the proper derivation and establishment of the correct framework of quantum physics - and clarification of quantum misunderstanding - the explanation for matter's curvature of space-time, the reason for classical inertia and the form of the electromagnetic equations, the explanation for the divisions of fundamental particles and the fundamental forces, the mathematical proof of the existence of Yang-Mills theory of chromodynamics and its relation to producing the big bang and the internal effects of black holes, the identity of the unification principle of physics, and several others. Its reductionist nature establishes that it is the ultimate, unique foundation of all physical principles and by its nature the only means of solving and understanding the essential problems addressed therein.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[147] **viXra:1210.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-29 19:32:30*

**Authors:** Friedwardt Winterberg

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

It is shown that the recently observed 125 GeV resonance energy believed to result from the spin 0 Higgs boson of the standard model might without a violation of the averaged null energy condition as well be explained by a spin 2 graviton, assuming the existence of negative masses. With this assumption the 125 GeV resonance energy can be explained by the positive gravitational interaction energy of a positive mass particle of ~1013 GeV with a likewise negative mass particle. The existence of particles with this energy can perhaps be confirmed by cosmic ray data, where the Greisen-Zatsepin cut-off at 5 x 1013 GeV is of the same order of magnitude.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[146] **viXra:1210.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-29 17:24:24*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 171 Pages.

Cum să traduc din engleză în romȃnă cuvȃntul Extenics
(care este conectat cu Extension)?
M-am gȃndit la „Extenică” pentru început, romȃnizare a noţiunii,
dar mai descriptiv se arată neologismul „Extensică” (amintind şi
de Extins, sau Extindere - traducerea lui Extension).
EXTENSICA este ştiinţa rezolvării problemelor
contradictorii din multe domenii, introdusă de profesorul chinez
Dr. Cai Wen în anul 1983.
(Autorul)
***
Această carte, despre sudul Chinei, continuă noul gen literarartistic
lansat de Florentin Smarandache în 2004,
numit
FOTOJURNAL INSTANTANEU
adaptat cerinţelor cititorului şi scriitorului contemporan grăbit,
bazat pe abundenţa de imagini corespunzătoare textului, plus
scrierea directă, rapidă, la prima mȃnă, pe locul vizitei, cu verbe
puţine, şi exprimări scurte, neşlefuite.
(Editorul)

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[145] **viXra:1210.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-18 15:14:48*

**Authors:** Ernesto Lopez Gonzalez

**Comments:** 55 Pages.

Background: At present in physics there are 2 large and seemingly incompatible theories: the theory of General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. A model to derive Quantum Mechanics from General Relativity is presented here.Results: A six dimensional model with the following characteristics is proposed: 1 temporal dimension and 5 spatial dimensions (3 extended spatial dimensions and a plane of compacted dimensions; where elementary particles like partons and electrons move at the speed of light in elliptical paths with a perimeter equal to a half Compton wavelength). The charge / mass ratio and the intrinsic magnetic momentum of the electron solely from its mass are estimated.The gravitational wave equations are solved for the particular case of a flat three-dimensional space. The boundary conditions are set assuming that the waves are guided by the curvature of compacted dimensions. In particular, exact solutions are obtained for the case of a motionless particle-pulsation, uniform l
inear motion particle-pulsation and the relativistic hydrogen atom. These solutions justify the postulates of quantum mechanics and provide numerical solutions compatible with the experimental data. Finally a possible origin of inertia is proposed.Conclusions: We should review the dual wave-particle concept in favour of a solely gravitational wave nature. It is remarkable to note that the same conclusions can be drawn with other configurations of compacted dimensions (whether it be in number, size or topology).
Note to the 6th version: It is a translate to english of the 5th version with minor changes

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[144] **viXra:1210.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-29 10:10:40*

**Authors:** Robert Mingesz, Laszlo B. Kish, Zoltan Gingl, Claes-Goran Granqvist, He Wen, Ferdinand Peper, Travis Eubanks, Gabor Schmera

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

There is an ongoing debate about the fundamental security of existing quantum key exchange schemes. This debate indicates not only that there is a problem with security but also that the meanings of perfect, imperfect, conditional and unconditional (information theoretic) security in physical secure key exchange schemes are often misunderstood. It has been shown recently that the use of two pairs of resistors with enhanced Johnson-noise and a Kirchhoff-loop—i.e., a Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) protocol—for secure key distribution leads to information theoretic security levels superior to those of today's quantum key distribution. This issue is becoming particularly timely because of the recent full cracks of practical quantum communicators, as shown in numerous peer-reviewed publications. The KLJN system is briefly surveyed with discussions about the essential questions such as: perfect and imperfect security characteristics of the key distribution, and how can these two types of securities be unconditional (or information theoretical)?

**Category:** Classical Physics

[143] **viXra:1210.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-28 21:00:28*

**Authors:** Wan-Jiung Hu

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

Unstable angina is common clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis. However, the detailed pathogenesis of unstable angina is still not known. Here, I propose that unstable angina is a mixed TH17 and TH1 immune disorder. By using microarray analysis, I find out that TH1 and TH17 related cytokine, cytokine receptor, chemokines, complement, immune-related transcription factors, anti-bacterial genes, Toll-like receptors, and heat shock proteins are all up-regulated in peripheral leukocytes of unstable angina. In addition, H-ATPase, glycolytic genes, platelet and RBC related genes are also up-regulated in peripheral leukocytes of during unstable angina. It also implies that atherosclerosis is a mixed TH17 and TH1 autoimmune disease. If we know the etiology of unstable angina as well as atherosclerosis better, we can have better methods to control and prevent this detrimental illness.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[142] **viXra:1210.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-28 16:15:15*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 5 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article provides a standard measure for improving communication in the financial sciences. It provides the inflator/deflator multiplier for calculating referential New Zealand dollars (rNZD, r$). It is based on the average annual CPI for all groups (estimated from quarter inflation index values provided by the Reserve Bank of New Zealand).

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[141] **viXra:1210.0167 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-23 09:25:37*

**Authors:** Cristian Dumitrescu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, I present a connection between the Riemann Hypothesis and model theory, and this connection leads to a solution to the Riemann Hypothesis.

**Category:** Number Theory

[140] **viXra:1210.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-28 06:52:55*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The dinosaur evolved, lived, became extinct and was fossilized within a few literal hours! Claim1: According to the Christian theology, the universe, the earth and life were created by God only about 7500 years ago. The human being was exceptionally created by God. God created life and the universe according to the laws of nature and the universe He created Himself, with some exceptions, including the creation of the human being. Claim2: Yet, according to scientific theories and facts, the age of the universe is around 13.7 billion years, the earth was formed about 4.5 billion years ago, life on earth started about 2.5 billion? years ago and species evolved through natural selection for billions and millions of years. How can we reconcile these discrepancies? Fundamentally, we can’t comprehend creation of life and the universe by God, as it is. However, we can use analogies, models to interpret the scientific theories from religious perspective. If the scientific theories and facts are correct and valid, then... God completed millions and billions years of evolutionary processes in a few literal hours and days! God SPEEDED UP the evolutionary processes of biology, fossilization, geology and cosmology. ‘SPEEDING’ up can be interpreted in two different ways. The first interpretation is to think of an analogy with speeding up the playing rate of your DVD player. While speeding up the cosmic evolutions, the evolutions on earth were going normal. And while speeding up the evolutionary processes on earth, the cosmic evolutions were going normal. The dinosaur existed for millions of years from its own perspective; from God’s perspective it existed for a few literal, real hours . However, the animals and plants never experienced night, because they were born, lived and died during a fraction of time in the daytime. The second interpretation is that from dinosaurs point of view, it existed on earth for millions of years. However, from God’s perspective, the dinosaur existed for a few literal hours on earth. The dinosaur evolved, lived, became extinct and was fossilized in a few literal hours. The second interpretation differs from the first one in that the same sun that swept the sky only once on creation Friday from the perspective of God also swept the sky billions of times from the dinosaur’s perspective, resulting in billions of days and nights. Rationally this is incomprehensible and perhaps impossible, but spiritually it is possible. However this second alternative interpretation seems to contradict with Genesis because there were no billions of days and nights implied on the Genesis. However we will keep this alternative too. In these interpretations, two time perspectives have been presented. But how do we know which time perspective is real and which one is illusion ? The only way we know the reality of one time perspective is through our consciousness. A scientist strongly opposing religious teachings would surely say it was one literal week and not billions of years, after AWAKENING, if he lived during creation week because he is a conscious being. So consciousness and real time may have relationship. On the other hand, there is an inconsistency between fossil succession and Genesis. This might be because fossil dating shows when the animals or plants died, where as Genesis shows when they were created. This has the implication that life spans might have been millions or billions of years during creation time, varying from species to species. The variation in likelihood of fossilization of each species may also have some role.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[139] **viXra:1210.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-13 03:15:04*

**Authors:** Arka Prabha Banik

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

The story of F theory came top the light because of Cumrun Vafa . Here we have tried to show the journey and some aspects of F theory .

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[138] **viXra:1210.0164 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-23 16:58:35*

**Authors:** Aleksandr V. Bukalov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 13th International Gamow Summer School “Astronomy and Beyond: Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravitation, Cosmomicrophysics, Radio-astronomy and Astrobiology”, 2013, Odessa, Ukraine.

Application of a quantum theory of superconductivity to the formation of the primary dark energy at the Planck scale allows us to solve the cosmological constant problem and to obtain the observed value of the dark energy density, corresponding to PLANK results. It is oﬀered the new model of exponential expansion and the hot stage of the Universe. It is followed that the modern evolution of the universe can be viewed as a process of phase transition, and the physical time is an indicator of this transition.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[137] **viXra:1210.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-27 16:32:16*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 2 pictures

It is hypothesized that M87 quasar (elliptical galaxy) is not only a new galaxy which is creating elemental patterns, but is much closer than scientific dogma holds to be true.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[136] **viXra:1210.0162 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-10 07:29:25*

**Authors:** Andrei P. Kirilyuk

**Comments:** 34 pages, 28 eqs, 56 refs; minor corrections in the last version; Journal-ref: Nanosystems, Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies 11(2) (2013) 217-248

The existence of the omnipresent Higgs field providing the fundamental origin of elementary particle mass is the main theoretical concept behind the ongoing large-scale experiments at the LHC accelerator. We critically reconsider the properties of this concept of mass noting that many fundamental deficiencies and hard problems it contains leave serious doubts about this interpretation, without feasible progress in view. We then present another, dynamic and universal concept of mass avoiding these problems and thus opening a competitive new possibility for LHC result interpretation. It is based on the unreduced, nonperturbative solution to (arbitrary) many-body interaction problem providing the universal origin of relativistic inertial and gravitational mass in the form of emerging complex (chaotic) dynamics within the properly specified elementary field-particle, thus rigorously completing the double-solution ideas of Louis de Broglie. As practically all other old "mysteries" and new problems of fundamental physics are also naturally resolved within this unified complex-dynamical solution due to its essential mathematical novelty and provable completeness, we propose to consider it as a viable alternative in interpretation of LHC and other high-energy facilities results.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[135] **viXra:1210.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-27 09:09:57*

