[181] **viXra:1305.0202 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-03 19:19:59*

**Authors:** Nathan O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 34 pages, 6 figures, accepted in the Hadronic Journal

We propose a preliminary algorithm which is designed to reduce aspects of the n-body problem to a 2-body problem for holographic principle compliance. The objective is to share an alternative view-point on the n-body problem to try and generate a simpler solution in the future. The algorithm operates 2D and 3D data structures to initiate the encoding of the chaotic dynamical system equipped with modified superfluid order parameter fields in both 3D and 4D versions of the Inopin holographic ring (IHR) topology. For the algorithm, we arbitrarily select one point-mass to be the origin and, from that reference frame, we subsequently engage a series of instructions to consolidate the residual (n-1)-bodies to the IHR. Through a step-by-step example, we demonstrate that the algorithm yields "IHR effective" (IHRE) net quantities that enable us to hypothetically define an IHRE potential, kinetic, and Lagrangian.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[180] **viXra:1305.0201 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-28 05:49:23*

**Authors:** Leonardo Pedro

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Propostion 7.2 corrected

There are Poincare group representations on complex Hilbert spaces, like the Dirac
spinor field, or real Hilbert spaces, like the electromagnetic field tensor. The Majorana
spinor is an element of a 4 dimensional real vector space. The Majorana spinor field is a
space-time dependent Majorana spinor, solution of the free Dirac equation.
The Majorana-Fourier and Majorana-Hankel transforms of Majorana spinor fields are
defined and related to the linear and angular momenta of a spin one-half representation of
the Poincare group. We show that the Majorana spinor field with finite mass is an unitary
irreducible projective representation of the Poincare group on a real Hilbert space.
Since the Bargmann-Wigner equations are valid for all spins and are based on the free
Dirac equation, these results open the possibility to study Poincare group representations
with arbitrary spins on real Hilbert spaces.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[179] **viXra:1305.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-31 07:56:59*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 1 reference

It has been brought to the attention of the author of this paper that a simple reason why redshift in galactic structures is observed. The author does not posit to answer the question, only brings to light that the question has already been answered and has a simple solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[178] **viXra:1305.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 20:22:39*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 4 pages, Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), Wiki of Science, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

McDonald et al analyzed the safety management systems of four aircraft maintenance organizations (AMOs) in 1997. This article presents newly re-worked descriptive results about that research.

**Category:** Social Science

[177] **viXra:1305.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 22:07:11*

**Authors:** Fabing Duan, Francois Chapeau-Blondeau, Derek Abbott

**Comments:** 7 Pages. submitted to HotPI 2013

We study the aperiodic signal transmission in a static nonlinearity in the context of aperiodic stochastic resonance. The performance of a nonlinearity over that of the linear system is defined as the transmission efficacy. The theoretical and numerical results demonstrate that the noise-enhanced transmission efficacy effects occur for different signal strengths in various noise scenarios.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[176] **viXra:1305.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-02 03:16:59*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 40 Pages. Some of this is covered in previous articles I posted at www.vixra.org, www.fqxi.org and www.researchgate.net; some is new.

The start of this article lies a few years in the past, when I wrote about the Little Ice Age experienced in Europe some 300-360 years ago. I then read an article in “Astronomy” magazine which prompted me to extend those ideas to explanation of heating of the Sun’s corona. On the same page of Astronomy, I was inspired by a story on unidentified spectral lines in the Sun. I thought about this, and decided it could be extended to all matter, supporting Einstein’s conviction that mass is generated by gravitational-electromagnetic interactions (maybe the Higgs field is actually these interactions, for they fill the universe and are certainly capable of producing the Higgs boson, as will be explained here). In writing this, I felt the need to go into more detail frequently – about string theory, the mathematical universe, the infinite universe, the strong and weak nuclear forces, etc. (some of this is covered in previous articles I posted at www.vixra.org, www.fqxi.org and www.researchgate.net; some is new).
All of this seems to fit together perfectly in my mind. However, I don’t feel as though I’ve done much of the work myself. It feels like figuring out the nature of the universe is a giant jigsaw puzzle, and I’ve been handed the solution (if indeed I have it) piece by piece over the years and decades. This fitting together of a giant jigsaw made me think the universe isn’t really such a complicated place, and reminded me of Professor John Wheeler
saying - Can we ever expect to understand existence? Clues we have, and work to do, to make headway on that issue. Surely someday, we can believe, we will grasp the central idea of it all as so simple, so beautiful, so compelling that we will all say to each other, "Oh, how could it have been otherwise! How could we all have been so blind so long! “
The scientist and philosopher in me inspire each other. They combined logic with measurement and willingness to speculate so they could produce these subheadings - Unidentified Spectral Lines; Graviton-Photon Oscillation; Relativistic Mass Increase and Time Dilation; Higgs Boson and (e∞); Quantum Entanglement and Retrocausality; Mathematical Unification; Coronal Heating (Part 1 – Little Ice Age); String Theory, the Mobius Loop and the Klein Bottle; Coronal Heating (Part 2 – Gravity and EM Interact); Nuclear Forces as Modified Gravity; Electromagnetism as Modified Gravity; Reflections on the Actual Curvature of Space and the Pioneer Anomaly; Nonlinear Gravity and EM; Infinite Universe (Physically and Electronically); Brian Greene’s Cosmic Movie; Something from Nothing, Something from Something; Universal Intelligence; Hidden Variables and Virtual Particles; Biogenesis; Bell’s Theorem; Immortal Life; Space-time, Hyperspace and the Big Bang; Physicist John Wheeler; Equation Describing the Universe; and CHALLENGE – Explain To The Layman How Gravity Accounts For Dark Matter and Dark Energy Without Using Any Mathematics (this could have been given subheadings of its own – about Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, tides, orbits, but my abstract’s long enough).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[175] **viXra:1305.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 16:29:14*