**Authors:** Martin Erik Horn

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The trinomial triangle can be constructed in a binomial way using unit vectors of geometric algebra of quarks. This sheds some light on the question, how it is possible to transform mathematically entities of two elements into entities of three elements or vice versa.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[134] **viXra:1210.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-26 19:22:19*

**Authors:** Eddie A. Maalouf

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This abstract will apply traditional RF phase combining methods onto M-theory string pair interactions to postulate mainly two things:
•The speed of light constancy and its relation to the “spatial” and “temporal” dimensions.
•Gravity generation as a component/by-product of the phase combining process.
It will describe specific co-relations between Electro-Magnetic Field (EMF) Radio Frequency (RF) phase combining methods currently in use and the similarities resulting from outcomes when strings/loops/bands oscillate through M-theory’s six dimensional Calabi-Yau manifolds.
In retrospect, this abstract draws general co-relations between all viable “Theories of Everything” (ToE) since, amongst other things they all attempt to explain the “constancy” of the speed of light and gravity generation.
KEYWORDS: Quantum phase combining, M-theory virtual string pair interactions, spatial, temporal, gravity generation, strings, loops, bands, six dimensional Calabi-Yau manifolds, superluminal, luminal, sub-luminal, EMF, RF.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[133] **viXra:1210.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-26 19:27:12*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. To be published in AIP proceedings of the Quantum Theory: Reconsideration of Foundations 6 conference in Växjö, Sweden

This paper presents a concise exposition of the Dimensional Theory, a novel framework which helps make sense out of the Copenhagen Interpretation as it explains the peculiarities of quantum mechanics in a way that is most consistent with that interpretation. \footnote{A recording of the talk based on this material can be viewed at http://youtu.be/GurBISsM308 }

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[132] **viXra:1210.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-26 23:05:14*

**Authors:** B. Sacco, A.K. Tomilin

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

The Tesla wireless transmission of energy original experiment, proposed again in a downsized scale by K. Meyl, has been replicated in order to test the hypothesis of the existence of electroscalar (longitudinal) waves. Additional experiments have been performed, in which we have investigated the features of the electromagnetic processes between the two spherical antennas. In particular, the origin of coils resonances has been measured and analyzed. Resonant frequencies calculated on the basis of the generalized electrodynamic theory, are in good agreement with the experimental values found.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[131] **viXra:1210.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-27 01:10:44*

**Authors:** Diego Alonso Cortez

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We compute the primes up to 1 million by starting an arithmetic progression at every positive integer 2n, that grows by n, where n > 1. All numbers not in the progression are prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[130] **viXra:1210.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-26 13:33:02*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The article treats that the quantization in the Bohr’s theory about the hydrogen atom.
If calculates the electron motion in the hydrogen atom by the classical mechanic, can do the quantization in the Bohr’s theory about the hydrogen atom. In this time, the electron’s orbit velocity is non-relativity velocity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[129] **viXra:1210.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-26 10:47:04*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 reference

There is no experiment to have shown that light travels at a rate faster than 299,792,458 meters per second. Therefore any hypothesis that claims to have measured objects ejecting material in outer space at rates faster than light are simply arbitrary and ad hoc. Scientists can either keep the laws that we understand and can test, or they can make up fantasy after fantasy to suit their imaginations’ desire.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[128] **viXra:1210.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-26 10:18:34*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache (Autor), Bernd Hutschenreuther ( Übersetzer)

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Das Florentin’sche Homonym dreht Homonyme von den Füßen auf den Kopf!
Es kehrt Grammatik- und Sprachregeln um, trotzt dabei der Grammatik und liebt Fehler, indem es die Sprache stört, Mehrdeutigkeiten zwischen Wörtern und Bedeutungen (die homonymische Kollision) nutzt, Folgesätze mit zwei oder mehr homonymen Formen, die entweder als separater homonymer Ausdruck oder als eine Reihe von Homonymen gebildet werden, aufstellt,
und selbstverständlich den immerwährenden Humor, der wie das Salz in der Suppe wirkt, nicht vergisst!

**Category:** Linguistics

[127] **viXra:1210.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-26 10:21:51*

**Authors:** F. Smarandache

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A Florentin’s Homonym uses homonyms
in an upside-down way!... entangling grammar
and language rules, defying orthography…
loving mistakes…
- employing tongue hindering;
- ambiguities of words and senses (homonymic
clash);
- or sentences with two or more homonymic
forms put together - either as separate homonymic phrase, or as a
chain of homonyms;
- and, of course, the eternal humor which helps
as does the salt in the food!

**Category:** Linguistics

[126] **viXra:1210.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-26 10:28:41*

**Authors:** F. Smarandache

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Being paradoxist in nature, Florentin’s Laws are especially deviations, modifications, generalizations, contra-sayings, parodies, or mixtures of the previous Murphy’s Laws and Peter’s Laws. And also of aphorisms, proverbs, known citations, clichés, scientific results (from physics, mathematics, philosophy, ...), etc.
Alternatively, collations of opposite ideas - gathered from folklore, from ads, from literature, from familiar speech.
For example, Murphy’s law
“Anything that can go wrong will go wrong”
which in Peter’s law is stated as:
“If anything can go wrong, Fix It!”
becomes in Florentin’s law, through deviation:
“If anything can go wrong, pass it on to someone else!”
in a Machiavelli way, as a mixture of pessimism / optimism and laugh!
In the above example, while Murphy’s law output is negative and Peter’s law output is positive, Florentin’s law output is indeterminate [perversity] as in neutrosophic logic (i. e. the problem has not be solved, but passed to another person!... it’s a trickery (deception, cunning, dodge, swindle, caper, subterfuge).
Each Florentin's Law should include: negative (pessimism) and positive (optimism) attributes, while its conclusion should be moderate – often trickery bended with humor.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[125] **viXra:1210.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-26 10:33:23*

**Authors:** F. Smarandache

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The Florentin's Cliché should be constructed as follows:
- Change the figurative language [figure of speech] of a cliché to a literal language;
- Or distort the clichés, make them abnormal, deviate their common sense by simple substitutions of words;
- Or eliminate some words from a cliché, or switch the verbs between assertion and negation, in order to give the cliché a surprising new significance:
- Or consider a chain of (more or less) contradictory clichés and put together with a unitary semantics;
- Or juxtapose a cliché with a … (partial or total) contradictory syntagma!
And as a whole the Florentin’s Cliché should be bended with humor.

**Category:** Linguistics

[124] **viXra:1210.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-26 10:35:37*

**Authors:** F. Smarandache

**Comments:** 86 Pages.

This volume includes author’s paradoxist experiments in linguistics from a literary point of view.
One devises various methods that deviate and alter the classical form of some linguistic expressions.
Eleven linguistic categories are presented (Murphy’s laws, the clichés, homonyms, tautologies, proverbs, metagrams, translations, definitions, figures of paradoxism, monorhymes, and abbreviations), which afterwards are respectively turned into their corresponding Florentin’s laws, clichés, homonyms, etc. and exemplified.

**Category:** Linguistics

[123] **viXra:1210.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-26 10:38:22*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, V. Christianto

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This is a unique booklet comprised of advices and possible tips you can use on how to make the best out of your pet/dog in workplace and other situations. Some of these gems come from our own experience, and some come from watching these practices surrounding us.
As our last advice before you jump through this book, (a) do these advices at your own risks; (b) managing the dog outside is much easier than managing ‘the dog’ inside yourself; (c) don’t take your dog to workplace/office if you are not confident enough that your dog is always at your side.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[122] **viXra:1210.0148 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-17 10:43:16*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The author had published a paper on the solutions for the twin primes conjecture in an international mathematics journal in 2003. This paper approaches the twin primes problem through the analysis of the intrinsic nature of the prime numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[121] **viXra:1210.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-18 12:08:54*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The author had published a paper on the solutions for the twin primes conjecture in an international mathematics journal in 2003. This paper approaches the twin primes problem through the analysis of the composite numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[120] **viXra:1210.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-09 10:10:42*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The motion of fluids which are incompressible could be described by the Navier-Stokes differential equations. However, the
three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for modelling turbulence misbehave very badly although they are relatively simplelooking. The solutions could wind up being extremely unstable even with nice, smooth, reasonably harmless initial conditions. A mathematical understanding of the outrageous behaviour of these equations would greatly affect the field of fluid mechanics.
In this paper, which had been published in the International Journal of Nonlinear Science, Vol. 10 (2010) No. 3, pp.264-278, a reasoned, practical approach towards resolving the issue is adopted and a practical, statistical kind of mathematical solution is proposed.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[119] **viXra:1210.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-25 17:44:06*

**Authors:** Steven Zins

**Comments:** 6 pages

Dayton Miller performed an experiment in 1925-1926 that, at face value, contradicted relativity theory. The strongest argument against Miller's experiment is that subsequent Michelson-Morley experiments yielded increasing consistency with relativity, disagreeing with Miller's results. But subsequent experiments were not valid replications of Miller's. Specifically, they failed to replicate the medium in the light path and the scale of Miller's experiment. A valid replication must either be exact or be demonstrably equivalent with regard to its crucial sensing region. The unexplained effects seen by Miller demand exact replication. The proposed experiment is crucial for special relativity but is more than a replication of Miller. This proposed Crucial Experiment should use a Michelson-Morley apparatus with a 4.25 m arm length as Miller used. The novelty of this experiment is that the light path should be in a chamber that can be operated from near zero to one atmosphere. Predictions: (1) At one atmosphere, the result will agree with Miller's and contradict relativity. (2) Near zero atmospheres, the result will agree with Georg Joos' and agree with relativity. (3) Intermediate pressures will yield intermediate results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[118] **viXra:1210.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-25 19:57:37*

**Authors:** S. J. Nettleton

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

The use of Computable General Equilibrium modelling in evidence-based policy requires an advanced policy making frame of reference, advanced understanding of neoclassical economics and advanced operations research capabilities. This paper examines developments in neoclassical economic models for the analysis of strategy and policy. Regions and industries have the ever-present challenge of building a future where production is competitive and employment is durable. In this context, the inhibitor effects of potential climate constraints on regional industries and bilateral trade is currently a topic of major concern to polity. Threats often bring opportunities and these are sometimes major disruptions to traditional industry structure. Therefore of equal interest to some policy makers are the strategic opportunities that a window of superior domestic productivity and resource expansiveness may bring to nations seeking a transformative boost in export performance. The Spatial Climate Economic Policy Tool for Regional Equilibria (Sceptre) is an intertemporal, multiregional general equilibrium model for investigating regional and industry strategies in the presence of global policies such as carbon emission constraints. In its simplest mode, Sceptre translates global climate policies to regional and commodity effects. This is achieved by bringing together traditional markets for commodities with new markets in carbon commodities. These new markets are emission permits trading and a technology function for carbon abatement and amelioration. A general equilibrium is settled by optimising a social welfare function, in the mode of a Negishi format, within a nonlinear economic-climate feedback loop. Both the technology function for carbon abatement and amelioration and the economic-climate feedback loop have precedent in William Nordhaus' DICE model. The social welfare function comprises regional economic expansion factors, which are developed in a multiregional context using a data envelopment or benchmarking technique successfully applied by Thjis ten Raa to single period national and bilateral models. In a novel intertemporal innovation, Sceptre draws together disciplines of economics and finance by substituting resource constraints with Dupont sales to asset ratios in order to dynamically link and mediate the stocks and flows of each commodity. This avoids the issue in Ramsey models that investment is merely an uncontrolled residual of production and consumption, and the issue in the Leontief B-matrix approach that final industry assets are cannibalised. Regionally aggregated Make and Use matrices drawn from GTAP's Social Accounting Matrices are used in the underling economic model as regional-commodity production function tableaux. Outputs for policy consideration include global geophysical climate effects, regional and industry activity levels, bilateral trade flows, potential resource expansiveness, investment, labour and regional and industry rates of transition from carbon trading to carbon amelioration and abatement.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[117] **viXra:1210.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-25 15:52:02*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 2 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article provides a standard measure for improving communication in the financial sciences. It provides the inflator/deflator multiplier for calculating referential British pounds (rGBP, r£), which is based on the average annual CPI for Great Britain (Rate Inflation, 2011).

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[116] **viXra:1210.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-25 16:03:56*

**Authors:** Martin Erik Horn

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Poster presentation at AGACSE 2012 in La Rochelle

Quarks are described mathematically by (3 x 3) matrices. To include these quarkonian mathematical structures into Geometric algebra it is helpful to restate Geometric algebra in the mathematical language of (3 x 3) matrices. It will be shown in this paper how (3 x 3) permutation matrices can be interpreted as unit vectors. And as S3 permutation symmetry is flavour symmetry a unified flavour picture of Geometric algebra will emerge.

**Category:** Algebra

[115] **viXra:1210.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-25 12:49:09*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Abstract
Mass energy is created or destroyed according to ‘the law of accelerating universe’.
The universe didn’t start as infinitely dense and infinitely hot space time and mass energy as stated in the Big Bang model. It started as a ‘Nano Bang’ (‘Micro Bang’, ‘Small Bang’) , with infinitely small mass energy and space time and infinitely small rate of expansion. At the beginning the rate of expansion was infinitely small, or zero. So the universe must ACCELERATE to expand. The accelerating expansion of the universe we observe today is just a continuation of the initial accelerating expansion during the ‘moment’ of the ‘Nano Bang’ and is not due to an ‘initial’ cosmic velocity of the ‘Big Bang’ model. The universe accelerated/ is accelerating not only in its expansion but also in its mass energy content and time. Time itself is accelerating. Thus the long standing paradigm of mass energy conservation should be abandoned. The same force that caused the accelerating expansion of the universe during the moment of the ‘Small Bang’ may be causing the accelerating expansion of the universe we observe today. The total energy of the universe is not zero! It is positive! We are already observing the accelerating expansion of the universe. The law of conservation of mass energy applies only ‘horizontally’ and not ‘vertically’. This means that the law of conservation of mass energy only applies at a specific point in time of the universe. Mass energy at a specific time is conserved and cannot be created or destroyed arbitrarily within a short period of time. Mass energy is created or destroyed according to a certain law of creation and destruction of mass energy: the LAW OF ACCELERATING UNIVERSE or the LAW OF CREATION.
Therefore, the accelerating expansion of the universe indicates that the universe came into existence out of nothing, ‘accelerating’ continuously from nothing to something.
The universe may not be considered simply as mass energy and space time. We may understand it better as a ’biological’ entity. Just as a living organism is not considered as simply mass energy and space time, the same may apply to the universe. So the universe should have a ‘DNA’, which contains all the information about the structure of the universe at any point in time. At the beginning of the universe, the ‘seed’ of the universe came into existence out of nothing and this seed had its DNA. Thus, birth, growth and death should also be nature of the universe just as these are the nature of living organisms.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[114] **viXra:1210.0140 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-25 10:11:22*

**Authors:** Patrick A Devlin

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In number theory, and especially the study of the diophantine approximation, the Lonely Runner Conjecture is a conjecture with important and widespread applications in mathematics.
A previous paper by this author proved the lonely runner conjecture for any n, for the special case of integers with particularly correlated prime factors. In this paper we attempt to extend this work to the general case of n arbitrary integers. The paper demonstrates that a set of integers with correctly correlated prime factors, such that they satisfy the conjecture, can be modified to approximate any set of arbitrary integers with infinite precision.

**Category:** Number Theory

[113] **viXra:1210.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-25 08:08:50*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

It is shown that, contrary to customary perception, at their very roots, both science and religion are based on certain mere sensations of truth which are not validated, and instead, are accepted upon belief as being in fact true.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[112] **viXra:1210.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-24 17:45:08*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

The following article provides the inflator/deflator multiplier for calculating referential US dollars (rUSD, r$). It is based on the average value of the United States consumer price index for all urban consumers - US CPI-U Average (United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, 20112). The CPI-U is a useful index for comparing the cost of consumer goods and services (Williamson, 2011), and represents well the consumer patterns of about 80% of the U.S. population (excluding rural consumers, the military and institutional populations - Wikipedia, 2011).

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[111] **viXra:1210.0137 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-19 07:37:15*

**Authors:** Diego Marin

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Please delete previous versions. They contain mistakes

We revisit the original formulation of Arrangement Field Theory. In the new approach, all degrees of freedom, both bosonic and fermionic, fit a unique 6 x 6 matrix whose entries take value in the Lie algebra sl(2,\mathbf{O}). There is no place here for new fermionic fields except gravitino. Conversely, as new bosonic fields there appear SU(6) gauge fields, graviton and spin-connections. The resulting theory is invariant under superspace diffeomorphisms. These include local supersymmetry and then supergravity. Finally, the theory seems to be renormalizable.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[110] **viXra:1210.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-24 03:35:08*

**Authors:** Antoine Acke

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

The "theory of informatons" explains the gravitational interactions by the hypothesis that "information" is the substance of gravitational fields. The constituent element of that substance is called an "informaton".
The theory starts from the idea that any material object manifests itself in space by the emission of informatons: granular mass and energy less entities rushing away with the speed of light and carrying information about the position and about the velocity of the emitter.
In this article the gravitational field is characterized, the laws of gravito-electromagnetism are mathematically deduced from the dynamics of the informatons, the gravitational interactions are explained as the effect of the trend of a material object to become blind for flows of information generated by other objects, and gravitons are identified as informatons carrying a quantum of energy

**Category:** Classical Physics

[109] **viXra:1210.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-23 18:38:54*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 112 Pages.

Prof. Florentin Smarandache, during his research period in the Summer of 2012 at
the Research Institute of Extenics and Innovation Methods, from Guangdong University of
Technology, in Guangzhou, China, has introduced the Linear and Non-Linear Attraction
Point Principle and the Network of Attraction Curves, he has generalized the 1D Extension
Distance and the 1D Dependent Function to 2D, 3D, and in general to n-D Spaces, and he
generalized Qiao-Xing Li’s and Xing-Sen Li’s definitions of the Location Value of a Point
and the Dependent Function of a Point on a Single Finite Interval from one dimension (1D)
to 2D, 3D, and in general n-D spaces.
He used the Extenics, together with Victor Vlădăreanu, Mihai Liviu Smarandache,
Tudor Păroiu, and Ştefan Vlăduţescu, in 2D and 3D spaces in technology, philosophy, and
information theory.
Extenics is the science of solving contradictory problems in many fields set up by
Prof. Cai Wen in 1983.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[108] **viXra:1210.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-23 19:28:09*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 2 Pages. The MCAS electron orbital model is given in several places elsewhere.

“Why do electrons generate the Balmer series?” Not just that they do. In the MCAS model, they do so because the nuclei and electrons have different motion parameters, but their interaction (!) must coincide when the electron approaches the nucleus. Passing close to the nucleus allows the necessary intimacy, whereas the distant circular Bohr orbits (and those of all other models) never seemed to provide any such mechanism. Higher mathematical treatments have not provided a logical physical explanation either; just parameters to make it so as did the refinement of the Bohr model.
This short paper demonstrates that simple Newtonian physics can be applied to the electron-nucleus realm and generate the principal quantum numbers of a single electron a priori.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[107] **viXra:1210.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-23 14:58:23*

**Authors:** Ali R. Hadjesfandiari

**Comments:** 8 pages, 1 figure

It is simply proved that the Hamiltonian for an electric point charge interacting with a fixed magnetic monopole does not exist. This shows that the concept of magnetic monopole is inconsistent within the theory of electrodynamics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[106] **viXra:1210.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-30 06:51:49*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 5 Pages; 2 Figures; 4 Tables

This paper re-analyses published data obtained from mind science experiments in
2009 and 2010 relating to changes in Newtonian gravitational force, Fg , as the earth
circles the sun, and how perception of a measured length, L, of a standard yardstick is
affected. The equation L = 6E+105Fg
-δ was found with a high correlation coefficient
R2 = 0.9745. The exponential of the gravitational force is Feigenbaum’s constant
within 0.013% error. This is another example of the mind’s ability to interact with
gravity and produce a universal constant.
This discovery suggests that consciousness is intimately connected to the fabric of the
universe and chaos theory, with several implications including a connection to the
outer universe appearing to expand against gravity, and a possible connection between
dark energy, consciousness, and the Higgs field.
Key Words
Mind; Consciousness; Chaos; Feigenbaum’s Constant; Gravity; Structure of the
Universe

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[105] **viXra:1210.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-23 10:25:58*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Matter and energy do not represent reality because they are abstractions, extreme generalizations of the reality we experience.

**Category:** Linguistics

[104] **viXra:1210.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-23 06:37:29*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We consider that the vacuum has not any energy.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[103] **viXra:1210.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-22 21:46:31*

**Authors:** Richard Smith, Chenwen Zheng, Frederic Launois

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This work developed a heuristic algorithm to find a solution for the CSAHLP problem. Two formulations were proved CSAHLP-C y CSAHLP-N. For the CSAHLP-C only three size of nodes were proved: 10, 20 and 25 nodes. For problems with more nodes the Cpu-time was very large. For the CSAHLP-N six size of nodes were proved: 10, 20, 25, 40, 50 and 100 nodes. The Cpu-time found are interesting and the gaps are few in the most of cases.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[102] **viXra:1210.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-22 16:16:11*

**Authors:** C. G. Provatidis

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This paper reveals that the reference function G(2n)=2n/(ln(n))^2 plays a significant role in the distribution of the total number of pairs (p, q) of primes that fulfill the condition (p + q = 2n), which constitutes Goldbach’s conjecture. Numerical experiments up to 2n=500,000 show that, in the plot of the number of pairs versus 2n, the ratio of the lowest points over G(2n) tends asymptotically to the value 2/3. The latter fact dictates that the lower bound concerning the minimum number of pairs that fulfill Goldbach’s conjecture is equal to 4n/[3(ln(n))^2]. Moreover, smoothed sequences by treatment of the aforementioned pairs are revealed.