**Authors:** Józef Kajfosz

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the alternative, Lorentzian interpretation of special relativity the ether is a necessity.
This has some far-reaching consequences for fundamental research in physics and for the future unification which under this new paradigm shall be much easier.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[174] **viXra:1305.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 09:45:05*

**Authors:** Giancarlo Gazzoni

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Empirical semi-classical decay beta decays to electron capture, and phenomena of "cold fusion"
This article discusses a statistic empirical decays beta, derived from macroscopic observables.
In this way, we can find and "isolate" sensitive variables which determine the frequency of decay of nuclei. and we can begin to understand how to intervene "to artificially change the natural rates of decay, and find ways to decay, fission and fuse nuclei in energy conditions" cold "
We can identify the underlying mechanism that allows type of decays,
and to understand why the phenomena of decay, for + for electron capture and decay are driven by the same basic principles
we can understand the mysterious mechanisms of the so-called Cold Fusion., and explains how to re nuclear fusions occur in environments with very low density energy.
We can understand how the nuclei, using energy "environmental concentration is not high, can have behaviors that seem to be possible only for large energies,
The statistics electro - weak are based on the assumption that every phenomenological decay
electroweak, must be mediated by Higgs bosons decaying into Z ° and W ∓ , And produce a phase strange,
The quarks change flavor, in the interaction of Z ° bosons created by the excitement of the local vacuum, and that modify the stangeness of quarks, which decay into down and up with the issue of W bosons ∓ and modification of electrical charge.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[173] **viXra:1305.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 09:54:37*

**Authors:** Giancarlo Gazzoni

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this paper we approach the problem with a simple empirical observations of the fluctuations
Energy under vacuum, nuclei to higt atomic number, and nuclear interactions
That affect them, including the phenomena called cold fusion,
We are led to believe that the oscillations of the electrons induce fluctuations in energy nuclei. With changes in energy density of the core, density variations involving definition of space between quarks and production of Higgs bosons, which decay rapidly in Z ° bosons, W bosons decaying into
The problem of mergers and fission induced by cold nuclear phenomena, has been addressed in the first part of the article where they took into account nuclei with atomic number less than 4.
The central point is that it takes vortices of electrons and nuclei,
for nuclear reactions and mergers cold.
With simple analogy with what happens in the vortex elements, and elemental analysis, we can assume vortex structures with fairly ordered, with average temperatures
components of very similar.
At the center of the vortex, the nuclei components can have temperatures similar enough, we can assume a state BEC for nuclei in the center of the vortex.
In this case, we can assume that the fields axion produced by exchange between quarks of different nuclei in quasi-BEC and composed of photons super-luminal, may be in a state very excited,
very strong, and can have a range of microns.
The vortices then, can range from the size of microns to nano-meters ..
The same state is conceivable BEC is obtained from exchanges assionici very strong,
we can assume that trade even if the components of micrometric crystals, and in Mossbauer phenomenon ..
With this approach, very simply , we obtain results that confirm the observations made from the analysis of the behavior of nuclei with atomic number less than 4.
The results are the same, with a possible explanation of the phenomenon in the fullness of time decay alpha, beta and fission.
We use this empirical approximations for a rigorous mathematical analysis, according to the standard parameters, involves the use of 19 free parameters standard, +9 parameters for the oscillation energy vacuum quasi-standard + 7 parameters for the Higgs bosons,
+ 100 parameters for self-interaction with the Higgs fields.(SUSY semplice)
we must proceed with empirical experiments, for statistics calculated behavior.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[172] **viXra:1305.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 10:03:03*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Sigmund Freud devised his theories about the Mother and Father Complex after reading Oedipus Rex, a Greek tragedy of which at least two versions have come down to us. Chinese metaphysics posits eight trigrams, the first, Qian, represents the father archetype, the second, Kun, represents the mother concept. In the ancient Chinese form of divination known as Qi Men Dun Jia, the Mother and Father Complexes appear in the form of "diseased" symbols for Qian and Kun, and may indicate overly powerful libido, if not bisexuality or homosexuality. In this way, the ancient Chinese concept provides a mathematical basis for a putative Greek concept that probably originated in extremely ancient Egypt, to affirm the correctness of Freud's theory.