**Category:** Number Theory

[101] **viXra:1210.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-25 12:54:52*

**Authors:** Philip J. Carter

**Comments:** 71 Pages. Version 6. Completes the logic of the SU(2) x U(1) symmetry group.

The ubiquity of complex numbers throughout fundamental physics has never been satisfactorily explained. Moreover, the mathematical primacy of complex and imaginary numbers suggests the primacy of complex and imaginary structures in Nature, while further implying the existence of imaginary spatial dimensions preceding real dimensions. On this basis a consistent cosmological framework is erected, guided by a direct reading of the empirical and theoretical evidence, embracing essential principles of quantum theory, relativity theory, and string/M-theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[100] **viXra:1210.0123 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-11 12:53:36*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 16 Pages. some deletions, revisions, and a figure

In the mathematical terms of Evariste Galois' "Group Theory", the "Tetrahedron Model" is a description of the symmetry group of light, including its destruction by asymmetric weak force decays (producing our matter-only Cosmos), and its on-going restoration in obedience to Noether's Theorem of symmetry conservation (as in the conversion of bound to free energy in stars). (See diagram: "The Sun "Tetrahedron".)
The usual symmetry group identified with light is that of local phase transformations, and it is designated as either SO(2) or U(1). However, I am suggesting here that light contains a very much larger (and more interesting) symmetry group associated with its transformation into particle-antiparticle pairs (and back again into light). I don't know what the formal designation of this group might be.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[99] **viXra:1210.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-22 13:02:50*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Stefan Vladutescu

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Studiul se înscrie în zona interdisciplinară dintre teoria informaţiei şi extensică, în calitatea ei de ştiinţă a rezolvării contradictoriilor. În acest spaţiu se abordează problema centrală a ontologiei informaţiei relaţia contradictorie dintre comunicare şi informare. Nucleul cercetării îl reprezintă realitatea că investigaţia ştiinţifică a relaţiei comunicare-informare a ajuns într-o fundătură. Relaţia bivalentă comunicare-informare, informare-comunicare a ajuns să fie contradictorie, iar cele două concepte să se blocheze reciproc. În condiţiile în care Extensics este o ştiinţă a soluţionării problemelor contradictorii, se vor utiliza „extensical procedures” pentru a rezolva contradicţia.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[98] **viXra:1210.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-22 09:46:49*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

For the first time in known literature, one studies {\it entanglement dynamics} which is the way the complexity of entanglement may change in time, for instance, in the solution of a Schr/"{o}dinger equation giving the state of a composite quantum system. The paper is a preliminary study which gives the rigorous definition of the respective general mathematical model. Applications to effective Schr/"{o}dinger equations are given in a subsequent paper.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[97] **viXra:1210.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-21 12:50:45*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 421 Pages.

This is a set of 25 articles, developed starting from the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity (first article). Together they form the Theory of Everything.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[96] **viXra:1210.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-21 13:07:59*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We examine the role of particle nucleation in the initial universe, and argue that there is a small effect due to particle nucleation in terms of lowering initial temperature, in tandem with energy density and scale factor contribution. If such scaling exists as a major order effect, then quenching of temperature proportional to a vacuum nucleation at or before the electroweak era is heavily influenced by a number, n, which is either a quantum number (quantum cosmology) or a ‘particle count at/before the electro weak era.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[95] **viXra:1210.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-21 13:21:44*

**Authors:** B. C. Chanyal, P .S. Bisht, O. P. S. Negi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Abstract We have made an attempt to describe the octonion formulation of Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theory of dyons in terms of 2\times
2 Zorn vector matrix realization. As such, we have discussed the U(1)_{e}\times U(1)_{m}
Abelian gauge theory and U(1)\times SU(2)
electroweak gauge theory and also the SU(2)_{e}\times SU(2)_{m}
non-Abelian gauge theory in term of 2×2 Zorn vector matrix realization of split octonions. It is shown that SU(2)_{e}
characterizes the usual theory of the Yang Mill's field (isospin or weak interactions) due to presence of electric charge while the gauge group SU(2)_{m}
may be related to the existence of t-Hooft-Polyakov monopole in non-Abelian Gauge theory. Accordingly, we have obtained the manifestly covariant field equations and equations of motion.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[94] **viXra:1210.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-05 13:03:49*

**Authors:** Jose M. Hernandez

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

is fine

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[93] **viXra:1210.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-21 09:05:32*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 diagram, 2 references

The Rain-Out Model for Planetary differentiation is a very poor hypothesis. An actual explanation is offered.

**Category:** Geophysics

[92] **viXra:1210.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-25 09:56:10*

**Authors:** Patrick A Devlin

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In number theory, and especially the study of the diophantine approximation, the Lonely Runner Conjecture is a conjecture with important and widespread applications in mathematics.
This paper attempts to prove the conjecture for any n runners in the special case of integers with particularly correlated prime factors.

**Category:** Number Theory

[91] **viXra:1210.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-18 16:34:34*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 76 Pages.

This is a compilation of formula of quaternionic algebra and quaternionic differentials
Two types of quaternionic differentiation exist.
Flat differentiation uses the quaternionic nabla and ignores the curvature of the parameter space.
Full differentiation uses the distance function ℘(x) that defines the curvature of the parameter space.
The text focuses at applications in quantum mechanics, in electrodynamics and in fluid dynamics.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[90] **viXra:1210.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-20 02:40:38*

**Authors:** Hu Wang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Stepwise analysis reveals that Newton's Formula of Universal Gravitation is just Kepler's Third Law. Newton fully plagiarized Kepler's formula, but added new definitions which were entirely groundless.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[89] **viXra:1210.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-22 15:56:13*

**Authors:** Sari Haj Hussein, Hua Lu, Torben Bach Pedersen

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This is a slide presentation of the paper entitled "Towards a Unified Model of Outdoor and Indoor Spaces".

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[88] **viXra:1210.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-14 22:58:34*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Here's a detailed, nonfictional explanation of why time travel (into both the future and past)
is not impossible – I’ve tried to exclude mathematics as much as possible since my
goal is to present an explanation of physical reality, and to make it comprehensible to the
nonmathematician (I have referred to some maths, e.g. the Poincare conjecture, but have always used
English). My text also seeks to explain, in nonfictional terms, phenomena such as intergalactic
travel, hyperspace and space-time’s nature. This last point includes a new way of viewing
gravity which explains dark energy and is based on Einstein’s work – as well as viewing
gravity as fundamental to the nuclear forces and electromagnetism as well as fundamental to the
composition of matter and mass (also based on Einstein’s work). The article does speak of
God, but definitely not in any way you’ve heard of. And while I don’t believe evolution
accounts for the origin of living species, I have no doubt that it does cause modifications in
those species. To grossly oversimplify the article, intelligent beings spend thousands of years
learning more and more about science. Then they discover how to time travel into the past (early
21st-century physics only believes in time travel to the future) where they put future biotechnology
and computer science into practice (these sciences are far more advanced than today’s science).
While the planned Mars mission of 2018 is robotic, we cannot limit our sights to that since we hope
to follow with manned exploration of the Red Planet in the 2030’s. The physical bodies and
psychology, as well as technology, we possess now or will possess in the foreseeable future are
not well suited to prolonged space travel (e.g. our brains and bodies are vulnerable to radiation,
muscle and bone loss, abnormal psychology, etc. when travelling in space … and simply reaching
nearby stars would take hundreds or thousands of years). However, there is an alternative to astronauts
(or cosmonauts, or taikonauts) reaching Mars and being unable to walk, or think clearly. We can thank
the theories of Albert Einstein, an electrical engineering experiment conducted at Yale University in
2009, and some conclusions that logically follow from Einstein/Yale, for pointing the way to this
alternative. When fully developed, the “Einstein-Yale Bridge” will take us anywhere in
the universe and anywhen in time.
There are 2 bonuses - Bonus #1 – Infinite universe, and Bonus #2 –
How "Pioneer anomaly" refines Einstein's gravitation / space-time

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[87] **viXra:1210.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-20 01:15:55*

**Authors:** Robert Louis Kemp

**Comments:** 39 Pages. Copyright © 2012 - Super Principia Mathematica – The Rage to Master Conceptual & Mathematical Physics

In this paper the various “presence of matter” and “absence of matter” conditions, in gravitational field regions, of the vacuum of space-time, in the General Relativity (GR) Einstein Field Equations (EFEs) is discussed. The Static & Dynamic Vacuum Solutions of the (EFEs) and the various conditions are discussed using simplified Classical Mathematics and Mechanics.
Predicted in the various “absence of matter” or “presence of matter” conditions of the (EFEs), “empty space” is shown to be filled with “Electromagnetic Heat Radiation Energy” or “Dark Expansion Space Energy” in gravitational field regions, of the vacuum of space-time, where there is no mass present in that location. Furthermore, it will be validated in the mathematics, of General Relativity (GR), and the Einstein Field Equations (EFEs), that the solution of the Black Hole Event Horizon, describes the maximum curvature, and the smallest, infinitesimal, most minimum space-time distance, of a gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[86] **viXra:1210.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-19 07:59:06*

**Authors:** Martin Singer, Jose M. Consuelo

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper divides the economic costs of terrorism into short term and long term costs. The authors consider as short-term costs following examples: losses in the form of immediate shock, loss of life and property values, which are followed by negative effects on the insurance, short-term investments, stock markets, tourism and its associated employment. Simultaneously, they believe that long-term costs of terrorism lie in permanent slowdown in economic growth for both the national and international economy. The authors warn of the forced expenditure on security, supply chain security and supply system. They come to the conclusion that on the grounds of increasing risk of the terrorism, states are forced to transfer their resources from production an additional wealth to realization of security measures to protect existing resources, thus reducing the long-term productivity and output.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[85] **viXra:1210.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-19 09:08:29*

**Authors:** Ming Zhang

**Comments:** 107 Pages.

Neutrosophy studies the origin, nature, scope of neutralities, and their interactions
with different ideational spectra. It is a new philosophy introduced by Florentin Smarandache that extends fuzzy logic and is
the basis of neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic set theory, and
neutrosophic statistics.
Because the world is full of indeterminacy, the imperfection of knowledge that a
human receives/observes from the external world also causes imprecision. Neutrosophy
introduces a new concept

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[84] **viXra:1210.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-19 09:22:49*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. 5 references, 1 picture

In order to keep the early 20th century gravitational collapse model for stellar birth it was hypothesized that new stars are T Tauri Stars. The scientific definition for T Tauri Stars is unfalsifiable, so therefore it should be noticed that one reason for the gravitational collapse model for stellar birth being kept is because of T Tauri Stars lacking definition.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[83] **viXra:1210.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-19 02:55:41*

**Authors:** Sosale Chandrasekhar

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Macromolecular aggregation and mechanical strength characterize polymer behavior, but apparently remain enigmatic: small molecules prefer to be solvated but macromolecules prefer to aggregate. This is a consequence of the enormous loss of solvent entropy attending macromolecular solvation. The additivity of weak (e.g., van der Waals) forces in a macromolecule cannot explain aggregation, as the accompanying entropy loss would also be additive. However, even this would be overshadowed by the loss of solvent entropy in the case of its solvation. A thermodynamic basis for the aggregation, however, needs a reassessment of the van der Waals equation of state, a reinterpretation of the coefficient ‘a’ suggesting that the van der Waals force may be stronger (~15 kcal mol--1) than believed. Its manifestation is normally thwarted by the dominance of entropic effects in the weak interactions. The phenomenal mechanical properties of polymers are explicable by the above reassessment of current ideas.