**Category:** Social Science

[171] **viXra:1305.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 13:03:53*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 1 Page. Added more details to the abstract

I don't agree with any aspects in this paper, as I am a christian scientist, but since all scientist needs to study all aspect of science, I decided why not write about it.
______________________
Physics is based upon mathematics, and according to myself, Dr.Robert K. Adair, and many other physicist it is based upon a way of understanding our universe more. In all common faith of physicist is that the universe they are studying is looked on as a logical, mathematical, and scientific point of view. Physics is basically known to be devoted into understanding an extensive analysis of what is around us, or things based on logic that can be used to help benefit humanity, partially in this case are what we known today as the field of Theoretical Physics which can be highly based on circular logic, and logical thinking through forms and methods of research and experimentation. One of the reasons why mathematics is so closely related to physics is because mathematics, in many aspects, is essentially logical.
In the characteristics of experiments that are designed to obtain information of interest physics can be systematically described as scientific measurements. Experiments then, help provide completely precise info and classifications of goals, procedures, and conclusions extensively and essentially needed in a scientific experiment. Though sometime science can be built into confusion that is when theories are made, and when those theories are proved and fully clarified then they become scientific laws (i.e. laws of nature). This aspect can affect almost every region in science.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[170] **viXra:1305.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 13:05:46*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I don't agree with the aspects of the author, but since I have to cover all aspects of science I decided why not.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[169] **viXra:1305.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 13:42:14*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Quantum mechanics is a solidly founded mathematical theory, but it has yet to be explained in first conceptual principles. The most obvious aberration to explanation that quantum mechanics has is interference and coherence. We simply do not understand why the preparation of a quantum mechanical system must not allow knowledge of path in order to display interference effects. We present the first principles of the information interpretation which provide a proper conceptual foundation of quantum mechanics and also lead to an explanation of interference and coherence.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[168] **viXra:1305.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 15:18:56*

**Authors:** Józef Kajfosz

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A simple scheme for ordering the facts of physics is presented, and some terms
associated with basic research are introduced. Some aspects of this research are discussed and
an outline of a simple model as an example of a working hypothesis for explaining the known
facts is proposed.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[167] **viXra:1305.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 08:34:46*

**Authors:** Józef Kajfosz

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

A short outline of the alternative, Lorentzian version of special relativity is
presented. It is shown that a simple principle of consistency of measurements, familiar and
obvious to every experimentalist, when applied in the interpretation of experimental
evidence about inertial motion, leads straightforward to the Lorentzian formulation of
relativity which involves both the principle of relativity and Lorentz transformation and
also a privileged state of motion and effects related to absolute motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[166] **viXra:1305.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 05:25:55*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

As with almost all overly ambitious Grand Unified Theories or Theories of Everything, Schiller’s strand model) may be challenged by several upfront objections. Here we present a brief (yet incomplete) list of such objections.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[165] **viXra:1305.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-29 16:18:36*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Interference effects are known to have a dependence upon indistinguishability of path. For this reason, it is accepted that different sources of a system cannot interfere if they have distinguishable states. We present an analysis of interference that predicts the allowance of interference between distinguishable states under the strict condition that the preparation has no distinguishability of path that results from the distinguishability of the states of the possible sources. This leads us to a new analysis of the quantum eraser experiment.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[164] **viXra:1305.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-29 18:31:05*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 3 pages, Knowledge (ISSN 2324-1624), WikiofScience, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez assessed the nutritional balance of corn crisps in 2012, as part of a research on the nutritional composition of snacks in New Zealand. Corn crisps had, on average, a nutritional unbalance of BNI 67.36-fb, being particularly biased towards deficiency in fiber. They were also adequate in carbohydrate and sugar, high in fat, saturated fat and sodium, and low in protein.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[163] **viXra:1305.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 00:59:35*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This is a new attempt in set theory 7 geometry

The sum of the interior angles of a number triangles were transformed into linear algebraic equations. The analysis of these equations without assuming the fifth Euclidean postulate established the following theorem: There exists a triangle whose interior angle sum is equal to two right angles

**Category:** Algebra

[162] **viXra:1305.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 01:05:03*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This is an entirely new approach in algebra & geometry

By the application of abstract algebra the famous unsolved classical problems trisection of an angle,squaring the circle , duplicating the cube and drawing a regular septagon were shown not possible to solve.. On the other hand,in this work, the application of classical algebra proposed a proposition for the origin of a new field of geometry.

**Category:** Algebra

[161] **viXra:1305.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 01:11:48*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Quo Vadis

By applying the basic operations of number theory and set theory to geometry, a new challenging finding has been obtained

**Category:** Algebra

[160] **viXra:1305.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-28 17:41:03*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 79 Pages.

The General Theory of Relativity (GTR) is an extension of the Special Theory of Relativity (or Restricted) (STR); it was necessary for Einstein to explain the Gravitation.
In the opinion of the writer, GTR is for sure a beautiful physical-mathematical theory, mathematical more than physical, maybe the most beautiful, but it’s also true that it has somewhat weird concepts inside. I think that the GTR is the typical falsifiable Popper-like theory, like if it were an interpretative model which works to explain many phenomena, but that it’s not the real essence of the phenomena just explained. I can scientifically explain the motion of a tyre by that of a rolling cut out cardboard circle, but this would be just a model which then must fall, once we go a bit deeper in it.
And then, provided that the geometric interpretation of the curvature is real, we should still explain why the matter causes it; ok, it causes that, but why? To see is not the same as to explain and justify.
In the GTR, the gravity is just attractive and Einstein, in his Theory of Unified Fields (let’s sum up a bit, out of brevity) after having used the concept of curvature in the GTR to explain the gravitational pull, also used the concept of torsion to try to explain also the repulsive forces of the electricity. All this unfortunately without success, that is, his unitary field equations (maybe 33) couldn’t be proved in the real Universe. Therefore, Einstein work didn’t finish with the GTR; in fact, he died in 1955 in a bed in a Hospital, with paper and pen in his hands!
I personally think the force of gravity is a macroscopic force which is made of microscopic and electric forces among particles, positive and negative, which make the Universe, and that can be considered as randomly spread.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[159] **viXra:1305.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-28 20:49:58*

**Authors:** Jose D Perezgonzalez

**Comments:** 5 pages, Knowledge (ISSN 2324-1624), WikiofScience, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License

Perezgonzalez assessed the nutritional balance of corn crisps in 2012, as part of a research on the nutritional composition of snacks in New Zealand.
The distribution of nutritional balance covered a wide range of values. The median was located at BNI 76.98 and the middle 68% of products ranged between BNI 42 (P16) and BNI 121 (P84). There was a slight positive skewness (mean=78.49, zSkew=0.99). The distribution of nutritional balance varied slightly according to the particular recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) of reference, although all followed a pattern similar to the one just described. Even so, this group of products appeared slightly less unbalanced under US's, Australia's and UK's RDIs than under WHO's RDIs.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[158] **viXra:1305.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-28 22:01:07*

**Authors:** Jin He, Xiaoli Yang

**Comments:** 17 Pages. 2 Figures. Two theorems of rational structure are proved,

Rational structure in two dimension means that not only there exists an orthogonal net of curves in the plane but also, for each curve, the stellar density on one side of the curve is in constant ratio to the density on the other side of the curve. Such a curve is called a proportion curve or a Darwin curve. Such a distribution of matter is called a rational structure. Spiral galaxies are blended with dust and gas. Their longer wavelength (e.g. infrared) images present mainly the stellar distribution, which is called the naked galaxies. Jin He found many evidences that galaxies are rational stellar distribution. We list a few examples. Firstly, galaxy components (disks and bars) can be fitted with rational structure. Secondly, spiral arms can be fitted with Darwin curves. Thirdly, rational structure dictates New Universal Gravity which explains constant rotation curves simply and elegantly. This article presents the systematic theory of rational structure, its general solution and geometric meaning. A preliminary application to spiral galaxies is also discussed.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[157] **viXra:1305.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-29 00:07:18*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Copyright John Frederick Sweeney 2013