**Category:** Chemistry

[82] **viXra:1210.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-18 18:26:49*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez studied the nutritional balance of cured meats in 2011. He found that sandwich-ready cured meats in New Zealand tend to be highly unbalanced, with average BNI values of around 145.09 (foodBNI). When cured meats are considered as part of a diet (ie, all cured meats are consumed approximately in the same proportion over time), such hypothetical diet show an average nutritional balance of BNI 140.91na (dietBNI), being particularly unbalanced towards excess of sodium. Being an animal-derived product, they are also high in protein, fat and saturated fat, and low in carbohydrate, sugar and fiber.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[81] **viXra:1210.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-13 13:05:53*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 3 pictures, 6 references

It is hypothesized that blue giant stars are newly stabilized stars.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[80] **viXra:1210.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-18 14:17:10*

**Authors:** H.Tadesse

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Truth is the basis of our existence. Therefore, even in our daily lives we should practice telling the truth. Truth leads to consistency, harmony and peace. Even if things go wrong telling the truth will stop further complications and can ‘undo’ things that went wrong. Telling the truth will even help us to overcome evil practices. If we build a culture of telling the truth people will not do wrong in the first place. However, the reality is that people are more and more lying than telling the truth, at all levels. We are moving towards systems that are based on lies. If we don’t follow truth then there will be no mutual trust and it will be very difficult or impossible to do anything at all. Wherever truth is suppressed, there will be considerable inefficiencies and disharmony. Civilization, technological advancement and economic prosperity are only secondary to truth or these will not advance where truth is suppressed. Where truth is suppressed there will not be peace. There is a prophesy that tells us the time will come when it will be impossible to find someone who tells the truth1 and as we are living in the final days of our world that prophesy seems to start to apply to our time. Celebrating the Day of Truth helps us at least to remind us about truth. It may also help us to build a culture of truth if we understand the problem and practice following truth seriously.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[79] **viXra:1210.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-05 18:38:38*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is hypothesized why Earth magmas are mostly silicon and not mostly iron.

**Category:** Geophysics

[78] **viXra:1210.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-18 11:14:12*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The theory is the general theory of the special relativity theory. You can consider that this theory treats the universe that can treat an inertial system. In this time, the light’s velocity is instead of . In this theory, be able to consider that the light has the velocity instead of .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[77] **viXra:1210.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-20 08:55:27*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 2 pictures

The hypothesized ejection of a cometary Venus from Jupiter by Velikovsky is reliant on multiple arbitrary considerations and can be disregarded.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[76] **viXra:1210.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-18 01:42:34*

**Authors:** C. Granger

**Comments:** 6 pages primary manuscript; 13 pages supplementary information.

An effective tool for analyzing correlations in disparate dynamical systems is the analogical model; such models can provide insights otherwise unrealistic to obtain. Analogical analysis can be done with any suitably defined set of object theories, but the challenge is in discovering models capable of yielding physical insights. Here I show such an analogical model between momentum and charge; analysis suggests voltage is limited to the speed of light and that capacitive charge becomes unbounded with voltage. If confirmed, the ability to manipulate substantial mass-energy appears possible via electrodynamic means. Possible connections with dark energy and dark matter, vacuum energy, and the weak field are discussed in the supplementary information (SI).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[75] **viXra:1210.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-17 14:13:13*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article offers descriptive data regarding the nutritional balance of (standard) rice milk. These data were collected for a research on milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand between 2007 and 2008 (Perezgonzalez, 2008).
Rice milk is made from rice and water. The average rice milk (in this sample) is low in protein, high in carbohydrate and sugar, low in fat and saturated fat, low in fiber, and within maximum recommended limits for sodium.
On average, rice milk has a nutritional balance of BNI 42.17s, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of sugar.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[74] **viXra:1210.0092 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-19 15:29:56*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The aim of this article is to show that the annihilation paradigma in Standard Model does not reconcile with classical electrodynamics, which in turn predicts the existence of electromagnetically opaque, i.e.: dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[73] **viXra:1210.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-01 09:05:47*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 214 Pages.

Paradoxism was set up and led by Florentin Smarandache since 2012. Paradoxism is a literary, artistic, and scientific movement based on excessive use of antinomies, paradoxes, contradictions in creations. There are 34 writers from 6 countries who contributed to this anthology: - from Chile: Pablo NERUDA; - from Germany: Bernd HUTCHENREURTHER; - from India: B. VENKATESWARA RAO; - from Israel: Morel ABRAMOVICI; - from Romania: George ANCA, Marian APOSTOL, Adrian BOTEZ, Gheorghe BURDUŞEL, Eugen EVU, Sergiu GĂBUREAC, Dumitru HURUBĂ, Liviu-Florin JIANU, Ion MARINESCU - PUIU, Constantin MATEI, Mircea MONU, Doru MOTOC, Janet NICĂ, Gheorghe NICULESCU – URICANI, Octavian PALER, Tudor PĂROIU, Ion PĂTRAŞCU, Marinela PREOTEASA,Andrei RADU, Puiu RĂDUCAN, Adriana STOENESCU, Ion URDA; - from U.S.A.: Tom DEIKER, Greg HALL, Kyle REVERAL, Wm MEYER, Mary Ellen WALSH, Eric PIERZCHALA, Peter SPECKER - TWIXT, Florentin SMARANDACHE.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[72] **viXra:1210.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-17 10:21:49*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Tudor Paroiu

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Extensica nu este altceva decît mult discutata interdisciplinaritate aplicată
în practică care în realitate este studiu al simultaneităţii entităţilor/univers. Ea nu
analizează doar două sau mai multe contrarii sau “rezolvarea problemelor
contradictorii” ea studiază şi încearcă rezolvarae simultaneităţii entităţilor/univers. Mai
exact ea nu studiază doar contrariile ca elemente bipolare ci relaţia dintre două
entităţi/univers nu neapărat contrare.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[71] **viXra:1210.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-17 10:26:56*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Stefan Vladutescu

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The study lies in the interdisciplinary area between the information theory
and extenics, as the science of solving the contradictions. This space addresses
the central issue of the ontology information, the contradictory relationship
between communication and information. The research core is the reality that
the scientific research of communication-information relationship has reached a
dead end. The bivalent relationship communication-information, informationcommunication
has come to be contradictory, and the two concepts to block
each other. With the Extenics as a science of solving the conflicting issues,
"extenics procedures" will be used to solve the contradiction.

**Category:** Social Science

[70] **viXra:1210.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-17 10:46:45*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that quantum mechanics is a sociological phenomenon and is not a scientific theory.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[69] **viXra:1210.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-17 10:58:57*

**Authors:** Jae Park, Evgeniy Grechnikov, Fang Chen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A maneuvering control algorithm based on the independent all-wheel driving and steering control has been proposed to improve the maneuverability and survivability for special purpose 6WD/6WS vehicles. The control algorithm to perform maneuvering, high speed stability, and fault tolerant controls effectively are derived based on high dynamic characteristics of in-wheel motor and advantages of independent steer and drive. The maneuvering controller applies sliding and optimal control theories considering optimal torque distribution and friction circle related to the vertical tire force.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[68] **viXra:1210.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-17 11:01:47*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 193 Pages.

A new notion of special quasi dual numbers is introduced.
If a+bg is the special quasi dual number with a, b reals, g the new element is such that g^2 = - g.
The rich source of getting new elements of the form g^2 = - g is from Z_n, the ring of modulo integers.
For the first time we construct non associative structures using them.
We have proposed some research problems.

**Category:** Algebra

[67] **viXra:1210.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-17 11:06:59*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 246 Pages.

In this book we define x = a+bg to be a special dual like number, where a, b are reals and g is a new element such that g^2 = g.
The new element which is idempotent can be got from Z_n or from lattices or from linear operators.
Mixed dual numbers are constructed using dual numbers and special dual like numbers.
Neutrosophic numbers are a natural source of special dual like numbers, since they have the form a+bI, where I = indeterminate and I^2 = I.

**Category:** Algebra

[66] **viXra:1210.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-17 11:08:46*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 153 Pages.

The zero divisor graph of semigroups of finite modulo integers n under product is studied and characterized. If n is a non-prime, the zero divisor graph is not a tree.
We introduce the new notion of tree covering a pseudo lattice. When n is an even integer of the form 2p, p a prime, then the modulo integer zero divisor graph is a tree-covering pseudo lattice.

**Category:** Algebra

[65] **viXra:1210.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-16 17:53:22*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 3 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article offers descriptive data regarding the nutritional balance of flavored low-fat soymilk. These data were collected for a research on milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand between 2007 and 2008 (Perezgonzalez, 2008).
Flavored low-fat soymilk is an illustrative example of the "unbalancing" effects of added sugar to an otherwise closer to nutritional balance low-fat soymilk. Indeed, the average flavored low-fat soymilk (in this sample) turns out to be adequate in protein, carbohydrate and fat, low in saturated fat, low in fiber, high in sodium, and extremely high in sugar.
On average, flavored low-fat soymilk has a nutritional balance of BNI 79.18s, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of sugar.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[64] **viXra:1210.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-16 23:30:24*

**Authors:** D. B. Chandler, M.-S. Chang, T. Kloks, J. Liu, S.-L. Peng

**Comments:** 121 Pages.

Let GG be a class of graphs. A graph G is a probe graph of GG if its vertex set can be partitioned into a set P of `probes' and an independent set N of `nonprobes' such that G can be embedded into a graph of GG by adding edges between certain nonprobes.
In this book we investigate probe graphs of various classes of graphs.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[63] **viXra:1210.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-16 13:31:05*

**Authors:** Nassim Abbas, Youcef Chibani

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We propose in this work a signature verification system based on decision combination of off-line signatures for managing conflict provided by the SVM classifiers. The system is basically divided into three modules: i) Radon Transform-SVM, ii) Ridgelet Transform-SVM and iii) PCR5 combination rule based on the generalized belief functions of Dezert-Smarandache theory. The proposed framework allows combining the normalized SVM outputs and uses an estimation technique based on the dissonant model of Appriou to compute the belief assignments. Decision making is performed through likelihood ratio. Experiments are conducted on the well known CEDAR database using false rejection and false acceptance criteria. The obtained results show that the proposed combination framework improves the verification accuracy compared to individual SVM classifiers.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[62] **viXra:1210.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-16 12:24:38*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Mihai Liviu Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Qiao-Xing Li and Xing-Sen Li have defined in 2011 the Location Value of a Point and the Dependent Function of a Point on a single finite or infinite interval. In this paper we extend their definitions from one dimension (1D) to 2D, 3D, and in general n-D spaces.
Several examples are given in 2D and 3D spaces.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[61] **viXra:1210.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-16 10:01:57*

**Authors:** Robert L. Oldershaw

**Comments:** 3 Pages. List of predictions and observational support are followed by general comments

Fourteen definitive predictions of Discrete Scale Relativity are listed and some general comments are included at the end. Four of the predictions have been vindicated or are strongly supported by observational evidence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[60] **viXra:1210.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-16 07:02:20*

**Authors:** Samit Kumar

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Equilibrium Theory of Everything :
Reformulating Energy Mass Relation..