Qi Men Dun Jia is an ancient form of divination from China which is still employed to make accurate predictions, and thus meets the definition of a scientific model based on scientific theory. This paper introduces a series of books which engages in "reverse engineering," using the concepts of contemporary mathematical physics to explain how this ancient model works. Specifically, we address Clifford Algebras, Bott Periodicity, Exceptional Lie Algebras, icosians, octonions and sedenions, as well as the Fano Plane and isometric relationships to Leptons and Baryons. The introduction concludes with reference to extremely ancient and superior science from 12,000 years ago, ancient Vedic culture and extremely ancient Egyptian culture.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[156] **viXra:1305.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-29 02:54:43*

**Authors:** DaeHyeon Kang

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We refined the concepts of electric current and fluxoid, and London’s equation that specify quantum phenomena of moving electrons and magnetic flux in a closed circuit similar
to a superconducting ring, so as not to violate the uncertainty principle.
On this basic the relation between the electron motion and magnetic flux in a superconductor
has been theoretically investigated by means of Faraday’s law and/or canonical momentum relation.
The fact that minimum unit of the quantized magnetic flux is hc/2e does not mean the
concurrent motion of the two electrons in a Cooper pair as is known so far. However, it is
shown to be related with independent motion of the each electron in a superconducting state.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[155] **viXra:1305.0171 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-25 15:35:48*

**Authors:** Jose javier garcia Moreta

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

•ABSTRACT: We study a generalization of the zeta regularization method applied to the case of the regularization of divergent integrals for positive ‘s’ , using the Euler Maclaurin summation formula, we manage to express a divergent integral in term of a linear combination of divergent series , these series can be regularized using the Riemann Zeta function s >0 , in the case of the pole at s=1 we use a property of the Functional determinant to obtain the regularization , with the aid of the Laurent series in one and several variables we can extend zeta regularization to the cases of integrals , we believe this method can be of interest in the regularization of the divergent UV integrals in Quantum Field theory since our method would not have the problems of the Analytic regularization or dimensional regularization

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[154] **viXra:1305.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-28 13:50:59*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity.There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$.The warp drive seems to be very
attractive because allows interstellar space travel at arbitrarily
large speeds avoiding the light speed limit,time dilatation and
mass increase paradoxes of Einstein Special Relativity.This is an
introductory article without mathematics written for the general
public outlining a brief resume of the "status quo" of the warp
drive science from an Historical perspective.We cover the $3$
major obstacles raised by modern science against the physical
integrity of the warp drive as a dynamical spacetime that can
carry a ship at faster than light speeds.We show using a clear and
accessible language that the Natario warp drive emerges as a
"winner" against all the $3$ obstacles and can be regarded as a
valid candidate for faster than light space travel.Our goal in
writing a non-technical paper on this subject is to captive the
interest of potential common readers that might would appreciate
this subject avoiding the details of complex mathematical
explanations.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[153] **viXra:1305.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-05 04:11:22*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Submitted to Int. J. Geom. Mod. Phys

An octonionic ternary gauge field theory is explicitly constructed based on a ternary-bracket defined earlier by Yamazaki. The ternary infinitesimal gauge transformations do obey the key $closure$ relations $ [ \delta_1, \delta_2] = \delta_3 $.
An invariant action for the octonionic-valued gauge fields is displayed
after solving the previous problems in formulating a non-associative octonionic ternary gauge field theory. These octonionc ternary gauge field theories constructed here deserve further investigation. In particular, to study their relation to Yang-Mills theories based on the $G_2$ group which is the automorphism group of the Octonions and their relevance to Noncommutative and Nonassociative Geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[152] **viXra:1305.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-28 08:16:30*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

All measurable phenomena in physics are irreducibly particle like and the wave picture of physical systems only arises when explaining a statistically relevant set of measurements of individual systems as an average. The wave picture arises in the effects of interference which can always be explained in the context of the state description of the interfering system, interference necessitates that the measurement outcomes be calculated by squaring the amplitudes after adding and non-interference is calculated by squaring before adding. Even though the calculation for each is independently valid, the change in the statistics when one modulates between interference and non-interference, as in the quantum eraser, requires a violation of the law of conservation of energy. There is no “driving force” in the change of statistics. It is always a change in preparation that leads to the change of interference statistics, whilst in the calculation there is only a change in the state description. The irreducibly particle like nature of the quanta requires that there be a causal “driving force” in the change in statistics and a mere change in description is an insufficient explanation by the standards of energy conservation. We present the argument that indeed this has already all been proven in the historic 1991 study of the ZWM papers of quantum coherence.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[151] **viXra:1305.0167 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-29 04:16:31*