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[59] **viXra:1210.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-15 16:37:24*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract. Dirac [1] discussed relations of the order of magnitude 10 exp40. Authors after him [2-7] introduced the relations of the order of 10 exp121, the subject of this article.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[58] **viXra:1210.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-15 04:28:54*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In the last decades, the existence of the Soul has been seriously considered by Quantum Physics. It has been frequently described as a body of unknown energy coupled to human body by means of a mutual interaction. The Quantum Physics shows that energy is quantized, i.e., it has discrete values that are defined as energy levels. Thus, along the life of a person, the energy of its soul is characterized by several quantum levels of energy. Here, we show by means of application of specific electromagnetic radiations on the human body, that it is possible to revert the energy of the soul to previous energy levels. This process can have several therapeutic applications.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[57] **viXra:1210.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-14 18:11:54*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article offers descriptive data regarding the nutritional balance of low-fat soymilk. These data were collected for a research on milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand between 2007 and 2008 (Perezgonzalez, 2008).
Low-fat (light, or lite) soymilk is made from soybeans and water, and contains around 1.3% fat. This article, however, analyzes the nutritional balance of low-fat soymilk beyond its fat content. Indeed, the average low-fat soymilk (in this sample) is adequate in fat and low in saturated fat, but also high in protein, low in carbohydrate but high in sugar, low in fiber, and high in sodium (for its energetic content).
On average, low-fat soymilk has a nutritional balance of BNI 27.08s, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of sugar.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[56] **viXra:1210.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-14 19:29:39*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. 1 diagram

It is hypothesized that planetary nebulae and supernovae have not been properly placed inside the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram. A solution is offered to fill the gap.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[55] **viXra:1210.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-15 09:56:52*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A physically realistic Lattice Bosonic String Theory with Strings = World-Lines and Monster Group Symmetry containing gravity and the Standard Model can be constructed consistently with the E8 physics model 248-dim E8 = 120-dim adjoint D8 + 128-dim half-spinor D8 = (28 + 28 + 64) + (64 + 64). V2 adds Kerr-Newman Fermion picture. V3 and V4 mention E8 lattices.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[54] **viXra:1210.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-13 22:54:43*

**Authors:** Ioannis Haranas, Omiros Ragos

**Comments:** 4 Pages. NA

There has been a renewed interest in the recent
years in the possibility of deviations from the predictionsof Newton’s “inverse-square law” of universal gravitation.One of the reasons for renewing this interest lies in various
theoretical attempts to construct a unified elementary particle theory, in which there is a natural prediction of new forces over macroscopic distances. Therefore the existence of such a force would only coexist with gravity, and in principle could only be detected as a deviation from the inverse square law, or in the “universality of free fall” experiments.New experimental techniques such that of Sagnac interferometry can help explore the range of the Yukawa correction λ ≥ 10^14 m where such forces might be present. It may be,that future space missions might be operating in this range
which has been unexplored for very long time. To study the effect of the Yukawa correction to the gravitational potential and its corresponding signal delay in the vicinity of the Sun, we use a spherically symmetric modified space time
metric where the Yukawa correction its added to the gravitational potential. Next, the Yukawa correction contribution to the signal delay is evaluated. In the case where the distance
of closest approach is much less than the range λ,
it results to a signal time delay that satisfies the relation t (b <λ)∼=37.7t (b = λ).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[53] **viXra:1210.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-13 02:19:06*

**Authors:** C. G. Provatidis

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this short paper we reveal a sequence of three smoothing procedures related to Goldbach’s conjecture. While the cloud of points that represent the number of pairs (p, q), which fulfill the conjecture p+q=2n, versus 2n occupies a quite broad area of curvilinear triangular shape, suitable averages can reduce it into oscillating lines with progressively decreasing amplitudes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[52] **viXra:1210.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-12 11:13:21*

**Authors:** Sergio Arciniegas-Alarcón, Marisol García-Peña, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias, Wojtek Janusz Krzanowski

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A common problem in multi-environment trials arises when some genotype-by-environment combinations are missing. The aim of this paper is to propose a new deterministic imputation algorithm using a modification of the Gabriel cross-validation method. The method involves the singular value decomposition (SVD) of a matrix and was tested using three alternative component choices of the SVD in simulations based on two complete sets of real data, with values deleted randomly at different rates. The quality of the imputations was evaluated using the correlations and the mean square deviations between these estimates and the true observed values. The proposed methodology does not make any distributional or structural assumptions and does not have any restrictions regarding the pattern or mechanism of the missing data.

**Category:** Statistics

[51] **viXra:1210.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-16 11:11:47*

**Authors:** Diego Marin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

It's widely recognized that general relativity emerges if we impose invariance under local translations and local Lorentz transformations. In the same manner supergravity arises when we impose invariance under local supersymmetry. In this paper we show how to treat general relativity as a common gauge theory, without introducing a metric or a tetrad field. The price to pay for such simplification is the acceptance of non-locality. At first glance the resulting theory seems renormalizable. Finally we derive Feynman vertices for such theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[50] **viXra:1210.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-12 08:37:11*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Because this is a General Systems website, I will occasionally point out parallels between the intuitive world views and systems of antiquity, mythology, and religion, and the rational world views and systems of modern-day science, as these convergences urge themselves upon me. This is not to be construed as advocacy of any religion, but as a further demonstration of the fractal nature of reality, including that of our intuitive perceptual modes. Nevertheless, I have no doubt that the existence of such parallels, whether consciously recognized or not, is one reason why the major religious systems have persisted so long and so successfully. I use Christian examples only because that is the religion in which I was raised and am most familiar with. Similar examples could certainly be found in the other major religions by those familiar with them - JAG.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[49] **viXra:1210.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-11 19:49:40*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 3 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article offers descriptive data regarding the nutritional balance of standard soymilk. These data were collected for a research on milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand between 2007 and 2008 (Perezgonzalez, 2008).
Standard (original or regular) soymilk is made from soybeans and water, and contains around 3% fat. This article, however, analyzes the nutritional balance of standard soymilk beyond its fat content. Indeed, the average standard soymilk is high in fat but low in saturated fat, adequate in protein, low in carbohydrate but high in sugar, low in fiber, and within maximum recommended limits for sodium.
On average, standard soymilk has a nutritional balance of BNI 43.16f, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of fat.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[48] **viXra:1210.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-11 23:39:54*

**Authors:** M. Pitkänen

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Few years has passed from the latest formulation for the hierarchy of Planck constant. The original hypothesis seven years ago was that the hierarchy is real. In this formulation the imbedding space was replaced with its covering space assumed to decompose to a Cartesian product of singular finite-sheeted coverings of M^{4} and CP_{2}.

Few years ago came the realization that the hierarchy could be only effective but have same practical implications. The basic observation was that the effective hierarchy need not be postulated separately but follows as a prediction from the vacuum degeneracy of Kähler action. In this formulation Planck constant at fundamental level has its standard value and its effective values come as its integer multiples so that one should write hbar_{eff}=n×hbar rather than hbar= nhbar_{0} as I have done. For most practical purposes the states in question would behave as if Planck constant were an integer multiple of the ordinary one. It was no more necessary to assume that the covering reduces to a Cartesian product of singular coverings of M^{4} and CP_{2} but for some reason I kept this assumption.

In the recent formulation this assumption is made and the emphasis is on the interpretation of the multi-sheetedness (in the sense of Riemann surfaces) resulting as a multi-furcation for a preferred extremal taking place at the partonic 2-surfaces. This gives a connection with complexity theory (say in living systems), with transition to chaos, and with general ideas about fractality. Second quantization of the multi-furcation means accepting not only superpositions of branches as single particle states but also the analogs of many-particle states obtained by allowing several branches up to the maximum number. This revives the ideas of N-atom, N-molecule etc.. already given up as too adventurous.

The question whether gravitational Planck constant h_{gr} having gigantic values results as an effective Planck constant has remained open. A simple argument suggests that gravitational four-momentum could be identified as a projection of the inertial four-momentum to the space-time surface and that the square of the gravitational four-momentum obtained using the effective metric defined by the anti-commutators of the modified gamma matrices appearing in the modified Dirac equation naturally leads to the emergence of h_{gr}.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[47] **viXra:1210.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-11 23:56:21*

**Authors:** M. Pitkänen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The question how intentional action is concretely realized is not only a key question in quantum consciousness theory but also in attempts to understand psychokinesis (PK). In TGD framework the mechanisms of intentional action and PK are basically the same, and the article can be seen also as a proposal for how intentional action might be realized in TGD Universe. There are experimental results - such as the experiments of Libet - suggesting that intentional action involves a signal propagating to geometric past where it initiates the desired action. PK experiments with random bit sequences suggest a model based on state function reduction, and the possibility to affect intentionally the probabilities of the outcomes of the microscopic quantum transition with two final states representing the values of bits. The standard view is that the intentional action interferes directly with the microscopic quantum transition. "Too-good-to-be-true" option is that intentional action is able to produce a quantum superposition of bits represented as magnetized regions. In this case a direct experimental proof of PK by comparing the data file subject to intentional action with its copy - and thus involving no statistical procedures - is possible. A detailed mechanism allowing the observer (either operator or experimenter) to affect by intentional action the number of 1s or 0s in a series of bits stored in a data file as magnetized regions is discussed.

**Category:** Mind Science

[46] **viXra:1210.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-11 10:31:48*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 5 references, 1 diagram

It is hypothesized that planetary nebulae are the exact same phenomena as supernovae.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[45] **viXra:1210.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-11 06:34:15*

**Authors:** Ioannis Haranas, Omiros Ragos, Ioannis Gkigkitzis

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 5

In this paper we examine the recently introduced
Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) gravity model. We use a space-time metric in which the local gravitation source dominates the metric over the contributions from the cosmological flow. Anticipating ideal possible solar system effects, we derive expressions for the signal time delays in the vicinity of the Sun. and for various ranges of the angle θ of the signal approach, The time contribution due to DGP correction
to the metric is found to be proportional to b3/2/c2r0. For r0 equal to 5 Mpc and θ in the range [−π/3,π/3], t is equal to 0.0001233 ps. This delay is extremely small to be measured by today’s technology but it could be probably
measurable by future experiments.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[44] **viXra:1210.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-13 13:09:26*

**Authors:** Emanuel Gluskin

**Comments:** 11 Pages. "System approach to biology" is shown to be not just subordinated to the targets defined by the biologists (e.g., to create an electronic model of a cell), but also instructive in some points, both theoretical and applicative.