**Authors:** Fortuné Alain Junior BACKOULAS

**Comments:** 82 Pages. We recall that this document is in French, an English version will be published shortly

This document contains new methods and tools that allow us to have a new vision on the theory of numbers. Including understanding of prime numbers.
New highly detailed methods have been developed in this paper and thus help to understand how the primes whose mystery has fascinated interacting in the set of integers.
We are sure that the logic we use here will bring more light to the theory of numbers and that has certainly been understood before.
We invite you to read this

**Category:** Number Theory

[150] **viXra:1305.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-28 10:14:55*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

One observation falsifies the Rope Hypothesis as instituted by a Mr. Bill Gaede.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[149] **viXra:1305.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-27 20:49:36*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This short paper takes a look at the spatial implications of the MO and Valence Bond approaches as compared to those of the MCAS model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[148] **viXra:1305.0164 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-12 08:31:02*

**Authors:** Ionel DINU

**Comments:** 45 Pages. a few sentences have been reworded for better clarity

In Part I of this series on Radio Waves, I have tried to show that Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetic waves is untenable because electric fields cannot exist in vacuum where there are no electric charges to produce them and because experiments have yet to prove that electric fields can be produced in vacuum by changing magnetic fields. My aim was to show that a new theory of radio waves is needed since that based on Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetic waves claiming that a radio wave travelling in vacuum consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields mutually inducing one another is not supported by experiments, being based on assumptions and mathematical manipulations. Comments received from interested readers prompted me to offer further arguments against Maxwell’s theory and this led to an extended version of the same paper titled “Trouble with Maxwell’s Electromagnetic Theory: Can Fields Induce Other Fields in Vacuum?”. In this article I return to my original aim when I began this series on Radio Waves and I will try to show what I think radio waves really are and how are they produced in an antenna.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[147] **viXra:1305.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-27 10:06:42*

**Authors:** Donald E. Scott

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The fundamental vector calculus definition of a force-free, field-aligned, Birkeland current is expanded in cylindrical coordinates to obtain the partial differential equations (DEs) that yield the magnetic field created by such a current. The resulting equations are put into state-variable form and an Euler, step-wise, approximation incorporating a 4th order Runge-Kutta algorithm is applied. In single-variable form, the DEs are identified as Bessel equations. J0(r) and J1(r) Bessel function solutions confirm the Euler results thus yielding closed form solutions for both the linking (azimuthal) and collinear (axial) components of the force-free field. Results show that both of these magnetic components reverse their directions and vary in magnitude in a way that aids the formation of concentric cylindrical shells of matter as has been observed in Marklund convection. Another result is the finding that magnetic fields extend relatively farther from Birkeland currents than they would from a straight-line current. They slowly decay as
1/SQRT(r) for large r.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[146] **viXra:1305.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-27 10:16:43*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 1 picture

Neutron stars are theoretical constructs invented by mathematical physicists, they do not exist.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[145] **viXra:1305.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-27 11:41:28*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 reference, 1 graph, 1 picture

Red Giant stars are theoretical constructs that are rooted in extremely unreliable parallax measurements. They are simply red dwarf stars that are vastly closer than believed by the establishment. No extra theoretical fantasy is required to explain star evolution to include supposed stars that are as big as our solar system.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[144] **viXra:1305.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-27 14:04:48*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here attention is drawn to a recent article in the journal Nature which claimed that researchers had cooled a system to a temperature below absolute zero. It is pointed out that this was not the claim in the original paper and is incorrect as far as the accepted definition of temperature is concerned. It is pointed out also that, if the claim were true, then it would imply that both the Third and Second Laws of Thermodynamics had been violated.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[143] **viXra:1305.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-27 08:23:09*

**Authors:** Morten Krogh

**Comments:** 53 Pages.

We claim that everything is alive, and that quantum mechanics of $U(N)$ unifies physics and biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[142] **viXra:1305.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-26 17:32:33*

**Authors:** Ali A. Elabd, El-Sayed M. El-Rabaie, Abdel-Aziz T. Shalaby

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, we investigate the assumption that the orbital or energy level of an electron can be considered as an electrode of a tunnel junction. Based on this assumption, an electrical model – equivalent circuit – for atom's emission is presented and Hydrogen atom is taken as an example. Also the line spectra of Iron and Sodium are used to verify the model.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[141] **viXra:1305.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-27 22:22:06*

**Authors:** Dirk J Pons, Arion D Pons, Aiden J Pons

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A previous conceptual work, called the Cordus conjecture, has proposed a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) design for the photon, and thereby proposed a solution to photon entanglement and wave-particle duality. This paper applies a systems design approach to extend the theory to matter, specifically to differentiate between the matter-antimatter species. This concept rests on two premises: that particules have span (physical separation between reactive ends); and that their externally emitted discrete forces have an energisation sequence. Specific hidden-variable models are proposed for the electron, positron, and proton. This concept provides a better explanation of the difference between matter and antimatter in ways that make physical sense. It also provides foundational concepts from which new solutions to other problems, like annihilation and baryogenesis, can be envisaged. The Cordus theory goes beyond conventional NLHV solutions, such as the de Broglie-Bohm model, by offering a solution not only for the inner contents of a particle, the hidden variables, but also predicting how its discrete fields operate. This theory provides a physically natural explanation for spin, handedness, chirality, and related directional attributes of particles, which are otherwise only abstract concepts in quantum mechanics. The theory also explains parity violation, and why the photon does not have an antiparticle. This work makes a conceptual contribution of presenting a new concept of handedness and the matter-antimatter species differentiation. It demonstrates the potential of hidden-variable designs to provide solutions of high explanatory power.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[140] **viXra:1305.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-27 04:09:38*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A formula for Particular solutions to any Linear Second Order Inhomogeneous Ordinary Diffrential equations is presented. For second order ODEs these make the methods of undetermined coefficients and variation of parameters obsolete.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[139] **viXra:1305.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-25 09:35:40*

**Authors:** Hossein Turner

**Comments:** 2 Pages. The paper may be freely distributed, copied and pasted. But please give credit to the author.

Many theologans have stated that because God is "omniscient" (All-Knowing) and "omnipresent" in His infinite power then this somehow means that His Knowledge and Presence extends into the future indefinitely. God is regarded as a Being existing outside of all Time - including the past, present and future although His actions can affect all of these aspects of time. This has created strong debates over the centuries about the implications for human pre-destination and free-will. If God "knows" what human beings are going to do many years in the future, then do human beings really have any free choice? Some have managed to resolve this dilemma for themselves, but the author of this brief paper still sees the "future knowledge" of God with respect to human actions, as a proxy form of pre-determination. Where is the free-will and responsibility?

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[138] **viXra:1305.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-03 19:04:51*

**Authors:** Cristian Dumitrescu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this article I describe a proof of the fact that ZFC cannot decide whether a certain modified Turing machine, or computer (satisfying a certain condition) will ever halt successfully in finite time. The consequences of this fact in relation to the Riemann Hypothesis are presented.

**Category:** Number Theory

[137] **viXra:1305.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-24 16:35:02*

**Authors:** Christopher A Laforet

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper describes the method by which the gravitational force between galaxies can be reduced and even reversed as a result of the net energy loss from photon exchange. According to the relativistic Doppler Effect, galaxies moving apart will suffer a net energy loss when exchanging photons. This energy loss reduces the total energy of the system, resulting in a reduction in gravitational attraction between the galaxies. Given sufficient velocity, emitted photon energy, and rate of photon exchange, it is shown that the attractive force between galaxies can be reversed, resulting in an accelerated expansion of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[136] **viXra:1305.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-24 09:24:45*

**Authors:** S. Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 8 Pages. This is an extra-ordinary math. article.

After establishing the fundamental physics prizes, Yuri Milner said: “Unlike the Nobel in physics, the Fundamental Physics Prize can be awarded to scientists whose ideas have not yet been verified by experiments, which often occurs decades later. Sometimes a radical new idea “really deserves recognition right away because it expands our understanding of at least what is possible.”. Keeping this mind the author formulated two spherical geometrical theorems which may applied for the studies and probes of fundamental particles, quantum gravity, gravitational waves ,dark matter and dark energy.

**Category:** Algebra

[135] **viXra:1305.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-24 09:27:04*

**Authors:** S. Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This is an extra-ordinary math. article.

Miles Mathis has shown the following equivalent propositions to Gödel’s incompleteness theorems: [ http://milesmathis.com/godel.html ]
Theorem 1: In any logical system one can construct statements that are neither true nor false (mathematical variations of the liar’s paradox).
Theorem 2: Therefore no consistent system can be used to prove its own consistency. No proof can be proof of itself. In this work , we attempt to prove the first theorem mention above.
Key words: Gödel’s incompleteness theorems ; Miles Mathis’s proposition

**Category:** Algebra

[134] **viXra:1305.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-24 09:29:12*

**Authors:** S. Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is an extra-ordinary math. article.

The classical Euclidean geometry is widely used in all fields of science, engineering and other art fields. The hyperbolic and elliptic non Euclidean geometries are applied in theoretical physics and cosmology. In this short paper, we have come across an interesting non geometrical phenomenon.

**Category:** Algebra

[133] **viXra:1305.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-24 01:55:13*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A simple list of sequences of integers that reveal interesting properties of few subsets of balanced primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[132] **viXra:1305.0148 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-31 22:00:33*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** Pages.

Problem- The theory of Relativity is premised on the constancy of the speed of light (c) in-vacuo. While no empirical evidence convincingly shows the speed to be variable, nonetheless from a theoretical perspective the invariance is an assumption. Need- It is possible that the evidence could be explained by a different theory. Approach- A non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) solution, the Cordus particule theory, is applied to identify the causes of variability in the fabric density, and then show how this affects the speed of light. Findings- Under these assumptions the speed of light is variable (VSL), being inversely proportional to fabric density. This is because the discrete fields of the photon interact dynamically with the fabric and therefore consume frequency cycles of the photon. The fabric arises from aggregation of fields from particles, which in turn depends on the proximity and spatial distribution of matter. Results disfavour the universal applicability of the cosmological principle of homogeneity and isotropy of the universe. Originality- The work proposes causal mechanisms for VSL, which have otherwise been challenging to ascertain. Uniquely, this theory identifies fabric density as the dependent variable. In contrast, other VSL models propose that c varies with time or some geometric-like scale, but struggle to provide plausible reasons for that dependency. This theory also offers a conceptually simply way to reconcile the refraction of light in both gravitational situations and optical materials.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[131] **viXra:1305.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-23 19:33:33*

**Authors:** Jin He, Xiaoli Yang

**Comments:** 14 Pages. 1 figure. Solve the beautiful equation and reveal the secret of galaxies

We have not found the general solution to the Creator's equation system. However, we have outlined the strategy for determining the solution. Firstly, we should study the stretch equation which is the first order linear and homogeneous partial differential equation, and find its all stretches which correspond to the given vector field (i.e., the gradient of the logarithmic stellar density). Our solution G(x,y), however, must be simultaneously the modulus of some analytic complex function. It is called the modulus stretch. Secondly, among all possible modulus stretches, we find the right solution (i.e., the orthogonal net of curves) which satisfies the Creator's standard equation.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[130] **viXra:1305.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-23 10:52:34*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 1 Table, 1 Appendix

This article is about relations between fundamental physical constants. The mass, radius and cycle of the universe are the basis for calculating Planck units.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[129] **viXra:1305.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-23 12:15:00*

**Authors:** Julien Laurendeau

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here,I will prove the goldbach conjecture using proof by induction.

**Category:** Number Theory

[128] **viXra:1305.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-23 12:59:56*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter (Shechter)

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Schrödinger equation solve the Hydrogen-like Atom, the solution is very complicate mathematically and supply a very little understanding why the atom behave so.
In 1913 Bohr proposed a very simple model of the hydrogen atom. I extend this model to see what happens to the atom under a magnetic field. The results obtained using my simple approach are almost the same results obtained from Schrödinger equation with the endless solution, but the physical explanation is entirely different. I leave you the task to check what the correct explanation to the Hydrogen Atom is
See also
QUANTUM MECHANICS Solved using only Newtonian Mechanics
http://vixra.org/abs/1305.0078

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[127] **viXra:1305.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-28 14:06:20*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract:
English:This article shows how electrical
force can be powered by asymmetric systems,
as with gravitational force. Attempts
to explain also summarily where emerges that
energy.
Spanish:En este artículo se muestra como
de la fuerza eléctrica se puede obtener energía
mediante sistemas asimétricos, al igual que
con fuerza gravitatoria. Se intenta explicar
además, someramente de donde surge esa
energía.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[126] **viXra:1305.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-23 06:47:25*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 8 Pages. 8

In the past I have described several experiments in support of the Quantum FFF model.
(Function Follows Form)
These experiment suggestions are described in several recent Vixra essays.
In this essay I will try to present a summary of these experiments related to
Mass based Lightspeed drag, Dual Quantum Push Gravity, Magnetic Monopole Radiation,
Human Consciousness, Double Stern Gerlach Entanglement and Micro Ball Lightning in the
lab.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[125] **viXra:1305.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-23 07:04:36*