Even though it is known from physiology that despite the strong separation of the functions of the brain hemispheres, they do not work completely independently, we first suggest a simple physical and some "system" arguments for the mutual dependence of the hemispheres, which may be of some heuristic interest. An unusual point is that the distinction between the functions of the hemispheres is methodologically represented by two different (also in the frequency sense) "inputs" that the brain receives from the external world. This is a simplification that allows us to: (a) formulate the problem of frequency relations along the thinking process, and to thus come to the conclusion that for treatment of the information, brain must generate some electrical signals/processes; (b) consider the (unhealthy) case when the input can cause overburden of the right hemisphere. Regarding the latter, we see agreement between a signal and a system to be a natural requirement also in the biological case, and, in general, we see "system approach to biology" not just as something auxiliary, e.g., electrical modeling of a cell, but as an independent research tool, and believe that the suggested phenomenological point of view may be a motivating supplement to a standard biological consideration.

**Category:** Mind Science

[43] **viXra:1210.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-10 21:42:51*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article offers descriptive data regarding the nutritional balance of skimmed milk. These data were collected for a research on milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand between 2007 and 2008 (Perezgonzalez, 2008).
Skimmed milk (including skim, low-fat, and trim milk, as well as fat-free, and super-trim milk) is that containing very little fat (around 0.2%). This article, however, analyzes the nutritional balance of skimmed milk beyond its fat content. Indeed, the average skimmed milk (in this sample) is low in fat and saturated fat, high in protein, adequate in carbohydrate but high in sugar, low in fiber, and high in sodium (for its energetic content).
On average, skimmed milk has a nutritional balance of BNI 123.16s, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of sugar.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[42] **viXra:1210.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-10 08:54:25*

**Authors:** Hu Wang

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Experiments reveal that for each part of the same vortex, the square of its periodic time is in a constant ratio to the cubic of its distance from the center, namely R3/T2 =K. The value of this constant is related to the scale of the vortex and larger vortex leads to larger K. This result is the same as Kepler's Third Law, so Descartes' Vortex Theory may be correct. Hopefully, the Vortex Theory of this French foreseer will gain new recognition and development.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[41] **viXra:1210.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-21 10:15:26*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen Ahmed

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

It is shown , by clear proofs , that , it is impossible to derive magnetism from electricity, from Coulomb's law and Lorentz transformation . It is also shown by a simple thought experiment that a velocity dependant correction to Coulomb's law is a necessary result of Special Relativity . A new method to derive magnetism from electricity based on a modified covariant form of Coulomb's law is given . The method used in derivation and the formulation shown to be consistent with the theory of relativity and the facts of electromagnetic relations

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1210.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-10 05:51:51*

**Authors:** Okunoye Babatunde O.

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The decision version of Directed Hamiltonian path problem is an NP-complete problem which asks, given a directed graph G, does G contain a directed Hamiltonian path? In two separate papers, the author expresses the graph problem as an adjacency matrix and a proof given to show that under two special conditions relating to theorems on the determinant of a square matrix, a non-zero determinant value certifies the existence of a directed Hamiltonian path. Here, a brief note is added to repair a flaw in the proof. The result, as expressed in the paper title is a more defensible proposition

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[39] **viXra:1210.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-10 02:57:48*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

see paper for abstract in Chinese

**Category:** Number Theory

[38] **viXra:1210.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-10 04:22:34*

**Authors:** Miroslav Sukenik, Jozef Sima

**Comments:** 7 Pages. No comment

Abstract: There is a paradigm stating that gravitational field is of non-localizable and stationary nature. Contrary, in our model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe it is hypothesized that gravitational field is always localizable and nonstationary. This assumption allows localizing its energy density. In this contribution, a solution of the issue is offered. This solution can be extrapolated to both the past and future times. Of the solution, the existence of cosmological member and, in turn, the the question of existence of „dark energy“ follows. Moreover, each black hole represents an independent Universe being a subsytem of the infinite Multiverse.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1210.0046 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-17 15:37:33*

**Authors:** Madonna-Megara Holloway, Mark A. B. Garstin, Djwhal Khul

**Comments:** 68 Pages.

The NOE Hypothesis concepts are extracted from the combined work of Blavatsky, Bailey and Besant. The original paper, “A New Cosmological Model for Matter, Energy, Sound, the Origin of the Universe and Gravity” is intended as a bridging paper between esoteric philosophy fact and scientific hypothesis . The concepts have been translated into the language of physics and chemistry from the often abstruse language found in philosophy. This paper expands on the concepts and unifies General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and Consciousness. String Theory is superseded by the Spirilla Hypothesis. Origins of the Universe, definitions for time and space, gravity and Quantum Entanglement are discussed relative to life.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1210.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-09 16:51:38*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article offers descriptive data regarding the nutritional balance of semi-skimmed milk. These data were collected for a research on milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand between 2007 and 2008 (Perezgonzalez, 2008).
Semi-skimmed (semi-skim, light, lite, or reduced fat) milk is defined as that containing about 1.7% fat. This article, however, analyzes the nutritional balance of semi-skimmed milk beyond its fat content. Indeed, the average semi-skimmed milk (in this sample) is adequate in fat but high in saturated fat, high in protein, low in carbohydrate but high in sugar, low in fiber, and within maximum recommended limits for sodium.
On average, semi-skimmed milk has a nutritional balance of BNI 96.37s, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of sugar.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[35] **viXra:1210.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-09 10:53:31*

**Authors:** Keith D. Foote

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This is an critique of the ‘concept’ of the Higgs boson particle and its relationship with reality. Its description, origins,and the activities leading to claims proving its existence are described.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[34] **viXra:1210.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-09 11:18:33*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The universe’s age almost same the moving light’s lifetime in the special relativity theory. Therefore, be able to consider that the universe’s age effects the special relativity theory of the initial universe. Because the universe’s present age is very huge, consider that this age is the constant time in the special relativity theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1210.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-09 10:11:19*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Stars that are more electrically active will exert a greater gravitational influence on their surroundings. Stars that are less electrically active will exert a lower gravitational influence on their surroundings. It is therefore hypothesized that the electron mediates not only electromagnetic interactions but gravity and mass as well.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[32] **viXra:1210.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-09 02:27:46*

**Authors:** Pierre-Yves Gaillard

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We give a short proof of l'Hospital's Rule.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[31] **viXra:1210.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-08 18:08:15*

**Authors:** S.Baune

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Official and full version: Phys. Educ. 44. pp.296-300, (2009)

We analyse the motion of a spot of light projected onto a flat screen by a rotating source. We find that the motion of the spot has many interesting features such as spot splitting and superluminal effects. Our discussion is well suited for undergraduates and can be an interesting add-on to their curriculum, giving them new insights into the effects of kinematics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[30] **viXra:1210.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-08 18:19:22*

**Authors:** S.Baune

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Official and full version:Official version @: Physics Essays, Vol. 22, pp. 515, (2009)

We consider the detection of a superluminal signal. We show that there exists a particular inertial frame in which the superluminal signal is not uniquely localizable and that it is detected everywhere at the same instant within the inertial frame. This leads to a novel paradox to which we attribute the relativity of simultaneity.
keywords: superluminal, simultaneity, paradox, tachyons, localization.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1210.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-08 18:51:14*

**Authors:** S.Baune

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The wineglass shattering to the ground never reassembles itself back onto the table, or does it?

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[28] **viXra:1210.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-08 19:04:42*

**Authors:** Richard J. Benish

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 2012 FQXi Essay Contest Entry

Einstein built general relativity (GR) on the foundation of special relativity (SR) with the help of an analogy involving uniformly rotating bodies. Among this analogy's most useful implications are those concerning the need for non-Euclidean geometry. Although GR is well-supported by observations, a curious fact is that almost all of them are of phenomena over the surfaces of large gravitating bodies; i.e., they support the *exterior* solution. Whereas the *interior* solution remains untested. In particular, the prediction that the rate of a clock at the center of a gravitating body is a local minimum remains untested. The Newtonian counterpart for this prediction of GR is the common oscillation prediction for a test mass dropped into a hole through a larger gravitating body. The main point in what follows is that this prediction needs to be checked by direct observation. Einstein's analogy serves as a launching pad for bringing out the significance of this experiment as well as exposing possible weaknesses in a few other assumptions, which are then also duly questioned. To facilitate looking upon these problems with fresh eyes, we invoke an imaginary civilization whose members know a lot about rotation but nothing about gravity. Their home is a large and remote rotating body whose mass is too small to make gravitational effects easily noticeable. What would these people think of Einstein's rotation analogy?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1210.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-08 21:20:06*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In Chinese

See paper (in Chinese)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1210.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-08 14:19:20*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

This article offers descriptive data regarding the nutritional balance of standard milk. These data were collected for a research on milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand between 2007 and 2008 (Perezgonzalez, 2008).
Standard (whole or full cream) milk is defined as that containing around 3.5% fat. This article, however, analyzes the nutritional balance of standard milk beyond its fat content. Indeed, the average standard milk is high in fat and saturated fat, but also adequate in protein, low in carbohydrate but high in sugar, low in fiber, and within maximum recommended limits for sodium.
On average, standard milk has a nutritional balance of BNI 86.80s, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of sugar.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[25] **viXra:1210.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-07 19:31:48*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 5 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Casner explored the attitudes of general aviation pilots towards advanced cockpit systems (ACS, namely glass-cockpits) in 2008. He asked a group of general aviation pilots from the California Bay area about their attitudes towards ACS. Although the majority of pilots did not have flying experience with glass-cockpit aircraft, Casner's research found that, in general, pilots believed that ACS were a positive step forward, even when they also perceived them to be potentially problematic. These and other related attitudes towards ACS are not necessarily based on direct experience, thus they may not be particularly reliable and may only represent an idealistic understanding of ACS and their features.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[24] **viXra:1210.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-07 11:23:09*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 1 diagram

The reification of space on the deepest levels has ruined humanities’ ability to explain universal form and function.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[23] **viXra:1210.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-07 13:17:58*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is hypothesized that charge is a relational aspect of electromagnetic patterns stabilizing and is not an intrinsic quality of hypothetical entities called “electron/proton”.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[22] **viXra:1210.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-06 17:46:34*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez, Gilbey and Diaz Vilela explored the ergonomization needs of general aviation pilots in 2010. Namely, they asked a group of pilots which technological features (including costs) they thought were important to their main general aviation flight activity. The group was mostly made of New Zealand and North American pilots flying for purposes such as training, instructing, business and recreation. Yet, it included airplane, helicopter and glider pilots, male and female pilots, and pilots with licences ranging from no-licence (ab-initio student) to ATPL.
The research found that, overall, the cost (of acquisition and operation) of any technology was the main worry for general aviation pilots (the results also suggested that this might be more important than any other benefit the technology may bring to their flying). Yet, among ergonomic features, all those supporting flight operations (from the calculation of weight and balance to traffic avoidance features) were also of medium importance. Less important were features such as tracking and real-time monitoring, followed by post-flight analysis and 3-D displays.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[21] **viXra:1210.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-06 21:13:28*

**Authors:** Kenneth Sandale

**Comments:** 7 Pages

Consideration of the relative motion of a bar magnet and a coil played a key role in Einstein's production of Special Relativity. In the frame where the bar magnet is moving and a coil is at rest, an EMF is generated in the coil as a consequence of the curl of E equation. In the frame where the bar magnet is at rest, an EMF is produced in the coil because its electrons are moving in a way such that the magnetic field is producing forces on them.
We consider the complementary situation where instead of a bar magnet generating a magnetic field we have a point charge generating an electric field. We will see that in order to satisfy the Principle of Relativity changes must be made to the Lorentz force law.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[20] **viXra:1210.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-06 14:11:49*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

用最简单初等数学证明了费马大定理

**Category:** Number Theory

[19] **viXra:1210.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-06 10:36:09*

**Authors:** Viktor K

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, we present a resolution to the problem of the Riemann Hypothesis. In particular, by the use of the Mellin integral transform and analytic techniques, we prove there exist no zeros to the Riemann Zeta Function in the critical strip outside the line whose real component is 1/2.

**Category:** Number Theory

[18] **viXra:1210.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-02 08:35:49*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Standard Model for particle physics (SM) is a nonlinear field theory in which both Yang-Mills and Higgs bosons are self-interacting objects. Their classical or quantum evolution is inevitably sensitive to the transition from order to chaos. With some noteworthy exceptions, the mainstream of theoretical particle physics has ignored the dynamical contribution of chaos in Quantum Field Theory. Here we point out that quantum corrections to the classical interaction of the Higgs with gauge bosons may lower the threshold for the onset of chaos and destabilize the vacuum in the low or intermediate TeV scale. The inability of the vacuum to survive in this energy region hints to a straightforward solution for the fine-tuning problem. It also implies that perturbative estimates on vacuum stability well above the LHC scale are likely to be invalid.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[17] **viXra:1210.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-26 17:18:48*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that star birth is caused by charge buildup equalizing in electrically active galaxies called quasars.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[16] **viXra:1210.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-01 17:07:49*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 12 Pages. All kinds of changes.

The geometry of the Schwarzschild black hole is compared to the geometry of the signal space from Shannon's mathematical theory of communication.
One result of these considerations is that the black hole is found to leak in a way that does not introduce an information loss paradox.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:1210.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-03 18:33:16*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez & Lee explored the ergonomization needs of student pilots in 2009. They asked a group of student pilots which technological features they wanted to have when flying (with costs also included as part of those features). They also valued the selected features on their relative importance to each other. Overall, the student pilots valued highly technological features that helped them with their flying (eg, onboard display of navigation charts, airspace awareness functionality, pre-flight route planning, and TCAS functionality), low running costs, post-flight analysis displayed on navigation charts, and equipment portability.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[14] **viXra:1210.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-04 00:00:42*

**Authors:** Tian-Chou Wang

**Comments:** 69 Pages. Manuscript scan, in Chinese, and copyright belongs to the author.

This is a part of Dr. Tian-Chou Wang's proof to Riemann Hypothesis. It follows 'the opening' (viXra citation number: 1209.0063), Chapter 1 (viXra citation number: 1209.0068), Chapter 2 (viXra citation number: 1209.0078), Chapter 3 (viXra citation number: 1209.0090), Chapter 4 (viXra citation number: 1209.0100), Chapter 5 (viXra citation number: 1210.0008), Chapter 6 (viXra citation number: 1210.0013), and this is the end of Section One.

**Category:** Number Theory

[13] **viXra:1210.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-01 18:56:09*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 16 Pages. paper is in two parts due to length

The "graviton" or field vector of the gravitational charge is a quantum unit of (negative) temporal entropy, the transformed entropy drive or intrinsic motion of the photon, equivalent to a quantum unit of time, whose intrinsic motion in history is the metric and entropic equivalent of the photon's intrinsic motion in space. Indeed, the implicit time component in light from which the spatial photon "flees" to conserve its non-local distributional symmetry is the self-same explicit time component which pulls space into history, producing the self-feeding gravitational field of matter. This gravitational field will also eventually conserve light's symmetry, via the conversion of bound to free energy (in stars, supernovas, quasars, and via Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1210.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-02 18:14:46*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We construct self/anti-self charge conjugate (Majorana-like) states for the (1/2,0)(0,1/2) representation of the Lorentz group, and their analogs for higher spins within the quantum
field theory. The problem of the basis rotations and that of the selection of phases in the Diraclike
and Majorana-like field operators are considered. The discrete symmetries properties (P, C,
T) are studied. The corresponding dynamical equations are presented. In the (1/2,0)(0,1/2)
representation they obey the Dirac-like equation with eight components, which has been first
introduced by Markov. Thus, the Fock space for corresponding quantum fields is doubled (as shown
by Ziino). The particular attention has been paid to the questions of chirality and helicity (two
concepts which are frequently confused in the literature) for Dirac and Majorana states. We further experimental consequences which follow from the previous works of M.Kirchbach
et al. on neutrinoless double beta decay, and G.J.Ni et al. on meson lifetimes.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11] **viXra:1210.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-02 20:34:00*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 12 Pages. 3 figures

A very simplified way of calculating the lifetime of some elementary particles decaying through the weak interaction is presented. The method makes use of a non-linear version of the Klein-Gordon-Yukawa equation, combined with the time-energy uncertainty principle. Although the analytical relations evaluated in this work do not always reproduce those usually found in literature, numerical estimates of them agree with their respective experimental values.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10] **viXra:1210.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-02 20:57:43*

**Authors:** Tian-Chou Wang

**Comments:** 48 Pages. Manuscript scan, in Chinese, and copyright belongs to the author.

This is a part of Dr. Tian-Chou Wang's proof to the Riemann Hypothesis. It follows 'the opening' (viXra citation number: 1209.0063), Chapter 1 (viXra citation number: 1209.0068), Chapter 2 (viXra citation number: 1209.0078), Chapter 3 (viXra citation number: 1209.0090), Chapter 4 (viXra citation number: 1209.0100), Chapter 5 (viXra citation number: 1210.0008)

**Category:** Number Theory

[9] **viXra:1210.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-02 22:49:12*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

On page 19 of "Doctor Who Magazine 447", Steven Moffat says "Time travel is impossible." Ouch!! That comment hurt. Here's a detailed, nonfictional
explanation of why time travel is not impossible.
[While the planned Mars mission of 2018 is robotic, we cannot limit our sights to that since we hope to follow with manned exploration of the Red Planet in the 2030’s. The physical bodies and psychology, as well as technology, we possess
now or will possess in the foreseeable future are not well suited to prolonged space travel (e.g. our brains and bodies are vulnerable to radiation, muscle and bone loss, abnormal psychology, etc. when travelling in space … and simply reaching nearby stars would take hundreds or thousands of years). However, there is an alternative to astronauts (or cosmonauts, or taikonauts) reaching
Mars and being unable to walk, or think clearly. We can thank the theories of Albert Einstein, an electrical engineering experiment conducted at Yale University in 2009, and some conclusions that logically follow from Einstein/Yale, for pointing the way to this alternative. When fully developed, the “Einstein-Yale Bridge” will take us anywhere in the universe and anywhen in time.]

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[8] **viXra:1210.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-02 15:00:14*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 3 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

The nutritional balance of sugar-free chocolates was studied by Perezgonzalez in 2011. He found that a sample of chocolate bars, chocolate blocks and bonbons currently available in New Zealand shared a similar nutritional profile characterized as being low in protein, high in fat, high in saturated fat, low in fiber and low in sodium. Sugar-free chocolates, however, differed from other chocolates in also being adequate (or low) in sugar and, consequently, low in carbohydrate.
On average, no-added-sugar chocolates have a nutritional balance of BNI 82.73f, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of fat.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[7] **viXra:1210.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-08 05:40:44*

**Authors:** Diego Marin (Ph.D.)

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

A new unifying theory was recently proposed in the publication "Arrangement field theory - beyond strings and loop gravity -". Such theory describes all fields (gravitational, gauge and matter fields) as entries in a matricial superfield which transforms in the adjoint representation of Sp(12,C). In this paper we show how this superfield is built and we introduce a new mechanism of symmetry breaking which doesn't need Higgs bosons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[6] **viXra:1210.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-01 17:10:54*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

The nutritional balance of sugary chocolates was studied by Perezgonzalez in 2011. He found that a sample of chocolate bars, chocolate blocks and bonbons currently available in New Zealand shared a similar nutritional profile characterized as being low in protein, high in fat, high in saturated fat, low in fiber and low in sodium. Chocolates with extra source of sugars (eg, added caramel) differed from other chocolates in also being high in sugars and high in carbohydrate.
On average, sugary chocolates have a nutritional balance of BNI 128.26s, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of sugars.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[5] **viXra:1210.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-01 19:09:51*

**Authors:** Tian-Chou Wang

**Comments:** 51 Pages. Manuscript scan, in Chinese, and copyright belongs to the author.

This is a part of Dr. Tian-Chou Wang's proof to the Riemann Hypothesis. It follows 'the opening' (viXra citation number: 1209.0063), Chapter 1 (viXra citation number: 1209.0068), Chapter 2 (viXra citation number: 1209.0078), Chapter 3 (viXra citation number: 1209.0090), Chapter 4 (viXra citation number: 1209.0100)

**Category:** Number Theory

[4] **viXra:1210.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-01 10:50:23*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the special relativity theory and the quantum mechanics, if the -decay that occurs in the nucleus is analyzed by the Yukawa’s pion theory, a virtual electron and a virtual anti-neutrino move in the velocity in neutrons during the uncertainty time. If the nucleus give the enough energy a neutron, the virtual electron, the virtual anti-neutrino and a neutron do the free electron, the free anti-neutrino of the velocity and the proton. And a virtual positive electron and a virtual neutrino move in the velocity in protons during the uncertainty time. If the nucleus give the enough energy a proton, the virtual positive electron, the virtual neutrino and a proton do the free positive electron, the free neutrino of the velocity and a neutron.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[3] **viXra:1210.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-31 10:53:07*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 6 references

The debris disk around the star Beta Pictoris is a proto-planetary disk which was caused by a collision of two or more aging stars.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[2] **viXra:1210.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-01 03:01:30*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Electrodynamic particles have an exclusive physical property that distinguishes them from all other physical systems. This property is the electrodynamic mass that allows accelerated particles to emit or to absorb energy quanta. Stable particles have a lower speed than the critical speed, when they are accelerated they lose electrodynamic mass and emit energy in the shape of quanta while when are decelerated they absorb energy quanta and electrodynamic mass. Unstable particles on the contrary have higher speeds than the critical speed; they absorb energy and negative electrodynamic mass when they are accelerated and lose energy and electrodynamic mass when they are decelerated. Muon and tauon are the main unstable electrodynamic particles and they have the physical property to emit the delta radiation on the decay.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:1210.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-10-01 07:50:18*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We consider that the Higgs boson, discovered recently at CERN, does not give a mass to the other particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics