[213] **viXra:1408.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 19:26:52*

**Authors:** Liu Taixiang

**Comments:** 12 Pages. e-mail:taixiang.l@126.com

The Theory of System Relativity is based on the premise of the assumption of the quantization of matter and introduces a brand new view of matter in terms of "monism and dualism". In view of the serious contradictions existing among the current different branches of physical theories, the author conducts a preliminary study from the perspective of the Theory of System Relativity and attempts to incorporate the different branches of physical theories into the theoretical framework of the Theory of System Relativity. Especially to the general relativity and the quantum theory, the author takes his unique view that the two different theories may achieve unity although the serous contradictions existing between them.
This book is a brand new way for matter principle. It can be used as a reference book for philosophy and fundamental physics research, and also be available for physics enthusiasts and relevant personnel.
e-mail:taixiang.l@126.com

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[212] **viXra:1408.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 21:49:20*

**Authors:** Hardev Singh Virk

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This paper is published in www.researchgate.net. Comments are welcome.

The origin of quantum mechanics goes back to the mid-1920s.It was formulated first as matrix mechanics by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and Pascual Jordan; then as wave mechanics by Louis de Broglie and Erwin Schrödinger; and later on asquantum statistics of subatomic particles by Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein. Combining relativistic mechanics with quantum mechanics, Dirac formulated his relativistic quantum mechanics during 1930s. Uncertainty Principle is thecornerstone of Quantum Physics. The role of randomness in microscopic physical processes shatters the myth that the universe is deterministic. Quantum world is unpredictable in the classical sense and demolishes the idea of an objective universe. The Copenhagen interpretation remains the quantum mechanical formalism that is currently most widely accepted amongst physicists.Quantum theories support cosmic spirit pervading the cosmos and inter – relationship of individuals in the world society. Quantum philosophy is holistic and is going to revolutionize our world-view.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[211] **viXra:1408.0240 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-25 01:49:53*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Oppenheimer and Snyder treated in "comoving coordinates" a finite-radius ball of self-gravitationally contracting dust whose energy density is initially static; this is incisively dealt with by use of Tolman's rarely-cited closed-form "comoving" metric solutions for all spherically-symmetric nonuniform dust distributions. Unaware of Tolman's general solutions, Oppenheimer and Snyder assumed that the uniform space-filling dust solution applies without modification to the interior of their dust ball, which is validated by Tolman's solutions. We also find that all nonuniform dust solutions which adhere to the Oppenheimer-Snyder initial conditions have a time-cycloid character that strikingly parallels Newtonian particle gravitational infall, and as well renders those solutions periodically singular. The highly intricate, and thus easily misapprehended, singular transformation of the Oppenheimer-Snyder dust-ball solution from "comoving" to "standard" coordinates is re-derived in detail; it reveals the completely
nonsingular nature of the dust-ball metric in "standard" coordinates. Thus the periodically-singular quasi-Newtonian character of the "comoving" dust-ball metric is an artifact of the perceptibly unphysical "synthetic" nature of "comoving coordinates", whose definition requires the clocks of an infinite number of observers.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[210] **viXra:1408.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 16:46:25*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The current physics believes that vacuum can produce energy and Universes. The basis of any Universe is energy. Author assumes: energy may be positive or negative. Positive energy produces our positive matter, negative energy produces negative matter. Using this effect the author offers the formatting the current planets of Solar system, making them suitable for people, for humanity. That include: the production of Earth atmosphere, water, magnetic field in planets and natural satellites, change their angle speed, and transportation them to Earth orbit.
Negative matter repels our (positive) matter. Using this effect the author offers a space propulsion system which allows reaching by space ship a speed close to light speed and to enable massive retrieval of extraterrestrial materials to construct works in space. That may be the best method colonization the space, Solar System and Universe.
Concept of negative energy also allows solving the many very important problems of humanity. For example, humanity can create any artificial material, food, travel to other stars and possible (in future) create a new Universe.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[209] **viXra:1408.0237 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-06 10:16:54*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 136 Pages.

In this book the author pledges for the generalization of the Lupasco-Nicolescu’s Law of Included Middle [A, nonA, and a third value T which resolves their contradiction at another level of reality] to the Law of Included Multiple-Middle [A, antiA, and neutA, where neutA is split into a multitude of neutralities between A and antiA, such as neut1A, neut2A, etc.]. The neutA value (i.e. neutrality or indeterminacy related to A) actually comprises the included middle value.
Further, similarly to the extension from dialectics to neutrosophy, the author extends the Principle of Dynamic Opposition [opposition between A and antiA] to the Principle of Dynamic Neutrosophic Opposition [which means oppositions among A, antiA, and neutA].
Explanation:
The following dialogues are a compilation of different dialogues I had – during the years – on neutrosophy and related topics with academic colleagues, mostly by email.
As they were non-protocol dialogues, initially not intended for publication, I invented a fictional character (somehow resurrected from Plato’s dialogues), Filokratos, and put in his mouth opinions, ideas, questions, comments expressed by academic fellows, in a collective spirit.
Many thanks to all friends and dialogue partners who paid attention to neutrosophy and connected areas.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[208] **viXra:1408.0235 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-01 06:52:34*

**Authors:** Algirdas Antano Maknickas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The author proposed theory of communication system working on gravity waves. Such system of devices should work if the electromagnetic field curves space-time. Theoretical results shows that the artificial change of gravity or space-time curvature should observes at the distance much more bigger than dimension of transmitter antenna. The article ends with discussion details of technical properties of working electro-gravity communication system.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[207] **viXra:1408.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 13:42:28*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 10 pages. «Ondes de choc lumineuses cosmiques» is the French version of «Cosmic Luminous Shock Waves» on viXra.org/abs/1408.0232

Nous émettons l’hypothèse de l’existence d’ondes de choc lumineuses susceptibles de participer à la formation de nuages et d’événements atmosphériques sévères. Ces ondes auraient la particularité d’être créées et modulées par le choc des rayons cosmiques galactiques avec les particules de la couronne solaire : les particules énergétiques du rayonnement cosmique, en collision avec les atomes de l’atmosphère solaire, les disloquent, avec le résultat que la vitesse de l’électron ultra-relativiste dans le plasma solaire peut être supérieure à la vitesse de la lumière dans ce milieu. Ce qui produirait un rayonnement secondaire d’intensité supérieure analogue à celui des ondes rayonnantes dans les liquides par effet Tcherenkov. Leur existence pourrait être liée à un phénomène visuel appelé « expérience de flashes lumineux » auquel tous les astronautes sont confrontés.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[206] **viXra:1408.0233 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-06 08:52:31*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Due to the mergers of the binary systems of protogalaxies, there were created the elliptical protogalaxies whereas evolution of the binary systems of protogalaxies leads to the spiral protogalaxies. Due to evolution of the disc-sphere structures described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory, some elliptical protogalaxies transformed into lenticular galaxies whereas some spiral protogalaxies transformed into peculiar galaxies. Some of the peculiar galaxies again transformed into spiral galaxies. For distant massive galaxies we obtain following abundances: for elliptical is 3.8%, for lenticular 15.1%, for spiral 30.4% and for peculiar 50.7%. On the other hand, for the local massive galaxies we obtain: for elliptical 3.8%, for lenticular 15.1%, for spiral 71.0% and for peculiar 10.1%. The theoretical results obtained within the Scale-Symmetric Theory are consistent with observational facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[205] **viXra:1408.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 09:48:30*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We hypothesize the existence of cosmic luminous shock waves which might participate in the formation of clouds and severe weather events. These waves would have the peculiarity to be created and modulated by the shock of the galactic cosmic rays with the particles of the solar corona: the energetic particles of cosmic rays collide with atoms of the solar atmosphere, shatter them, with the result that the velocity of the ultra-relativistic electron in the solar plasma might be greater than the speed of light in this medium. What would produce a secondary radiation of higher intensity analogous to that of the shock waves radiating in liquids by Cherenkov effect. Their existence may be linked to a visual phenomenon called «experience of bright light flashes» with which all the astronauts are confronted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[204] **viXra:1408.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 12:01:39*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of 13*2^n+1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[203] **viXra:1408.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 12:10:44*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Conjectured polynomial time compositeness tests for numbers of the form k10^n-c and k10^n+c are introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[202] **viXra:1408.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 06:59:09*

**Authors:** Bakhmetov Sergey Petrovich

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

В теории даны определения для гравитационного, электромагнитного и ядерного взаимодействий, постоянной тонкой структуры, удельной энергии связи, черной дыры. Представлены геометрические модели для электрона, протона, нейтрона, ядра атома дейтерия, п - мезона, м - мезона. Найдены численные значения для постоянной тонкой структуры и отношения массы протона, нейтрона, п - мезона, м - мезона к массе электрона.
In theory, given the definition of the gravitational, electromagnetic and nuclear interactions, the fine structure constant, the specific binding energy of the black hole. Shows the geometric model for the electron, proton, neutron, nucleus of an atom of deuterium, n - meson, m - meson. Found numerical values for the fine structure constant and the ratio of the mass of the proton, neutron, n - meson, m - meson to the mass of the electron.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[201] **viXra:1408.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 08:29:23*

**Authors:** Keith D. Foote

**Comments:** 269 Pages.

This is a field theory model. It is a functional holistic model designed for hands-on inventors and alternative thinkers. It provides streamlined thinkers with a common sense view of quantum physics and cosmology that can be visualized without the necessity of mathematics. As a new model, the Ultra-Space Field Theory has removed historical flaws traditionally ignored by the supporters of the Standard Model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[200] **viXra:1408.0227 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-17 09:12:09*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We present in this first part of the article a summary of the theories of Le Verrier, Stockwell and Laplace on the secular precession of the perihelion of the planets, especially Mercury, leaving part 2 a review of the theory of Mercury from Le Verrier, comments Newcomb on anomalies of Mercury and a description of how the observed values were obtained by Clemence, important reference cited by Weinberg. Also shown is one more hypothesis for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, a decrease in the mass of the Sun, rather than an increase in the mass of the planets, similar to what has been done with the assumption of the solar wind. This new assumption, however, appears to be unnecessary before most important fact here presented. An exact theoretical value was classically obtained following the theory of Stockwell, based on planetary theory of Laplace, your Mécanique Céleste: we find 5600’',84 of arc per century for the angular velocity of the longitude of the perihelion of Mercury, dw/dt, adding to the precession of the equinoxes of the Earth to the beginning of the year 1850, as calculated by Stockwell.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[199] **viXra:1408.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-30 20:11:40*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is the French version of Note added to paper «THE PHARAO/ACES MISSION AND THE ALLAIS EFFECT», on viXra.org/abs/1408.0219

Depuis que nous avons présenté le papier « LA MISSION PHARAO/ACES ET L’EFFET ALLAIS » en 2012, dans lequel nous demandions aux autorités scientifiques du projet Pharao de tenir compte de l’effet d’éclipse Allais, une information appréciable a été communiquée par la direction de Pharao à un de nos correspondants internet.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[198] **viXra:1408.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 00:12:58*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make four conjectures on primes, conjectures which involve the sums of distinct unit fractions such as 1/p(1) + 1/p(2) + (...), where p(1), p(2), (...) are distinct primes, more specifically the periods of the rational numbers which are the results of the sums mentioned above.

**Category:** Number Theory

[197] **viXra:1408.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-14 18:31:46*

**Authors:** Jeff Yee

**Comments:** 53 Pages

A new, energy wave equation is proposed to calculate subatomic particle energies, including rest mass, photon energies and annihilation properties. Evidence in support of the equation is presented in this paper by accurately calculating the rest energy of particles, the hydrogen spectral series and the ionization energies for elements from hydrogen to calcium. This paper also proposes that a fundamental particle is the building block for all other subatomic particles as there is a linear relationship established between particle number and mass, similar to how atomic elements were simplified by a linear relationship between atomic number and mass. The relationship between atomic number and mass ultimately led to the Periodic Table of Elements and the discovery of the proton as the fundamental nucleon that creates all of the known elements.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[196] **viXra:1408.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 01:36:10*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I present three formulas, each of them with the following property: starting from a given prime p, are obtained in many cases two other primes, q and r. I met the triplets of primes [p, q, r] obtained with these formulas in the study of Carmichael numbers; the three primes mentioned are often the three prime factors of a 3-Carmichael number.

**Category:** Number Theory

[195] **viXra:1408.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 05:38:43*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Yang–Mills Theory coupled to Gravitation is found, using the 6d spaces [1], f-matrices which are doublets of gamma matrices and spin-vectors. Lagrangians for the fermion sector with internal symmetry G=SU(4) coupled to Gravitation, and the scalar sector with quadratic potentials are derived. Calculations given for Higgs bare mass 125.3GeV, Dark matter scalar particle mass 41.8GeV, the cosmological constant 1.15e-52 m-2, Top quark mass 172.7GeV, Higgs VEV 246.2GeV. Inflaton field is a negative complex potential. Electric charges of quarks and leptons are determined. Matter-antimatter asymmetry is resolved. Symmetry breaking of G results in QCD SU(3), QED U(1), and Chiral Electroweak group SU(2)xU(1) is an emergent interaction are the only other gauge groups acting on 3 generations.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[194] **viXra:1408.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 06:11:45*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that any prime greater than or equal to 53 can be written at least in one way as a sum of three odd primes, not necessarily distinct, of the same form from the following four ones: 10k + 1, 10k + 3, 10k + 7 or 10k + 9.

**Category:** Number Theory

[193] **viXra:1408.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 06:41:55*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that any square of a prime greater than or equal to 7 can be written at least in one way as a sum of three odd primes, not necessarily distinct, but all three of the form 10k + 3 or all three of the form 10k + 7.

**Category:** Number Theory

[192] **viXra:1408.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-30 15:35:40*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is a Note added to paper «THE PHARAO/ACES MISSION AND THE ALLAIS EFFECT», org/abs/1301.0185 on viXra.

Since we submitted the paper «THE PHARAO/ACES MISSION AND THE ALLAIS EFFECT» in 2012, in which we asked to scientific authorities in charge of the Pharao project to consider the Allais eclipse effect, significant information concerning the Allais eclipse effect was provided to one of our Internet correspondents by the direction of the "Pharao project".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[191] **viXra:1408.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-30 12:33:04*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of 7*2^n+1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[190] **viXra:1408.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-30 12:34:57*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of 11*2^n+1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[189] **viXra:1408.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-30 14:34:24*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** short note, 01page, 04 references

I was surprised by the fact that, Drude’s formula for the electrical conductivity of metals, does not appear in the famous textbook: “The Feynman Lectures on Physics”.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[188] **viXra:1408.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-02 01:46:58*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Reason for replacement - to address this statement from the new version: "If a quadrupole gravitational wave becomes a dipole electromagnetic wave, it not only has to change its strength in the way described above but it also has to change its shape."
After reading "Study challenges black hole theory" in Astronomy magazine's September 2014 issue, I sat down in front of my computer and spent the whole afternoon typing this reply. Most of the thoughts were initially addressed in previous contributions to viXra.org and, as the heading states, this article is "Clarifying Previous Points Regarding Dark Matter" (with cameos by imaginary numbers, time travel into the past, instant space-time travel, unifying fundamental forces with each other as well as matter/mass, string theory, black holes, and the cosmic DVD).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[187] **viXra:1408.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 14:54:03*

**Authors:** Stephen Marshall

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper presents a complete and exhaustive proof of the infinitude of Mersenne prime numbers. The approach to this proof uses same logic that Euclid used to prove there are an infinite number of prime numbers. Then we prove that if p > 1 and d > 0 are integers, that p and p + d are both primes if and only if for integer n (see reference 1 and 2):
n=(p-1)!(1/p+(-1)dd!/(p + d))+1/p+ 1/(p+d)
We use this proof for d = 2p(k+m) - 2p(k) to prove the infinitude of Mersenne prime numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[186] **viXra:1408.0211 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-29 22:58:49*

**Authors:** Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Our result is the explicit form of the infinitesimals.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[185] **viXra:1408.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 11:21:12*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I present a formula for generating big primes and products of very few primes, based on the numbers 25 and 906304, formula equally extremely interesting and extremely simple, id est 25^n + 906304. This formula produces for n from 1 to 30 (and for n = 30 is obtained a number p with not less than 42 digits) only primes or products of maximum four prime factors.

**Category:** Number Theory

[184] **viXra:1408.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 12:10:30*

**Authors:** Stephen Marshall

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In number theory, a prime number p is a Sophie Germain prime if 2p + 1 is also prime. For example, 29 is a Sophie Germain prime because it is a prime and 2 × 29 + 1 = 59, and 59 is also a prime number. These numbers are named after French mathematician Marie-Sophie Germain. We shall prove that there are an infinite number of Sophie Germain primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[183] **viXra:1408.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 07:28:09*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of 5*2^n+1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[182] **viXra:1408.0206 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-16 05:11:13*

**Authors:** Ricardo Alvira

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

It reviews the meaning/definition of terms 'complex' and 'complexity' from an etimological perspective, in order to help set the basic definitions to formulate a Unified Theory of Complexity.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[181] **viXra:1408.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 20:52:54*

**Authors:** Salvatore Spadaro

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Recent brain studies show the emerging importance of glia functions in relation to our knowledge of the brain. A new, hypothetical area of research is described to enriching the poverty of cognitive studies on glia. The cognitive methodology has been used because of its intedisciplinarity, and in particular for a possible foundation of a computational glia-neuroscience

**Category:** Mind Science

[180] **viXra:1408.0204 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-23 11:39:08*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 33 Pages. Copyright © A. A. Frempong

Best news. After over 30 years of debating, the debate is over. Yes, P is equal to NP.
For the first time, NP problems. including the classic traveling salesman problem have been solved in this paper. The general approach to solving the different types of NP problems are the same, except that sometimes, specific techniques may differ from each other according to the process involved in the problem. Another type of NP problems covered is the division of items of different sizes, masses, or values into equal parts. The techniques and formulas developed for dividing these items into equal parts are based on an extended Ashanti fairness wisdom as exemplified below. If two people A and B are to divide items of different sizes which are arranged from the largest size to the smallest size, the procedure would be as follows. In the first round, A chooses the largest size, followed by B choosing the next largest size. In the second round, B chooses first, followed by A. In the third round, A chooses first, followed by B and the process continues up to the last item. To abbreviate the sequence in the above choices, one obtains the sequence "AB, BA AB". Let A and B divide the sum of the whole numbers, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 as equally as possible, by merely always choosing the largest number. Then A chooses 10, B chooses 9 and 8, followed by A choosing 7 and 6; followed by B choosing 5 and 4; followed by A choosing 3 an 2; and finally, B chooses 1. The sum of A's choices is 10 +7+ 6 + 3 + 2 = 28; and the sum of B's choices is 9 + 8 + 5 + 4 + 1 = 27, with error, plus or minus 0.5 . Observe the sequence "AB, BA, AB, BA, AB". Observe also that the sequence is not "AB, AB, AB, AB, AB as one might think. Te reason why the sequence is "AB, BA AB, BA, AB" is as follows. In the first round, when A chooses first, followed by B, A has the advantage of choosing the larger number and B has the disadvantage of choosing the smaller number. In the second round, if A were to choose first, A would have had two consecutive advantages, and therefore, in the second round, B will choose first to produce the sequence AB, BA. In the third round, A chooses first, because B chose first in the second round. After three rounds, the sequence would be AB, BA, AB. When his technique was applied to 100 items of different values or masses, by mere combinations, the total value or mass of A's items was equal to the total value or mass of B's items. Similar results were obtained for 1000 items. By hand, the techniques can be used to prepare final exam schedules for 100 or 1000 courses.
A new approach to solving the traveling salesman problem was used to determine the shortest route to visit nine cities and return to the starting city. The technique covered eliminates a shortcoming of the nearest neighbor approach as well as that of the grouping of the cities. The distances involved were arranged in increasing order and by inspection, ten distances were selected from a set of the shortest 14 distances, intead of the overall set of 45 distances involved. The selected distances were used to construct the shortest route.
Confirmed is the notion that an approach that solves one of these problems can also solve other NP problems. Since six problems from three different areas have been solved, all NP problems can be solved. If all NP problems can be solved, then all NP problems are P problems and therefore, P is equal to NP. The CMI Millennium Prize requirements have been satisfied.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[179] **viXra:1408.0203 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-11 12:57:50*

**Authors:** Oliver Consa

**Comments:** 11 Pages. latex version

A semiclassical model of the electron is presented based on the Principle of Helical Motion (“A free electron always moves at the speed of light following a helical motion, with a constant radius, and with the direction of movement perpendicular to the rotation plane”). This model interprets the Zitterbewegung as a real motion that causes rotation of the electron spin and its magnetic moment. Based on this model, the quantum magnetic flux and quantum Hall resistance are obtained as parameters of the electron and special relativity theory is derived from the helical motion of the electron. Finally, a fix is proposed for the De Broglie’s wavelength that questions the very validity of the Dirac equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[178] **viXra:1408.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 04:09:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[177] **viXra:1408.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 15:30:00*

**Authors:** Stephen Marshall

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper presents a complete and exhaustive proof that an Infinite Number of Triplet Primes exist. The approach to this proof uses same logic that Euclid used to prove there are an
infinite number of prime numbers. Then we prove that if p > 1 and d > 0 are integers, that p and p + d are both primes if and only if for integer n (see reference 1 and 2):
n =(p−1)!(1/p+(−1)d(d!)/(p + d)+ 1/(p+1)+ 1/(p+d)
We use this proof and Euclid logic to prove only an infinite number of Triplet Primes exist. However we shall begin by assuming that a finite number of Triplet Primes exist, we shall
prove a contradiction to the assumption of a finite number, which will prove that
an infinite number of Triplet Primes exist.

**Category:** Number Theory

[176] **viXra:1408.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 16:04:49*

**Authors:** Tobías de Jesús Rosas Soto

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Artículo en español, con resumen en inglés. Contiene ecuaciones, y 8 figuras, a color para mejor comprensión.

Se presenta el estudio de propiedades geométricas de un cuadrilátero inscrito en una circunferencia, en un plano de Minkowski. Se estudian las relaciones entre los cuatro triángulos formados por los vértices del cuadrilátero, sus antitriángulos y puntos de simetría, sus baricentros y otros puntos asociados con dichos triángulos, respectivamente. Se introduce la noción de anticuadrilátero y se extiende la noción de circunferencia de Feuerbach de un cuadriláteros, inscritos en una circunferencia, a planos de Minkowski en general.
---
The study of geometric properties of a inscribed quadrangle in a circle, in a Minkowski plane is presented. We study the relations between the four triangles formed by the vertices of the quadrangle, its anti-triangles and points of symmetry, its barycenters and other points associated with such triangles, respectively. The notion of anti-quadrangle is introduced and extends the notion of Feuerbach circle for quadrangles, inscribed in a circle, to Minkowski planes in general.

**Category:** Geometry

[175] **viXra:1408.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 17:30:10*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A simple calculation is done to show how much energy was released during ocean water formation of Earth’s oceans as they currently stand.

**Category:** Geophysics

[174] **viXra:1408.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 12:50:19*

**Authors:** Anibal Fernando Barral

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

In mathematics, a prime number is a natural number that is divisible only by 1 and itself.
For centuries, the search for an algorithm that could generate the sequence of these numbers became a mystery.
Perhaps the problem arises at the beginning of the enterprise, that is, the search for a single algorithm.
I noticed that all the primes without exception increased by one unit in some cases, or decreased by one unit in the other cases result in a multiple of 6 (six)
Example: 5+1=6 ; 7-1=6 ; 11+1=12 ; 13-1=12 ; 17+1=18 ; 19-1=18 ; 23+1=24 ; 29+1=30 ; 31-1=30 ;
37-1=36 ; 41+1=42 ; 43-1=42 ; 47+1=48 ; and so on.
Then I thought of making it easier to split the problem solving both cases.
So are passed to assume the presence of # 2 complementary families of primes.
To the number 1000, I worked by hand, a job with some effort but great satisfaction.
At this point my algorithms were reliable, but I needed another test.
To get to number 60,000 I leaned in a computational program, which compiled a dear friend. I would have liked to get up to 1,000,000 but the limit of 60,000 has been imposed by the processing time of the data.
At this point I had no more doubts about the reliability of my algorithms that are developed in continuation.

**Category:** Number Theory

[173] **viXra:1408.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-29 22:20:17*

**Authors:** A. Rivero

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A supersymmetric version of Chew's "democratic bootstrap" argument predicts the existence of three generations of particles, with a quark, of type "up", more massive that the other five.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[172] **viXra:1408.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-13 01:16:26*

**Authors:** Matthias Lesch

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In a recent series of preprints S. Marshall claims to give proofs of several famous conjectures in number theory, among them the twin prime conjecture and
Goldbach’s conjecture. A claimed proof of Beal’s conjecture would even imply an elemen-
tary proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem.
It is the purpose of this note to point out serious errors. It is the opinion of this author
that it is safe to say that the claims of the above mentioned papers are lacking any basis.

**Category:** Number Theory

[171] **viXra:1408.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 04:31:37*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Usually, physicists propose the alternative theories of gravity to the General Relativity (GR). In this paper we propose something different – m(GR) theory. This theory is the modification of GR theory, where the metric tensor has been replaced by the effective mass tensor. The m(GR) theory is a new theory of gravitation, which describes the gravitational phenomena not as geometric properties of the space-time but as the dynamical properties of the bodies which, under the influence of the external gravitational field, behave like bodies with the effective mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[170] **viXra:1408.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 18:59:21*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

I present here a collection of algorithms that permits the expansion into a finite series or sequence from a real number x∈ R, the precision used is 64 decimal digits. The collection of mathematical constants was taken from my own collection and theses sources [1]-[6][9][10]. The goal of this experiment is to find a closed form of the sequence generated by the algorithm. Some new results are presented.

**Category:** Number Theory

[169] **viXra:1408.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 20:44:02*

**Authors:** Michael Emerson

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Email: newphysics@safe-mail.net

This is a conceptual model of the fundamental properties of the Universe. This model offers a new viewpoint conceptually on the fundamental properties of Spacetime, Strings and Branes. Taking this conception through Pre-Big Bang and Post-Big Bang Cosmology. A form of inflation and positive cosmological constant naturally flows from this model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[168] **viXra:1408.0191 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-31 13:31:01*

**Authors:** Tobías de Jesús Rosas Soto

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Artículo en español, con resumen en inglés. Contiene ecuaciones, y 13 figuras, a color para mejor comprensión.

Usando la noción de C-ortocentro se extienden, a planos de Minkowski en general, nociones de la geometría clásica relacionadas con un triángulo, como por ejemplo: puntos de Euler, triángulo de Euler, puntos de Poncelet. Se muestran propiedades de estas nociones y sus relaciones con la circunferencia de Feuerbach. Se estudian sistemas C-ortocéntricos formados por puntos presentes en dichas nociones y se establecen relaciones con la ortogonalidad isósceles y cordal. Además, se
prueba que la imagen homotética de un sistema C-ortocéntrico es un sistema C-ortocéntrico.
---
Using the notion of C-orthocenter, notions of the classic euclidean geometry related with a triangle, as for example: Euler points; Euler’s triangle; and Poncelet’s points, are extended to Minkowski planes in general. Properties of these notions and their relations with the Feuerbach’s circle, are shown. C-orthocentric systems formed by points in the above notions are studied and relations with the isosceles and chordal orthogonality, are established. In addition, there is proved that the homothetic image of a C-orthocentric system is a C-orthocentric system.

**Category:** Geometry

[167] **viXra:1408.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 23:33:11*

**Authors:** Francis Thasayyan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This document gives an answer to Beal's Conjection.

**Category:** Number Theory

[166] **viXra:1408.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 00:37:39*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of 9*2^n+1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[165] **viXra:1408.0188 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-19 06:33:07*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper formulations and calculations are exposed for a new paradigm of dark matter.
Dark matter does not exists of solid particles. Dark matter exists of ‘faster time-cells’ than standard-time-based-on-light-speed. These ‘cells’ may sometimes give high-energetic particles, such as e.g. neutrinos, a velocity-gain, which can violate the light-speed in vacuum. In this perspective dark matter can be detected by the ‘combination of energy per time-volume and simultaneously a small light-flash’. Therefore the focus must be on detection of clock-energy during light-flashes !! Put a clock into the dark matter detection-configuration and the energy of the ‘time energy-density’ will change the clock-period, while it also gives a light-flash per second! The ‘dark matter time-cells’ are independent on whether time is relative or not. The assumption to describe dark matter as solid particles, such as ‘wimps’, ‘axions’, or ‘dark matter being its own anti-particle’, is therefore false. The new dark matter paradigm is based on analysis and worked out in this ‘paper’ as a part of a wider framework, called the Double Torus Theory for the Universe. This is a replacement for the Big Bang theory. The wish of this paper is to contribute to the dark matter research-project-teams, who aim to detect dark matter in the up-coming period to 2017 in the UK, USA, Italy, the Netherlands and other countries. Despite all the institutional- and press-commotion of OPERA an ICARUS in 2012 I postpone neutrinos indeed can be affected by ‘dark matter faster-time-cells’. These imply the violation of General Relativity Theory (GRT) and Quantum Theory (QT). A calculation proves that e.g. 62 nanosecond velocity-gain wouldn’t be a hazardous value, but can vary depending on the intensity of the dark matter’s circular-acceleration in vacuum. This is explained in this ‘paper’. It also means not always a violation of GRT and QT will happen. Separately and consistently an additional formulation (and calculation) is given about how the vacuum-energy-density of the QT can be eliminated from its extreme too large value compared to GRT.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[164] **viXra:1408.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 09:43:48*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 5 Pages. submitted to "Astronomy & Astrophysics"

In our Milky Way galaxy's Westerlund 1 star cluster, there's a magnetar - neutron star with an extremely strong magnetic field - whose progenitor was a star about 40 times the mass of the Sun. This behemoth should have collapsed to form a black hole, not a magnetar. The answer to this puzzle seems to lie with a companion star called Westerlund 1-5 that is now escaping the cluster. Mass was transferred from the magnetar progenitor to Westerlund 1-5, allowing its companion to shrink to a size that allowed a magnetar to be born instead of a black hole. (A study published in the May 2014 issue of "Astronomy & Astrophysics")
The following preserves the necessity of a binary star system; going into detail which proposes why a magnetar, not a black hole, was born - and suggesting an answer as to why the magnetic field is so extreme.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[163] **viXra:1408.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 10:48:21*

**Authors:** Rajib Chakraborty

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Presence of a charged wall distributes like charges (co-ions) and unlike charges (counter-ions) differently within an electrolytic solution. It is reasonable to expect that counter-ions have more population near the wall, while co-ions are abundant away from it; experiments and simulations support this. An analytical formula for the net charge-density distribution has been used widely since almost hundred years, was obtained by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. However, the old formula shows excess counter-ions everywhere, cannot account for the missing co-ions satisfactorily, and clearly violates charge conservation principle. Here, I correct the distribution formula from fundamental considerations. The old derivation expresses charge-density distribution as a function of electrostatic potential through Boltzmann
distribution, but missed a crucial point that the indefinite nature of electrostatic potential makes charge-density indefinite as well. We must tune electrostatic potential by adding suitable constant until the integral of
charge-density becomes consistent with the net charge present in solution; old theory did not do it, that I do here. This result demonstrates how to reconcile a definite quantity to an indefinite one, when they are related. I anticipate, this result is going to have far reaching impacts on many fields like colloid science, electro-kinetics, bio-technology etc. that use the old theory

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[162] **viXra:1408.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 07:41:44*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.
Stable electrons moving with speeds ( 0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z.
Speeds of electrons and protons in atoms are smaller. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα.
Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons, neutrinos and bosons W +, W-, Z.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons. Therefore creation and annihilation operators in physics are irrelevant.
Decay modes „elementary particles“

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[161] **viXra:1408.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 09:13:25*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of numbers of the form k6^n-1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[160] **viXra:1408.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 05:41:21*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class@@ of numbers of the form kb^n-1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[159] **viXra:1408.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 06:03:34*

**Authors:** Andrzej Okninski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In the present work we make a small step towards inding explicit formula for polynomial roots. xplicit formulae for simple real roots, based on the Frobenius companion matrix, are derived. After some modifications the method can be used to compute multiple or complex roots.

**Category:** Algebra

[158] **viXra:1408.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 22:22:43*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 9 Pages. The abstract in english and the main text in french

The iteration formula Z_(n+1)=Z_n^2+c of Mandelbrot will give an algebraic number of degree 4 when it converges most of the time. If we take a good look at some of these algebraic numbers: some of them have a very persistent pattern in their binary expansion.
La formule d’itération de Mandelbrot Z_(n+1)=Z_n^2+c converge vers un nombre algébrique de degré 4 si c est un rationnel simple. Mais en regardant de près certains nombres algébriques en binaire on voit apparaître un motif assez évident et très persistant.

**Category:** Number Theory

[157] **viXra:1408.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 22:24:59*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 13 Pages. The abstract in english and the main text in french

An analysis of the function 1/π Arg ζ((1/2)+in) is presented. This analysis permits to find a general expression for that function using elementary functions of floor and fractional part. These formulas bring light to a remark from Freeman Dyson which relates the values of the ζfunction to quasi-crystals. We find these same values for another function which is very similar, namely 1/π Arg Γ((1/4)+in/2). These 2 sets of formula have a definite pattern, the n’th term is related to values like π,ln(π),ln(2),…,log(p), where p is a prime number. The coefficients are closed related to a certain sequence of numbers which counts the number of 0’s from the right in the binary representation of n. These approximations are regular enough to deduce an asymptotic and precise formula. All results presented here are empirical.

**Category:** Number Theory

[156] **viXra:1408.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-06 08:46:51*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The hierarchy problem follows from the very big energetic gap between the Planck scale and the masses of the most massive known particles. This problem is solved within the Scale-Symmetric Theory. This theory starts from the four succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field composed of pieces-of-space/tachyons (due to the size of our Cosmos, there are possible four transitions only). There appear the very different scales i.e. the superluminal-quantum-entanglement scale, luminal Planck scale, electric-charges scale and cosmological scale. Due to the irreversible processes during the inflation, the electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are the stable particles. The observed oscillations follow from the decays or creations of the unstable tau “neutrinos” that consist of three different stable neutrinos and from the exchanges of the free neutrinos (they interact gravitationally only) for the neutrinos in the neutrino-antineutrino pairs the Einstein spacetime consists of.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[155] **viXra:1408.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 17:26:59*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

English (traslation): The influence of electricity in the gravity is shown here. Being able to verify this with a simple experiment, charging and discharging a capacitor. Modifying the equation used is achieved justify mass number of atoms in part. And also check that the pressure is needed to create atoms of the planetary cores.
Spanish (original): Se muestra aquí la influencia de la electricidad en la gravedad. Pudiendo constatarlo mediante un sencillo experimento, cargando y descargando un condensador. Modificando la ecuación empleada se consigue justificar, en parte, el número másico de los átomos. Y se comprueba, además, que la presión necesaria para crear átomos es la de los núcleos planetarios.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[154] **viXra:1408.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-21 18:11:15*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Eddington believed that the number of particles in the universe was equal to the fine structure constant multiplied by two to the power 256. Paul Dirac(5) proposed a Large Number Hypothesis (LNH) that related very large unexplained and relatively consistent numbers in physics. This paper will show that Eddington and Dirac may have been very close to the truth. In addition it will show the number of particles in the elementary particles and it is also related to the fine structure constant and two to the power of 128.
In “Planck Pressure and Force between two Hubble Sphere Universes are equivalent and Provide Evidence for Multiple Hubble Sphere Universes and Rigid Components of Space”(1) a Critical Mass of the Universe is calculated. This equation can also be used to estimate a total amount of particles in the universe. The estimated mass of the Universe is used here to estimate the number of particles and a possible relation to the Eddington number(2) by the fine structure constant.
In “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres”(3) a value “N” of 6.57943*10^40 was calculated for the number of spheres that give rise to the mass of the Planck Spinning Sphere, which it is proposed, that the Planck Spinning Sphere is made of many smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, and it is also proposed that the Universe is made of Planck Spinning Spheres make up the Universe all packed in a mostly cuboctahedron structure. The value “N” will be shown to be possibly related to 2^128 and the fine structure constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[153] **viXra:1408.0176 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-16 10:41:12*

**Authors:** Ramón Ruiz

**Comments:** 34 Pages. This research is based on an approach developed solely to demonstrate the binary Goldbach Conjecture and the Twin Primes Conjecture.

Goldbach's Conjecture statement: “Every even integer greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes”.
Initially, to prove this conjecture, we can form two arithmetic sequences (A and B) different for each even number, with all the natural numbers that can be primes, that can added, in pairs, result in the corresponding even number.
By analyzing the pairing process, in general, between all non-prime numbers of sequence A with terms of sequence B, or vice versa, to obtain the even number, we note that some pairs of primes are always formed. This allow us to develop a non-probabilistic formula to calculate the approximate number of pairs of primes that meet the conjecture for an even number x.
The result of this formula is always equal or greater than 1, and it tends to infinite when x tends to infinite, which allow us to confirm that Goldbach's Conjecture is true.
The prime numbers theorem by Carl Friedrich Gauss, the prime numbers theorem in arithmetic progressions and some axioms have been used to complete this investigation.

**Category:** Number Theory

[152] **viXra:1408.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-16 10:57:20*

**Authors:** Ramón Ruiz

**Comments:** 24 Pages. This research is based on an approach developed solely to demonstrate the Twin Primes Conjecture and the binary Goldbach Conjecture.

Twin Primes Conjecture statement: “There are infinitely many primes p such that (p + 2) is also prime”.
Initially, to prove this conjecture, we can form two arithmetic sequences (A and B) with all the natural numbers, lesser than a number x, that can be primes and being each term of sequence B equal to its partner of sequence A plus 2.
By analyzing the pairing process, in general, between all non-prime numbers of sequence A with terms of sequence B, or vice versa, we note that some pairs of primes are always formed. This allow us to develop a non-probabilistic formula to calculate the approximate number of pairs of primes, p and (p + 2), that are lesser than x.
The result of this formula tends to infinite when x tends to infinite, which allow us to confirm that the Twin Primes Conjecture is true.
The prime numbers theorem by Carl Friedrich Gauss, the prime numbers theorem in arithmetic progressions and some axioms have been used to complete this investigation.

**Category:** Number Theory

[151] **viXra:1408.0174 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-07 09:10:22*

**Authors:** Stephen Marshall

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This is an updated proof by the author.

This paper presents a complete and exhaustive proof of the Polignac Prime Conjecture. The approach to this proof uses same logic that Euclid used to prove there are an infinite number of prime numbers. Then we use a proof found in Reference 1, that if p > 1 and d > 0 are integers, that p and p + d are both primes if and only if for integer n:
n = (p−1)!(1/p+(−1)d(d!)/(p + d)+ 1/(p+1)+ 1/(p+d)
We use this proof for d = 2k to prove the infinitude of Polignac prime numbers.
The author would like to give many thanks to the authors of 1001 Problems in Classical Number Theory, Jean-Marie De Koninck and Armel Mercier, 2004, Exercise Number 161 (see Reference 1). The proof provided in Exercise 6 is the key to making this paper on the Polignac Prime Conjecture possible.
Additionally, our proof of the Polignac Prime Conjecture leads to proofs of several other significant number theory conjectures such as the Goldbach Conjecture, Twin Prime Conjecture, Cousin Prime Conjecture, and Sexy Prime Conjecture. Our proof of Polignac’s Prime Conjecture provides significant accomplishments to Number Theory, yielding proofs to several conjectures in number theory that has gone unproven for hundreds of years.

**Category:** Number Theory

[150] **viXra:1408.0173 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-11 14:56:10*

**Authors:** Stephen Marshall

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Updated some wording

This paper presents a complete and exhaustive proof of the Beal Conjecture. The approach to this proof uses the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic as the basis for the proof of the Beal Conjecture. The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic states that every number greater than 1 is either prime itself or is unique product of prime numbers. The prime factorization of every number greater than 1 is used throughout every section of the proof of the Beal Conjecture. Without the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, this approach to proving the Beal Conjecture would not be possible.

**Category:** Number Theory

[149] **viXra:1408.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-12 02:02:09*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 13 pages. v3: new edition

The perception of events in two inertial reference frames in relative motion is analyzed from the perspective of the special relativity (SR) postulates. Straightforward inconsistencies have been identified, and subsequent mathematical contradictions disproving the SR predictions have been determined. The approach used in the SR formulation to get around the identified contradictions is revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[148] **viXra:1408.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 04:17:34*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Haik Nazaryan

**Comments:** 11 Pages In English, Copyrighted

The aim of this current article is to illustrate in detail Armenian relativistic formulas and compare them with Lorentz relativistic formulas so that readers can easily differentiate these two theories and visualize how general and rich our Armenian Theory of Special Relativity really is with a spectacular build in asymmetry.
Then we are going behind this comparison and illustrating that build in asymmetry inside Armenian Theory of Special Relativity is reincarnating the aether as a universal reference medium, which is not contrary to relativity theory. We mathematically prove the existence of aether and we show how to extract infinite energy from the time-space or sub-atomic aether medium. Our theory explains all these facts and peacefully brings together followers of absolute aether theory, relativistic aether theory or followers of dark matter theory. We also mention that the absolute aether medium has a very complex geometric character, which has never been seen before.
We are explaining why NASA’s earlier "BPP" and DARPA’s "Casimir Effect Enhancement" programs failed.
We are also stating that the time is right to reopen NASA’s BPP program and fuel the spacecrafts using the everywhere existing aether asymmetric momentum force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[147] **viXra:1408.0170 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-04 11:01:22*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An essay: annotated translation of the "NOTE ON ACCOUNTING FOR THE SECULAR VARIATIONS OF THE ORBITS OF VENUS AND MERCURY", by SIMON NEWCOMB (1895).

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[146] **viXra:1408.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-11 09:40:54*

**Authors:** Stephen Marshall

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Replaces original paper with some corrections

This paper presents a complete and exhaustive proof of that an infinite number of Fibonacci Primes exist . The approach to this proof uses same logic that Euclid used to prove there are an infinite number of prime numbers. Then we prove that if p > 1 and d > 0 are integers, that p and p + d are both primes if and only if for integer n (see reference 1 and 2):
n=(p-1)!(1/p+(-1)dd!/(p + d))+1/p+1/(p+d)
We use this proof for p = Fy-1 and d = Fy-2 to prove the infinitude of Fibonacci prime numbers.
The author would like to give many thanks to the authors of 1001 Problems in Classical Number Theory, Jean-Marie De Koninck and Armel Mercier, 2004, Exercise Number 161 (see Reference 1). The proof provided in Exercise 6 is the key to making this paper on the finitude or Fibonacci Primes possible.

**Category:** Number Theory

[145] **viXra:1408.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-25 18:32:40*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

For a star to synthesize water oceans a few steps of exothermic reactions are required. A simple explanation is provided to fit inside of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[144] **viXra:1408.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-25 13:35:00*

**Authors:** Dimitris Poulos

**Comments:** 5 Pages. no

The four planets that influence the most the solar surface through tidal
forcing seem to affect the Earth climate. A simple two cosine model with periods 251
years, of the seasonality of the Earth – Venus syzygies, and 265.4 years, of the
combined syzygies of Jupiter and Mercury with Earth when Earth is in synod with
Venus, fits well the Northern Hemisphere temperatures of the last 1000 years as
reconstructed by Jones et al (1998). Later reconstructions that give too much
emphasis on multy-centenial variation are due to increased error. The physical
mechanism proposed is that planetary gravitational forces derange the Solar
Corona that in turn deranges the planetary geomagnetic field causing
temperature variations.

**Category:** Climate Research

[143] **viXra:1408.0166 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-27 05:29:01*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of 3*2^n+1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[142] **viXra:1408.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-25 10:23:40*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 7 pages.

[The paper is precisely the preprint viXra:1407.0070 which was withdrawn as suggested by a well-known mainstream journal. However, the editors simply played game with me. I am afraid I could not find a job through my life. I am over 53 year old and got sleepless each day. Life as a creative scientist is very hard， and academic circle has turned to be a common profitable business. Galilei, Newton, Maxwell, Planck could not have had a job if they had lived today] If there were no electromagnetic interaction in the Solar system from the beginning then no heavy bodies like Earth or Sun would have existed and elementary particles would miss collision with each other due to the sparse population of particles. The solar system would have been a tiny ``spiral galaxy'' or ``elliptical galaxy'' because of the structuring nature of Newton's gravity.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[141] **viXra:1408.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-25 01:51:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[140] **viXra:1408.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-24 17:14:29*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We show that the Planck relation is a geometric mean equation, supporting the idea that the universe is undergoing a geometric mean expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[139] **viXra:1408.0162 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-26 02:09:30*

**Authors:** A.Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper it is demonstrated that all the masses of the standard model particles; including the Higgs boson h; with nonzero rest mass, comply with the equation of energy-momentum. The model Higgs vacuum corresponds to a virtual vacuum, for which the contribution of particles with zero rest mass is null (photon, gluon, graviton) .With the best values of the masses of the particles (Particle Data Group), it is found that axion mass has to be extremely small. Also the theoretical model Higgs vacuum, a completely new model based on the lattice R8 and sixteen matrix elements of energy; corresponding to the four solutions of the equation of energy-momentum (isomorphism with the four components of the scalar field. One complex doublet ); to be factored into two factors with real and imaginary components of energy. Of this new model Higgs vacuum; naturally get the beta angle. Stop quark mass is obtained by solving the equation of radiative mass correction Higss boson, h, to one loop. The exact determination of the beta angle, allows calculating the mass of the stop of about 1916 GeV. Similarly, a mass for axion is proposed of around 110 micro eV

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[138] **viXra:1408.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 21:34:17*

**Authors:** LI WeiGang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper describes an experimental design similar to “Maxwell’s demon”. Compared with the “Maxwell's demon” scheme, the proposed experiment does not need intelligence that is necessary for “Maxwell’ demon” when working. Moreover, the program is not an ideal experiment only performed in thought. It can be implemented realistically. The design fully follows the basic principles of Newtonian mechanics but contradicts the second law of thermodynamics. The experimental design suggests that there is a logical contradiction between the basic principles of Newtonian mechanics and the second law of thermodynamics.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[137] **viXra:1408.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-14 14:13:22*

**Authors:** Silas Sacheli Santos

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

New equations for the motions of bodies are derived from non-instantaneous forces, some equations of special relativity (but derived from Newtonian Physics), Galilean transformations and a preferred frame (the cosmic microwave background).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[136] **viXra:1408.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-24 03:34:01*

**Authors:** Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We built up a system composed of one dipole transmitter and four groups of Yagi-Uda array. Aluminum foils were used to reflect RF wave back to dipole transmitter. The input impedance of this system has negative value so that this system works like a powerless RF amplifier. A circulator was used to separate input and reflected waves from the dipole transmitter. It is observed that the amplitude of reflected wave is 3.0 times of input signal. The output power is 9.0 times of input power.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[135] **viXra:1408.0158 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-24 16:59:16*

**Authors:** Steven Sesselmann

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Major revision October 2017

The baryon asymmetry problem, the nature of force, the invariance of a proton mass, the electron to proton mass ratio, the apparent numerical equivalence of charges, and last but not least, an accurate definition of ground potential are all questions we would like to answer. Herein a unified theory is proposed where the Lorentz γ factor can be accurately calculated for any body, either in motion or at rest in a gravitational field, from the electron to proton mass ratio. This model shows why the relative potentials of electrons and protons are exclusively a function of observer potential, which in turn leads to a unification of gravity and the electromagnetic force. Based on the current standard for electron and proton energies, Earth ground potential has been established at 930 million volts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[134] **viXra:1408.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 13:57:09*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is provided for the reader a simple guide for determining if a stellar evolution (planet formation) model represents reality or ignores it. Explanation is provided outlining the three fundamental studies have been ignored in astronomy, astrophysics and geophysics.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[133] **viXra:1408.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-24 16:16:43*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 4 Pages. adding new bottom section

Time and gravity are intimately linked, in that gravity creates time from space to form an alternative, causal entropic domain (history) for massive objects (bound forms of electromagnetic energy - atomic matter), the temporal analog of the spatial, a-causal entropic domain of free (massless) forms of electromagnetic energy - light. Expanding, cooling space is the entropic conservation domain of free electromagnetic energy; expanding, aging history is the analogous temporal entropic conservation domain for bound forms of electromagnetic energy. These two entropic conservation domains are connected by gravity, which converts either into the other, giving us historic spacetime, a composite entropic conservation domain in which both free and bound forms of electromagnetic energy can find their conservations needs met in an appropriately expanding metric.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[132] **viXra:1408.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 15:14:38*

**Authors:** Algirdas Antano Maknickas

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The investigation of Scharzschild solution using new one transform leads to the spherical solution of light path. Spherical solution forms space-time wormhole with finite throat. It was shown that wormhole throat diameter could by manipulated by changing value of Schwarzschild radius. Using symmetric formulation of Maxwell's equations one can obtain the physical time negative solution. Detailed investigation of wormhole of light for Schwarzschild radius of the earth shows that light can travel not only to the future but also to the past too.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[131] **viXra:1408.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 09:55:42*

**Authors:** Gil Raviv

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In contrast to the non-relativistic Schrodinger equation, there is no true two-body formulation using the relativistic Dirac equation for the case of a hydrogenlike atom. Instead, the relativistic Dirac equation treats the atom as a single particle in a Coulomb field asserted by a static nucleus of infinite mass located at its core, which fails to take into account the nuclear mass and recoil. A new simple and elegant approach is presented that allows for the formulation of a true two-body relativistic equation, as well as for the reduction of the formula into an equivalent one-body equation with a readily known solution.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[130] **viXra:1408.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 11:32:31*

**Authors:** Hironobu Kihara

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper reviews the well-known fact that nilpotent Hermitian operators on physical state spaces are zero, thereby indicating that the supersymmetries and ``Grassmann numbers" are also zero on these spaces.
Next, a positive definite inner product of a Grassmann algebra is demonstrated, constructed using a Hodge dual operator which is similar to that of differential forms.
From this example, it is shown that the Hermitian conjugates of the basis do not anticommute with the basis and,
therefore, the property that ``Grassmann numbers" commute with ``bosonic quantities" and
anticommute with ``fermionic quantities", must be revised.
Hence, the fundamental principles of supersymmetry must be called into question.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[129] **viXra:1408.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 08:00:33*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The research on quasi-luminal neutrinos has sparked several experimental studies for testing the "speed of light limit" hypothesis. Until today, the overall evidence favors the "null" hypothesis, stating that there is no significant difference between the observed velocities of light and neutrinos. Despite numerous theoretical models proposed to explain the neutrinos behavior, no attempt has been undertaken to predict the experimentally produced (v-c)/c results. This paper presents a simple novel extension of Newton's mechanics to the domain of relativistic velocities. For a typical neutrino-velocity experiment, the proposed model is utilized to derive a general expression for (v-c)/c. Comparison of the model's prediction with results of six neutrino-velocity experiments, conducted by five collaborations, reveals that the model predicts all the reported results with striking accuracy. Because in the proposed model, the direction of the neutrino flight matters, the model's impressive success in accounting for all the tested data, indicates a complete collapse of the Lorentz symmetry principle in stringent tests involving quasi-luminal particles, moving in two opposite directions. This conclusion is support by previous studies on the linear Sagnac effect, indicating that the travel-time difference between two counter-propagating light beams, relative to a uniformly moving fiber, is identical one detected in radial motion.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[128] **viXra:1408.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 04:29:00*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

There are two contributions to the propagator, one from massless field quanta which doesn’t have a running coupling, and one from massive field quanta which generate the logarithmic running contribution to mass above the IR cutoff of about 0.5 Mev, which is utilized in renormalization procedures. In other words, the observed particle mass below 0.5 Mev (where no pair production, vacuum polarization, or running of mass and coupling occur), is predictable from integral of the massless Coulomb field potential Feynman diagram. (This paper further develops the theory discussed in “Mechanism of renormalization can predict particle masses,” N. B. Cook, vixra, 24 July 2014.)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[127] **viXra:1408.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 02:56:46*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a new space-time structure that is the three-dimensional time structure by comparison to the three-dimensional space. These two space-time structures are completely symmetrical. We improve the Maxwell equations in the new space-time structure by adding a new set of equations. The new set of equations has the space-time symmetrical structure by comparison to the old one. We can also obtain another type of wave equation by solving the hyper-symmetric Maxwell equations. The new wave equation contains both time and space coordinates. The general solution of this new wave equation can be divided into two parts. One part corresponds to the free particles, which means the localized electromagnetic wave or virtual photon. The amplitude of the localized electromagnetic wave will decrease exponentially when the distance from the mass center increasing. Another part of the general solution corresponds to the bound state of the particles. The equation of the localized electromagnetic wave in bound state is consistent with the Schrödinger’s equation. So we can draw the conclusion that the Schrödinger’s equation is just a special case of the localized electromagnetic wave equation. We can get the new interpretation of the wave function in quantum mechanics based on these analyses. The new interpretation shows that the essence of the wave function in quantum theory is the localized electromagnetic wave or virtual photon. So we can solve the problem of the collapse of the wave function based on the new interpretation. In order to proof the correctness of the localized electromagnetic wave or virtual photon, we apply it to solve the problem of Helium atom’s ground state energy. The theoretic calculation results are very satisfactory. Our calculation shows that the theoretic value of Helium atom’s ground state energy is -2.9033864868188(69)a.u., which is very close to the experiment results.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[126] **viXra:1408.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 03:02:40*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, we establish a simple superconductivity model based on virtual photons exchange mechnisim. It shows that this simple model can be used to explain the supercondutivity mechanism for some superconductive materials by comparing the theoretical prediction with the experimental data. On this basis, we propose new possible structures that can produce high temperature superconductors.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[125] **viXra:1408.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-22 15:27:09*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: In a previous letter (see viXra 1408.0067) I have found that our universe has the broken symmetry E8 x U(1) and should contain exactly 248 types of quantum particles and that these have all been found. Included are 2-quark and 3-quark particles but no particle having 4 quarks or more. We do find one copious 4-quark particle and propose that it is a marker particle to alert us to the fact that the exalted 248 numeric goal has been attained. Studies by others indicate a 6-quark particle should be plentiful, but this has not materialized.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[124] **viXra:1408.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-10 13:33:24*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages. See also viXra:1410.0133, "The Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury Explained by Celestial Mechanics of Laplace", by Valdir M.S. Godoi

As we could see, other effects of Earth's rotation, as nutation, are not contained in the value of the general Earth's precession calculated for Mercury (5026.50''), and therefore can be an important component to explain the anomaly of Mercury. We should also add the variability of Earth’s precession, very well expressed in John N. Stockwell (and according to Mécanique Céleste).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[123] **viXra:1408.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-21 18:55:42*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 3 Pages. submitted for publication

Unconditionally secure physical key distribution is very slow whenever it is undoubtedly secure. Thus it is practically impossible to use a one-time-pad based cipher to guarantee perfect security be-cause using the key bits more than once gives out statistical information, such as via the known-plain-text-attack or by utilizing known components of the protocol and language statistics. Here we outline a protocol that seems to reduce this problem and allows a near-to-one-time-pad based communication with unconditionally secure physical key of finite length. The unconditionally secure physical key is not used for communication; it is use for a secure communication to generate and share a new software-based key without known-plain-text component, such as keys shared via the Diffie-Hellmann-Merkle protocol. This combined physical/software key distribution based communication looks favorable compared to the physical key based communication when the speed of the physical key distribution is much slower than that of the software-based key distribution. The security proof of this scheme is yet an open problem.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[122] **viXra:1408.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-03 11:36:17*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

We'll present the groundwork for the physicalist program and suggest it's implications.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[121] **viXra:1408.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-22 00:31:22*

**Authors:** Tobías de Jesús Rosas Soto

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Artículo en español, con 4 figuras presentadas de a pares. Título y resumen en español e ingles.

Mediante el estudio de ciertas propiedades geométricas de los sistemas C-ortocéntricos, relacionadas co las nociones de ortogonalidad (Birkhoff, isósceles, cordal), bisectriz (Busemann, Glogovskij) y línea soporte a una circunferencia, se muestran nueve caracterizaciones de euclidianidad para planos de Minkowski arbitrarios. Tres de estas generalizan caracterizaciones dadas para planos de Minkowski estrictamente convexos en [8, 9], y las otras seis son nuevos aportes sobre el tema.
--
By studying certain geometric properties of C-orthocentric systems related to the notions of orthogonality (Birkhoff, isosceles, chordal), angular bisectors (Busemann, Glogovskij) and support line to a circumference, shows nine characterizations of the Euclidean plane for arbitrary Minkowski planes. Three of these generalized characterizations given for strictly convex Minkowski planes in [8, 9], and the other six are new contributions on subject.

**Category:** Geometry

[120] **viXra:1408.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-21 13:00:02*

**Authors:** Hans van Kessel

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

This manuscript starts by raising some questions about our Metric system of units of measurement. For editorial reasons it then continues by describing the efforts of a ‘Martian’ (so to speak) to set up a grass roots system. He thereby is coached by ‘Professor Earth’, who makes sure that findings of earthly giants (in particular Einstein, Planck and Boltzmann) are properly integrated.
Relative to Metric units of measurement, the outcome is overwhelmingly simple and consistent. Thereby, the gravitational constant ‘G’ is found to equal:
G≡ (h.ln(4))/kB
This finding –obviously- is of fundamental importance. It is however only valid between elementary particles. For ensembles thereof a –slightly- higher value for ‘G’ must be expected.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[119] **viXra:1408.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-21 15:07:28*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The phenomenon of Light-Induced localized electromagnetic spinning, the Field Gyroscope, was observed in experiments with the new model of SEVA - the instrument for studying spinning fields. Presence and absence of the light causes a radio-frequency localized spinning of opposite directions, respectively. The experiment proved the earlier conception of the author claiming origination of localized spinning basing on Huygens–Fresnel Principle. The mechanism of excitation of the radio-frequency spinning by mush higher frequencies of the light has been discussed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[118] **viXra:1408.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-21 07:02:48*

**Authors:** Mark M. Grinshtein

**Comments:** 10 Pages. in Russian

The present article reviews modern hypotheses for cancer cells division and provides author’s empirical data on cancer etiology detection and the mechanism of cancer cells division from the viewpoint of the information-wave medicine. \\ В статье рассмотрены современные гипотезы по механизму деления раковых клеток и приведены результаты исследований автора по выявлению этиологии рака, а так же по механизму деления раковых клеток с позиции информационно-волновой медицины.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[117] **viXra:1408.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-25 13:43:31*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Combining formulas of quantum mechanics (QM) and the wave theory defines the diameter of a wave packet of circularly polarized light. This allows the calculation of the energy loss (red shift), if light traverses a thin plasma. In contrast to the Doppler effect, the total energy is conserved, also basic emission- and absorption-line physics is preserved.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[116] **viXra:1408.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-22 01:33:58*

**Authors:** Wanchung Hu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

There is a great analogy between thermodynamics and economics. Here, I will use the laws of thermodynamics to describe the laws of macroeconomics. The first law of thermodynamics explains the conservation of energy. Thus, the internal demand and external trade will contribute to citizens’ income. The second law of thermodynamics says that entropy will always be enlarged. Thus, developed nations will have larger entropy compared to developing or non-developing nations. The third law of thermodynamics also reaches because there is no perfect monopoly.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[115] **viXra:1408.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-20 15:08:44*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabounski, Larissa Borissova

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

This outline speaks about Geopathogenic Radiations, which are the basic radiations of the planet Earth. Thanks to modern research outcomes in the fields of mathematics, materials science, architecture, geology, biology, astronomy, linguistics etc., we have an opportunity to create the Fundamental Theory of Geopathogenic Radiations. This theory helps us to see anew the theory of catastrophes. This will enable us to attain a deeper understanding of the development of natural protective features on the planet (including man), because of the approaching "aggressive" new Time.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[114] **viXra:1408.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-20 15:11:21*

**Authors:** Dmitriy Rabunskiy, Larissa Borissova

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

This outline speaks about Geopathogenic Radiations@@, which are the basic radiations of the planet Earth. Thanks to modern research outcomes in the fields of mathematics, materials science, architecture, geology, biology, astronomy, linguistics etc., we have an opportunity to create the Fundamental Theory of Geopathogenic Radiations. This theory helps us to see anew the theory of catastrophes. This will enable us to attain a deeper understanding of the development of natural protective features on the planet (including man), because of the approaching "aggressive" new Time.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[113] **viXra:1408.0134 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-18 08:45:00*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Conjectured polynomial time primality and compositeness tests for numbers of special forms are introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[112] **viXra:1408.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-20 05:06:15*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Speaking the language of QM or QCHD "elementary particles and their decay modes " are in fact losing speed real stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α)

Speaking the language of QM or QCHD "elementary particles and their decay modes "
are in fact losing speed real stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α)
Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.
Stable electrons moving with speeds ( 0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z.
Speeds of electrons and protons in atoms are smaller. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα.
Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons, neutrinos and bosons W +, W-, Z.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons. Therefore creation and annihilation operators in physics are irrelevant.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[111] **viXra:1408.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-20 05:53:16*

**Authors:** Bernhard Riemann

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

N/A (This is the LaTeXed version of Riemann's 1851 thesis, which laid the foundation of an aspect of complex analysis.--Typesetter)

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[110] **viXra:1408.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-23 20:56:58*

**Authors:** Fu-sui Liu

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Based on the thirteen similarities of structures of lattice, electron, and strong
correlation Hamiltonian between CMR (colossal magnetoresistance) manganites
and the high-Tc cuprates, this paper concludes that the Hamiltonian of
the high-Tc cuprates and CMR manganites are the same. Based on uniform
and quantitative explanations for fifteen experimental facts, this paper concludes
that the pseudogap and CMR of manganites are caused completely
by formation of Cooper pairs, consisting of two oxygen 2pσ holes in MnO2
plane

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[109] **viXra:1408.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-19 16:11:09*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. In Russian

It is shown that the energy is the most general function of the state, which characterizes the ability of the system to make any (ordered and disorder) work. This is achieved by generalisation of concept of work and refusal from division of energy exchange on heat exchange and work.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[108] **viXra:1408.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-19 05:07:11*

**Authors:** Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We use the positivity axiom of inner product spaces to prove the equivalent statement of the Riemann hypothesis.

**Category:** Number Theory

[107] **viXra:1408.0127 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-19 03:10:57*

**Authors:** Wanchung Hu

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

There is an analogy between physics and economics. Here, I will use Newton’s mechanics to describe and deduct the principle of macroeconomics. Economics force is defined as F=dMV/dt=dPG/dt. The link between inflation rate, interest rate, growth rate, and money acceleration rate will also be defined. Principles of least action will be applied to the economics principle. Thus, we have new potent tools to analyze economics activities.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[106] **viXra:1408.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-27 05:23:44*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Conjectured polynomial time primality tests for specific classes of numbers of the form kb^n-1 are introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[105] **viXra:1408.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 15:49:57*

**Authors:** Zafar Turakulov

**Comments:** 10 Pages. The work is completed with use of exterior calculus.

The phenomenon of reflection from conducting surface is considered in terms of exact solutions of Maxwell equations. Matching of waves and current density at the plane is completed. Amplitudes of reflected and transmitted waves are found as functions of incident wave and conductivity of the plane. This work is completed also for conducting plane lying between two distinct media. It is shown that in case of conducting interface waves with some certain parameters (polarization, incidence angle and frequency) and transform completely into waves of current density whereas amplitude of the reflected wave is equal to zero that is equivalent to total absorption.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[104] **viXra:1408.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 12:19:02*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 206 Pages.

Here for the first time we introduce the semi open square using modulo integers. This square under addition modulo ‘n’ is a group, and however under product ‘x’ this semi open square is only a semigroup as under ‘x’ the square has infinite number of zero divisors.
We define the new type of rings called pseudo rings.
Several open problems are suggested.

**Category:** Algebra

[103] **viXra:1408.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 13:06:44*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist, He Wen

**Comments:** 4 Pages. In: Proceedings of the first conference on Hot Topics in Physical Informatics (HoTPI, 2013 November). Paper is in press at International Journal of Modern Physics: Conference Series (2014).

This paper deals with the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical statistical physical key exchange method and surveys criticism - often stemming from a lack of understanding of its underlying premises or from other errors - and our related responses against these, often unphysical, claims. Some of the attacks are valid, however, an extended KLJN system remains protected against all of them, implying that its unconditional security is not impacted.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[102] **viXra:1408.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 13:10:12*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Tamas Horvath, Andreas Klappenecker, He Wen, Sergey M. Bezrukov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In: Proceedings of the first conference on Hot Topics in Physical Informatics (HoTPI, 2013 November). Paper is in press at International Journal of Modern Physics: Conference Series (2014).

Noise-based logic is a practically deterministic logic scheme inspired by the randomness of neural spikes and uses a system of uncorrelated stochastic processes and their superposition to represent the logic state. We briefly discuss various questions such as (i) What does practical determinism mean? (ii) Is noise-based logic a Turing machine? (iii) Is there hope to beat (the dreams of) quantum computation by a classical physical noise-based processor, and what are the minimum hardware requirements for that? Finally, (iv) we address the problem of random number generators and show that the common belief that quantum number generators are superior to classical (thermal) noise-based generators is nothing but a myth.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[101] **viXra:1408.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 13:12:46*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Sergey M. Bezrukov, Tamas Horvath

**Comments:** 4 Pages. In press at: Advances in Cognitive Neurodynamics Vol. 4 - Proc. 4th International Conference on Cognitive Neurodynamics (Springer, 2014)

Neural spikes in the brain form stochastic sequences, i.e., belong to the class of pulse noises. This stochasticity is a counterintuitive feature because extracting information - such as the commonly supposed neural information of mean spike frequency - requires long times for reasonably low error probability. The mystery could be solved by noise-based logic, wherein randomness has an important function and allows large speed enhancements for special-purpose tasks, and the same mechanism is at work for the brain logic version of this concept.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[100] **viXra:1408.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 13:15:22*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Sunil Khatri, He Wen

**Comments:** 6 Pages. In: Proceedings of the first conference on Hot Topics in Physical Informatics (HoTPI, 2013 November). Paper is in press at International Journal of Modern Physics: Conference Series (2014).

This talk addressed the following questions in the public debate at HoTPI: (i) energy dissipation limits of switches, memories and control; (ii) whether reversible computers are possible, or does their concept violate thermodynamics; (iii) Szilard’s engine, Maxwell’s demon and Landauer’s principle: corrections to their exposition in the literature; (iv) whether Landauer’s erasure–dissipation principle is valid, if the same energy dissipation holds for writing information, or if it is invalid; and (v) whether (non-secure) erasure of memories, or the writing of the same amount of information, dissipates most heat.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[99] **viXra:1408.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 09:49:52*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of numbers of the form 9b^n-1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[98] **viXra:1408.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 12:16:59*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 235 Pages.

In this book the authors introduce the notion of finite complex modulo integer intervals. Finite complex modulo integers were introduced by the authors in 2011. Now, using this finite complex modulo integer intervals several algebraic structures are built. Open problems are suggested.

**Category:** Algebra

[97] **viXra:1408.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 07:00:33*

**Authors:** Jan Helm

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

We discuss the Oppenheimer-Snyder-Datt (OSD) solution from a new perspective, introduce a completely new formulation of the problem exclusively in external Schwarzschild space-time (ESM) and present a new treatment of the singularities in this new formulation. We also give a new Newtonian approximation of the problem. Furthermore, we present new numerical solutions of the modified OSD-model and of the ball-to-ball-collapse with 4 different numerical methods.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[96] **viXra:1408.0116 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-01 16:01:13*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described phenomena that lead to an illusion of acceleration of expansion of the Universe for z > 0.45 and of deceleration for z > 0.60. We cannot neglect both the perturbant/”gravitational” redshift for z > = 0.53 and the duality of relativity. The derived formulae for time distance between source and observer, give the time distances greater than calculated within the mainstream cosmology (for z = 0.45 is about 30%). On the other hand, the distances of the Type Ia supernovae were, on average, 10% to 15% farther than expected. This means that the Type Ia supernovae are fainter than they should be not due to an acceleration of expansion but due to inaccurate formula for time distance applied in the mainstream cosmology. Correctness of the new formula follows from the fact that calculated maximum redshift is z = 11.9. This value is consistent with the present-day observational facts (the maximum is z = 11.8 +- 0.3 for the candidate protogalaxy UDFj-39546284). Due to the duality of relativity and due to the perturbant/”gravitational” redshift for compact cosmological objects, it is very difficult to calculate within the mainstream cosmology the exact time distances to the Type Ia supernovae. The uncertainty is much higher than the assumed about 5%.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[95] **viXra:1408.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 09:00:15*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 09 paged, 18 references

We use a Dirac-like equation with a linear potential in order to evaluate the energy levels of the excited states of the Y-shaped color-electric flux tubes, describing the quarks interactions inside the nucleon. We have neglected the bare-masses of the quarks, and the obtained results reproduce the energy of the centroid of the excited states of the nucleon as well as the possible creation of nucleon-antinucleon pairs.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[94] **viXra:1408.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-18 06:42:15*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make five conjectures about the primes q, r and the square of prime p^2, which appears as solutions in the diophantine equation 120*n*q*r + 1 = p^2, where n is non-null positive integer.

**Category:** Number Theory

[93] **viXra:1408.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-07 13:04:33*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. See also viXra:1410.0133, "The Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury Explained by Celestial Mechanics of Laplace", by Valdir M.S. Godoi

An example is given of how it is possible that a limitation in determining the value of daily precession of the perihelion of Mercury explain this precession when designed for a century.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[92] **viXra:1408.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 02:11:31*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make two conjectures abut the pairs of primes [p1, q1], where the difference between p1 and q1 is a certain even number d. I state that any such pair has at least one other corresponding, in a specified manner, pair of primes [p2, q2], such that the difference between p2 and q2 is also equal to d.

**Category:** Number Theory

[91] **viXra:1408.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 00:02:36*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that any odd prime can be written in a certain way, in other words that any such prime can be expressed using just another prime and the powers of the numbers 2, 3 and 5. I also make a related conjecture about twin primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[90] **viXra:1408.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-22 11:39:11*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages.

The absence of impedances from the Standard Model is most remarkable. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Impedances govern the flow of energy. In particular, the coupling of the photon to matter happens in the near field. The absence of the photon near-field impedance in photon-electron interactions is the most basic and profound example of this remarkable circumstance, sitting unnoticed in the foundation of quantum electrodynamics. One cannot obtain a complete understanding of such interactions without examining the role of impedances. How this essential principle escaped notice in the development of quantum field theory is outlined,
and consequences of its inclusion in our present understanding are explored.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[89] **viXra:1408.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-18 07:38:10*

**Authors:** Redouane BOUHENNACHE

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

Since the beginning of the quest of hypercomplex numbers in the late eighteenth century, many hypercomplex number systems have been proposed but none of them succeeded in extending the concept of complex numbers to higher dimensions. This paper provides a definitive solution to this problem by defining the truly hypercomplex numbers of dimension N ≥ 3. The secret lies in the definition of the multiplicative law and its properties. This law is based on spherical and hyperspherical coordinates. These numbers which I call spherical and hyperspherical hypercomplex numbers define Abelian groups over addition and multiplication. Nevertheless, the multiplicative law generally does not distribute over addition, thus the set of these numbers equipped with addition and multiplication does not form a mathematical field. However, such numbers are expected to have a tremendous utility in mathematics and in science in general.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[88] **viXra:1408.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-17 10:00:26*

**Authors:** Dmitriy Skripachov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The observed absence of a cuspy halo in the centers of galaxies implies a certain mechanism, which scatter DM. As this mechanism is considered annihilation of galactic antineutrino DM and neutrino DM of stellar origin. Annihilation intensity increases towards the center with increasing concentration of stars and density of DM, however, the scattering effect of annihilation begins to manifest mainly in the bulge. Based on such a hysteresis of scattering effect, we make up a two-level mass model of the Milky Way, where the mass distribution is regulated at two levels of concentration by one and the same law of decreasing density, inversely proportional to the distance from the center of power of 2.5. The first level starts from the surface of the central neutron collapsar and ends at the border of the bulge, and the second level extends from the bulge to the edge of the Galaxy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[87] **viXra:1408.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-03 08:51:11*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

put a outline for the reconstruction of atomic and nuclear physics

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[86] **viXra:1408.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-17 11:42:09*

**Authors:** Joseph I. Thomas

**Comments:** 194 Pages. Under Review since 12 March 2014

Polychronous Wavefront Computation is the name given to a recently proposed geometric approach on how the brain can be modeled to perform computations. It departs from the conventional use of artificial neural networks involving synapses for systems modeling.
This paper, written as a mathematical sequel to the original work on the subject, builds two closely related Neurocomputational Models that together furnishes a plausible mechanism grounded in geometry, for sensory representation of motion, shape and time in the brain.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[85] **viXra:1408.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-17 07:24:10*

**Authors:** M. Hafidouni

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The negative binomial distribution is derived as a solution of a linear recurrence equation with an appropriate set of constraints

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[84] **viXra:1408.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-16 10:46:16*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

After the spin-flip a Hydrogen atom emits a photon, but radio astronomers measure electromagnetic waves at 1420 MHz. How and where is the photon converted into an electromagnetic wave? Do photons really exist? This question is discussed in great detail with reference to the differences between energy measurement and amplitude measurement. The combination of formulas of Quantum mechanics and the wave theory gives the diameter of a wave packet of circularly polarized light. This allows the calculation of the energy loss during the traversal of a thin plasma.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[83] **viXra:1408.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-05 14:39:29*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Planck CMB data lead to conclusion that there should be about two times more galaxy clusters than we observe. Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we show that the discrepancy follows from the collisions/mergers of protogalaxy clusters at the beginning of the expansion of the Universe. The time distance to most distant galaxies is 13.866 ± 0.096 Gyr but they are already 7.75 Gyr old so we cannot see the collisions of protogalaxy clusters. It is a wrong assumption that creation of galaxies can last a few hundred million years only. For 8 times more spiral galaxies than elliptical galaxies, we obtain that there should be observed about 1.8 times less galaxy clusters than it follows from the Planck CMB data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[82] **viXra:1408.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-16 08:37:00*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Compositeness criteria for specific classes of numbers of the form b^n+b+1 and b^n-b-1 are introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[81] **viXra:1408.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-16 03:21:28*

**Authors:** Danny Kirmse

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The following paper aims for a new more efficient design of the discharge chamber of a Radio-Frequency Ion-Thruster (RIT). The discharge chamber contains plasma, which provides the charged particles for thrust-generation. The plasma is produced by ionization of gas. The ionizing discharge has to occur in the whole chamber; in the whole chamber energy needs to be expended to produce plasma. On the other hand, as shown in [3], only charged particles out of a small layer direct close to the plasma-grid are used to become accelerated for the generation of thrust. In order to achieve energy costs as efficient as possible; plasma should be produced only in this small layer, optimally. In the following an option is presented to reduce the length of the discharge chamber of a RIT. This is achieved by coupling in the ionizing electric eddy-fields from the top-end of the discharge chamber, no longer from the sides of the chamber. For this kind of field-coupling a new induction system is needed, where the induction coil is placed inside a ferrite pot-core. Within this paper a qualitative testing of the proposed new induction system is described.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[80] **viXra:1408.0096 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-22 14:37:57*

**Authors:** Danny Kirmse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper contains the description of two concepts for plasma-propulsion engines for application as main thruster units for exploration missions in the solar system. Current space policy increasingly focuses on exploration missions to the earth’s next planets. This includes for instance also manned missions to the Mars. Most efficient for this type of mission would be a propulsion system that provides adjustable continuous thrust over long time-periods. Beyond that, a thrust level as high as possible should be realized due to the reduction of the travel time. The two propulsion concepts (named “Helios-1” and “Helios-2”) presented in this paper are designed to fulfill the thrust requirements mentioned above. Both concepts base on the intention to ionize a gas under high-pressure condition, in order to produce sufficient numbers of charged particles that are able to generate high thrust by coupling of electric and magnetic fields. The ionization proceeds in two stages (pre- and main-ionization). The task of the pre-ionization is to generate the initial conditions to enable ionization of high-pressure gas at all. “Helios-1” is a pure electric propulsion system that uses the principle of a Tesla-transformer to achieve sufficient electric field strength for pre-ionization. “Helios-2” is a hybrid propulsion system consisting of a chemical pre-stage and an electrical main-stage. A Redox-reaction produces electrons that improve the conditions for ionization of high-pressure gas. Additionally, the thrust producing extraction mechanism is described in the paper. The intention to extract large numbers of charged particles requires a design of the thrusters as plasma-propulsion engines. The extraction of plasma instead of ions prevents the formation of space charges that limit the extractable current of thrust producing charged particles.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[79] **viXra:1408.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-16 05:39:21*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of numbers of the form 3b^n-1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[78] **viXra:1408.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-17 06:16:35*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Work in progress.

In the far infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) sectors of particle physics, propagators for charged fermions no longer follow the prescription of perturbative quantum field theory (QFT). They acquire a fractal structure from radiative corrections contributed by gauge bosons. Here we show how fractal propagators in QFT may be analyzed using fractional field theory on spacetimes having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality. An intriguing consequence of this approach is the emergence of classical gravity as long-range and ultra-weak excitation of the Higgs condensate.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[77] **viXra:1408.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-15 13:09:48*

**Authors:** Rajib Chakraborty

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We correct the solution of Poisson-Boltzmann equation regarding charge distribution in an electrolytic solution bounded by walls. Considering charge conservation principle properly, we show that the gradient of electrostatic potential at different walls are strictly related, and cannot be assigned independent values, unlike old theory. It clarifies some cause and effect ideas: distribution turns out to be independent of the initial polarity of walls; the accumulated charges in liquid usually induce opposite polarity on the wall surface, forms `Electric Double Layer' (EDL), contrary to the common belief that a charged wall attracts counter-ions to form EDL. Distribution depends only on the potential difference between walls and the net charge present in the solution, apart from Debye length.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[76] **viXra:1408.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-15 07:15:07*

**Authors:** I.I.Guseinov

**Comments:** 26 pages, 6 tables

Using condition of relativistic covariance, group theory and Clifford algebra the -component Lorentz invariance generalized relativistic wave equation for a particle with arbitrary mass and spin is suggested, where and It is shown that the charged scalar ( ) and noncharged scalar ( ) particles with are described by two-component relativistic equations. Accordingly, the noncharged scalar fermi particles ( ) can be used as an elementary particle of the Standard Model of particle physics. In the case of arbitrary integral spin , the relativistic equation for leads to the equation of massless boson particles. For the solution of presented in this work generalized relativistic equation in the linear combination of atomic orbitals approximation, the 2(2s+1)-component orthogonal basis sets of spinor functions for the arbitrary mass and spin are suggested in position, momentum and four-dimensional spaces.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[75] **viXra:1408.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-03 18:51:38*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Abandon the hypothesis of the solar wind and obtain a new value for the anomaly of the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury. The theoretical value of the total secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury, according to the work of Le Verrier 1859, is only about 8'' unless the observed value quoted by Weinberg (in reference to Duncombe and Clemence). The hypothesis of the influence of the satellites in the calculation of precession, previously abandoned, should return, since 1'' is not so insignificant compared to 8''.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[74] **viXra:1408.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-23 17:11:20*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the discovery of a new theoretical formula for the mass of the proton. The latest and most accurate value of G obtained so far comes from atomic interferometry. This new and revolutionary experimental method was devised by an Italian team of scientists and the results were published in Nature in 2014. Due to the previous lack of accuracy and large discrepancies in the measurement of G, this experimental result is a scientific breakthrough that allow us and shall allow us to confirm, among other things, the validity of equations for the mass of particles, the latest fundamental particle formulations and cosmological theories. Since the equation presented here depends, among other things, on the gravitational constant G, I found that if we use the value of G given by NIST (2010), the formula reproduces the value of the proton mass accurate to three decimal places. If, on the other hand, we use the value of G given by the arithmetic mean published by Rosi et al, the formula reproduces the value of the proton mass accurate to four decimal places. Finally I found that, if we use the theoretical value of G of 6.671 614 932 ×10−11 m^3 Kg^−1 S^−2 (calibration value), the formula reproduces the value of the proton mass accurate to nine decimal places. This calibration value falls within the limits imposed by the experimental errors.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[73] **viXra:1408.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 11:08:01*

**Authors:** E.Koorambas

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We will study the gravitational forces acting between static massive sources generated by exchange of massless gravitons within the framework of Quantum Gauge Theory Gravity .The gravitational force will be determined via Wilson loops and Polyakov loop correlation functions. This method will enable us to separate the contribution of the quantum mechanical transverse graviton from that of the classical longitudinal field. It will be the method of choice if one attempts to determine the gravitational static force in simulations of Quantum Gauge Theory Gravity on a Rindler space lattice.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[72] **viXra:1408.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 11:36:12*

**Authors:** Robert E S Watson

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Kaluza’s 1921 theory of gravity and electromagnetism using a fifth
wrapped-up spatial dimension is inspiration for many modern attempts
to develop new physical theories. For a number of reasons the theory
is incomplete and often considered untenable. An alternative approach
is presented that includes torsion, unifying gravity and electromagnetism
in a Kaluza-Cartan theory. Emphasis is placed on admitting important
electromagnetic fields not present in Kaluza’s original theory, and on a
Lorentz force law. This is investigated via a non-Maxwellian kinetic def-
inition of charge related to Maxwellian charge and 5D momentum. Two
connections are used. General covariance and global properties are inves-
tigated via a reduced non-maximal atlas. Conserved super-energy is used
in place of the energy conditions for 5D causality. Explanatory relation-
ships between matter, charge and spin are present.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[71] **viXra:1408.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 07:34:55*

**Authors:** William Maclachlan

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The aim of my "experiment" was to gather some curious information about the understanding of primes- to my understanding I seemed to have created a system that can find primes considerably quicker in contrast to merely searching through all the given number's factors.
I am not a professional, but it would be nice if I could get some form of a reply from someone with experience to explain the irrelevancy of my findings.

**Category:** Number Theory

[70] **viXra:1408.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 08:48:18*

**Authors:** Ernst Fischer

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2014

According to general relativity the geometry of space depends on the distribution of matter or energy fields. The relation between the locally defined geometry parameters and the volume elements depends on curvature. Thus integration of local properties like energy density, defined in the Euclidean tangent space, does not lead to correct integral data like total energy. To obtain
integral conservation, a correction term must be added to account for the curvature of space. This correction term is the equivalent of potential energy in Newtonian gravitation. With this correction the formation of singularities by gravitational collapse does no longer occur and the so called dark energy finds its natural
explanation as potential energy of matter itself.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[69] **viXra:1408.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 03:16:30*

**Authors:** Pingyuan Zhou

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Author gives an argument for the infinity of primes of the form 2x^2-1 by the infinity of near-square primes of Mersenne primes to arise from a corresponding Fermat prime criterion.

Abstract: In this paper we consider primes of the form 2x^2-1 and discover there is a very great probability for appearing of such primes, and give an argument for the infinity of primes of the form 2x^2-1 by the infinity of near-square primes of Mersenne primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[68] **viXra:1408.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-22 10:37:37*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Major Review + 2 misspellings corrected.

Cauchy Theory is applied and extended to n-dimensional functions in Clifford algebras, showing the existence of integrals that do not exist in Euclidean spaces. It celebrates the depth of Cauchy's lecture, held on the 22nd of August, 1814, so 200 years ago, in times of bitter warfare. (I should like to recommend reading about his life, e.g. in Wikipedia.)

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[67] **viXra:1408.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 00:17:08*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for@@ specific class of numbers of the form k6^n-1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[66] **viXra:1408.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 02:56:43*

**Authors:** Seenu Reddi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Caratheodory's theorem about semi-definite Toeplitz matrices states that for a semi-definite Toeplitz matrix with a unique eigenvalue of zero, the polynomial formed from the elements of the null eigenvector will have zeros on the unit circle. This fact has often been used in spectral analysis to characterize covariance matrices in signal processing and deduce spectrality underlying a given time series. We show that it is possible to form two semi-definite Toeplitz matrices with the kind of property Caratheodory suggests and caution that a careful analysis should be performed before reaching conclusions on the spectrality of the underlying covariance matrix. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the concepts.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[65] **viXra:1408.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-13 15:39:49*

**Authors:** Alessio Mangoni

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show that a class C-infinite real function can be written as an n-summation of terms involving its derivative. For many functions, under certain conditions, this summation can become a particular series expansion.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[64] **viXra:1408.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-13 14:42:57*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 10 Pages. In Russian

It is shown, that universal definition of forces as the gradient of the corresponding kind of
energy applies to the ether waves. Distinction of reaction of substance on influences different frequency is proved. Thereby the unity of the nature of interaction between ether and substance is justified. The ether - soliton concepts of a structure of substance is discussed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[63] **viXra:1408.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-13 07:26:37*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Conjectured polynomial time compositeness tests for numbers of the form k2^n-c and k2^n+c are introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[62] **viXra:1408.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-29 03:35:59*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 4 Pages. a replacement with a little extra note.

The Special Theory of Relativity does not explain the cosmic muon decay phenomenon; it is not evidence of time dilation. The “dilated time” of special relativity has no physical interpretation as time as interpreted in physics; therefore,
the extended lifetime of the muon, arrived at through the used of time dilation,cannot be used in the simple formula : distance = speed x time. So far, no one seems to have pointed to this simple fact. An invalid argument has been repeated and propagated for decades that purportedly resolves the cosmic muon decay phenomenon.
Furthermore, the best experiment by CERN [3] measured the average lifetime of muon as 64.368(29) μs, (γ = 29.33, v = 0.9994 c). The now accepted mean proper lifetime for μ − = 2.19489(10) μs is a value computed from the relativistic time dilation formula using the figure of 64.368(29) μs assuming the validity of Special Relativity Theory; it is not an empirical value from experiments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[61] **viXra:1408.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-12 15:39:22*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity falls by the Lorentz transformation, the very foundation on which the theory rests. The application of the Lorentz transformation does not naturally give rise to projections in spacetime where the space coordinates still retain any relevance to the usual physical real length; the dilated time too may have no relevance to real time. The conclusion is that the Special Theory of Relativity is just an abstract mathematical model and not a theory in physics; it has no relevance to our physical world. As such, all empirical and experimental evidence that purportedly validate the theory become void and meaningless.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[60] **viXra:1408.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-12 12:21:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[59] **viXra:1408.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-06 11:13:53*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This is a submission to Annals of Physics. The rejection and my reply are bound

It is shown that, in defiance of the conventional point of view, circularly polarized light causes shear stress

**Category:** Classical Physics

[58] **viXra:1408.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-12 14:37:04*

**Authors:** Pierre Maurice Marie Duhem

**Comments:** 212 Pages. French

re-typeset edition of:

Duhem, Pierre Maurice Marie. *Les théories électriques de J. Clerk Maxwell: Étude historique et critique*. Paris: A. Hermann, 1902. https://archive.org/details/lesthoriesle00duheuoft .

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[57] **viXra:1408.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-16 15:01:48*

**Authors:** Zhang yunfan

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

This paper established a physical axiom system. By the axiom system we can derive important physical laws such as momentum conservation law, Newton's second law, Newton's law of gravity, Schrodinger equation and Maxwell's equations, simplified existing physical theories and explain some physical phenomenons those unresolved by traditional physical theories. We can also derive Schwarzschild solution of external spherically symmetric gravitational field, gravitational red shift equation, proved that if in large-scale distance, Newton's law of gravity and red shift equation must be corrected, the data by corrected formulas meet the astronomical observed results well.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[56] **viXra:1408.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-12 02:52:56*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of generalized Fermat numbers is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[55] **viXra:1408.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-11 13:11:29*

**Authors:** Jan Hakenberg, Ulrich Reif, Scott Schaefer, Joe Warren

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The volume enclosed by subdivision surfaces, such as Doo-Sabin, Catmull-Clark, and Loop has recently been derived. Moments of higher degree d are more challenging because of the growing number of coefficients in the (d+3)-linear forms. We derive the intrinsic symmetries of the tensors, and thereby reduce the complexity of the problem.
Our framework allows to compute the 4-linear forms that determine the centroid defined by Doo-Sabin, and Loop surfaces, including Loop with sharp creases. For Doo-Sabin surfaces, we also establish the tensors of rank 5 that determine the inertia for valences 3, and 4. When the subdivision weights are rational, the centroid, and inertia are obtained in exact, symbolic form. In practice, the formulas are restricted to meshes with a certain maximum valence of a vertex.

**Category:** Geometry

[54] **viXra:1408.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-12 06:36:01*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Conjectured polynomial time compositeness tests for numbers of the form k2^n-1 and k2^n+1 are introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[53] **viXra:1408.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-11 11:45:00*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In our epoch E8 symmetry exists and is the governing symmetry of the universe although it is a broken symmetry (see viXra 1405.0210) responsible for our feeble gravity. Studies of existing lepton, hadron, meson, and QCD particles indicate that there are 12 lepton, 100 baryon, 100 meson and 14 QCD species here at present, or 226 in all. Adding the 22 new particles required to implement E8 symmetry yields a total of 248 different particles and Antiparticles required for our universe to have E8 symmetry, and these have all been found.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[52] **viXra:1408.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-03 17:53:21*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Encontrei um valor teórico muito próximo dos 5600’’ observados do movimento secular da longitude do periélio de Mercúrio, no famoso “Tratado do Movimento de Mercúrio”, de Le Verrier. Mais exatamente existem ainda 8’’ ou 10’’ de diferença para um século de observações, mas creditaria esta diferença aos satélites (mais que ao vento solar), às imprecisões das massas dos planetas, em especial Mercúrio, e às conhecidas limitações dos cálculos numéricos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[51] **viXra:1408.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-11 03:44:27*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Formulae for the electron's charge, electron's mass, fine structure constant, proton's radius, proton's mass, gravitational coupling constant and proton-to-electron mass ratio

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[50] **viXra:1408.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-08 13:46:48*

**Authors:** Richard J. Mathar

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Replaced by the more recent arXiv version.

We reduce two-electron 4-center products of Cartesian Gaussian Type Orbitals
with Boys' contraction to 2-center products of the form psi_alpha(r_i-A)
psi_beta(r_j-B),
and compute the 6-dimensional integral over d^3r_i d^3r_j over these
with the effective potential
V_{ij} = (r_i-r_j) . r_j/|r_i-r_j|^3
in terms of Boys' confluent hypergeometric functions.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[49] **viXra:1408.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-25 11:52:38*

**Authors:** Justin Lee

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Justifying a local hidden variable theory requires an explanation of Bell's inequality violation. Ever since Bell derived the inequality to test the classical prediction on the correlation of two spin-1/2 particles, many experiments have observed the violation, and thus concluded against the local realism, while validating the non-locality of quantum entanglement. Still, many scientists remain unconvinced of quantum entanglement because the experiments have loopholes that could potentially allow a local realistic explanation. Upholding the local realism, this paper introduces how a precession of the spin would produce a cosine-like correlation function, and furthermore how it would also contribute to a fair sampling loophole. Simulating the precession in Monte Carlo method reveals that it can explain the observed Bell's violation using only classical mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[48] **viXra:1408.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-21 04:13:24*

**Authors:** Ichiro Nakayama

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This manuscript newly proposes a model of elementary particles and space that describes the creation and structure of the universe from a collective point of view, and that includes the interaction of elementary particles, the generation of electromagnetic field, gravity and unknown dark energy. This model goes ahead of “quantum field theory” with showing many concrete figures, even if it leaves mathematical quantitative inspections until later. The body of the theory is intuitively convinced by anyone. In this theory, the aspect of the universe is caught as not mere mathematical three -dimensional space, but really existent matter (energy body) with physical nature. More, the material of many types of elementary particles is the same material as the universe.
Namely, elementary particles are the energy body itself with the closed waves that are rotating around their own axis. Also, space generates elementary particles and absorbs them by condensation and diffusion of space.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[47] **viXra:1408.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-10 06:44:20*

**Authors:** Zafar Turakulov

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The phenomenon of total internal reflection is considered in terms of exact solutions of Maxwell equations. Matching of plane and evanescent waves at the interface is completed. It is shown that amplitude of the reflected wave cannot be obtained from the matching alone. Since it can differ from that of incident wave due to possible energy loss which may occur in the evanescent wave zone if there is another layer of optically dense medium, this loss is to be specified via amplitude of the reflected wave. Besides, reflected wave potential has phase shift which also depends on this specification.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[46] **viXra:1408.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-09 15:37:55*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is shown that by applying a simple and correct method of measurement of the circumference the space in rotating disk is flat.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1408.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-15 09:35:10*

**Authors:** Ramon Isasi

**Comments:** 19 pages; 1 Figure; 1 Table.

In the present manuscript, we considere the origin of the cosmological space and the Cosmological Constant as a consequence of the annihilation of the matter - antimatter at the very beginning of the big bang. Since the cosmological expansion create the space, the cosmological vacuum is considered as a very hegemonic entity which is the locus where all the objects create the events. Certanly, N units of masses in conjunct are required to produce an equilibrium between the gravitational phenomena of the matter in bulk and each coulombic interaction between protons and electrons within the nuclear and atomic contour in all astrophysical (e.g. stars) or cosmological entities (e.g. galaxies). The "dark matter" is considered to be formed by highly excited H and HeI Rydberg's atoms in equilibrium with the CMB radiation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1408.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-09 13:22:19*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The basis of any Universe is energy. Energy may be positive or negative. Negative energy produces negative matter. Negative matter repels our (positive) matter. Using this effect the author offers a space propulsion system which allows reaching by space ship a speed close to light speed and to enable massive retrieval of extraterrestrial materials to construct works in space

**Category:** Classical Physics

[43] **viXra:1408.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-29 12:23:38*

**Authors:** J.Foukzon, A.A.Potapov, S.A.Podosenov

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

In his famous thought experiment,Schrôdinger(1935) imagined a cat that measures the value of an quantum mechanical observable with its life. Since Schrödinger’s time, no any interpretations or modifications of quantum mechanics have been proposed which gives clear unambiguous answers to the questions posed by Schrödinger’s cat of how long superpositions last and when (or whether)they collapse? In this paper appropriate modification of quantum mechanics are proposed. We claim that canonical interpretation of the wave function ψ=c₁ψ₁+ c₂ψ_2 is correct only when the supports the wave functions ψ₁ and ψ_2 essentially overlap. When the wave functions ψ₁ and ψ_2 have separated supports (as in the case of the experiment that we are considering in this paper) we claim that canonical interpretation of the wave function ψ=c₁ψ₁+c₂ψ_2 is no longer valid for a such cat state. Possible solution of the Schrödinger’s cat paradox are considered.We pointed out that the collapsed state of the cat always shows definite and predictable outcomes even if cat also consists of a superposition: |cat>=c1|a live cat> + c2|death cat> .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[42] **viXra:1408.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-09 14:24:32*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 18 Pages. none

In this paper it is shown that the General Relativity Theory (GRT), which belongs to a class of metric theories of gravity, is based on a wrong assumption, contradicts the well-established laws of physics, and also its own maximum speed postulate. It is shown, based on simple arguments of geometry, that in the GRT the motion of a test body in an orbit around the centrally gravitating mass does not satisfy the conservation of angular momentum and that the equation describing the equivalence of acceleration with the force of gravity violates the contravariance principle. Finally, it is shown that the GRT also violates the Gauss law. The critique rests on a comparison of the Schwarzschild metric, which is derived from Einstein field equations, with the previously derived author's new metric from which the Schwarzschild metric follows as a first order approximation, but which is not derived from Einstein field equations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1408.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-21 12:29:01*

**Authors:** Daniel Cordero Grau

**Comments:** Pages.

In this Article I lay down the Theory of Relativistic Quantum Hydrodynamics which unify Relativistic Quantum Condensed Matter of Einstein, Quantum Particle Physics of Dirac and Fluid Dynamics of Stokes

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[40] **viXra:1408.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-09 07:29:52*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 28 Pages. English and russian texts

We have summarized the results of elaboration of the microworld theory that operates adequate structural mathematical models of microscopic objects. Adequate structural models of microscopic objects have been built due to consideration of magnetic interactions among microscopic objects along with other interactions and due to consideration of ether with its resistance to motion of microobjects.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[39] **viXra:1408.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-08 18:22:49*

**Authors:** Oh Jung Uk

**Comments:** 20 Pages. I don't know how to show abstract well

If π_g (N) is the number of cases that even number N could be expressed as the sum of the two primes of 6n±1 type then the formula of π_g (N) is below
π_g (6n+0)=n-1- 2/3 ∑_(k=1)^(n-1)▒((〖πβ〗_g (6k-1))/(πβ_g (6k-1)-1)) -2/3π ∑_(k=1)^(n-1)▒∑_(m=1)^∞▒sin((2〖mπ〗^2 β_g (6k-1))/(πβ_g (6k-1)-1))/m
where,β_g (6k-1)=τ(6k-1)-2+τ(6(n-k)+1)-2,…
But,the formula of π_g (6n+2),π_g (6n-2) is omitted in abstract.

**Category:** Number Theory

[38] **viXra:1408.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-08 23:27:58*

**Authors:** Alexander Fix, Misha Collins

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A trillion by trillion matrix is almost unimaginably huge, and finding its inverse seems to be a truly im- possible task. However, given current trends in com- puting, it may actually be possible to achieve such a task around 2040 — if we were willing to devote the the entirety of human computing resources to a single computation. Why would we want to do this? Perhaps, as Mallory said of Everest: “Because it’s there”.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[37] **viXra:1408.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-08 16:38:58*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 13 Pages. In Russian

Substantiates the view, according to which the electromagnetic field in free space is not a form of matter, but only one of the measures of stress
the state of the ether, which is caused by the inhomogeneous distribution of matter in it
with its inherent charges and currents

**Category:** Classical Physics

[36] **viXra:1408.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-08 08:35:19*

**Authors:** Th. Guyer

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A briefly olympic idea about P = NP
(include the Prime_Twin_Conjecture)
Whoever is able to(o) kicks out m(e?

**Category:** Number Theory

[35] **viXra:1408.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-09 06:06:08*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 12 Pages. English and russian texts

“Spontaneous” nuclear disintegration results from increase in the density of ether in the contemporary Universe. Red shift is indicative of increase in the density of ether in the peripheral regions of the Universe. The observable phenomenon of “spontaneous” nuclear disintegration provides experimental evidence of the fact that increase in the density of ether in the contemporary Universe takes place in the entire Universe rather in its peripheral layers.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[34] **viXra:1408.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-08 04:07:06*

**Authors:** Oh Jung Uk

**Comments:** 21 Pages. I don't know how to show abstract well

If π_t (6n+1) is the number of twin prime of 6n+1 or less then the formula of π_t (6n+1) is described below.
π_t (6n+1)=n+1-2/3 ∑_(k=1)^n▒((πβ_t (6k))/(πβ_t (6k)-1)) -2/3π ∑_(k=1)^n▒∑_(m=1)^∞▒sin((2〖mπ〗^2 β_t (6k))/(πβ_t (6k)-1))/m
where,β_t (6k)={τ(6k-1)-2}+{τ(6k+1)-2},…

**Category:** Number Theory

[33] **viXra:1408.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-08 04:11:24*

**Authors:** Oh Jung Uk

**Comments:** 16 Pages. I don't know how to show abstract well

For Mersenne prime of 2^(6n+1)-1 type, if a Mersenne prime is 2^(6p+1)-1, just next Mersenne prime is 2^(6x+1)-1 then the following equation is satisfied.
x =p+3/2+1/2 ∑_(k=p+1)^x▒〖(πβ(2^(6k+1)-1)+1)/(πβ(2^(6k+1)-1)-1)+1/π ∑_(k=p+1)^x▒∑_(m=1)^∞▒sin((2mπ^2 β(2^(6k+1)-1))/(πβ(2^(6k+1)-1)-1))/m〗
where,β(2^(6k+1)-1)=τ(2^(6k+1)-1)-2,…
Mersenne prime of 2^(6n-1)-1 type is omitted in abstract.

**Category:** Number Theory

[32] **viXra:1408.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-08 04:16:18*

**Authors:** Oh Jung Uk

**Comments:** 12 Pages. I don't know how to show abstract well

A number of 6n-1 type is not odd perfect number, Fermat number is not also odd perfect number.
And, if Fermat number is composite number then Fermat number is factorized as below
when n is odd number,2^(2^n )+1=(2^(n+1) (3k+1)+1)(2^(n+1) (3m)+1)
when n is even number,2^(2^n )+1=(2^(n+1) ((3k+1)/2)+1)(2^(n+1) (3m)+1)
And, all Fermat number for n≥5 is composite number.

**Category:** Number Theory

[31] **viXra:1408.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-07 22:23:12*

**Authors:** Oh Jung Uk

**Comments:** 34 Pages. I don't know how I can fix the abstract

The formula of prime-counting function π(N=6n+3) is described below.
π(N=6n+3)=2n+2-2/3 ∑_(k=1)^n▒{πβ(6k-1)/(πβ(6k-1)-1)+πβ(6k+1)/(πβ(6k+1)-1)} -2/3π ∑_(k=1)^n▒∑_(m=1)^∞▒{(sin((2mπ^2 β(6k-1))/(πβ(6k-1)-1))+sin((2mπ^2 β(6k+1))/(πβ(6k+1)-1)))/m}
where,β(6k-1)=τ(6k-1)-2,β(6k+1)=τ(6k+1)-2,…

**Category:** Number Theory

[30] **viXra:1408.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-07 22:36:44*

**Authors:** Oh Jung Uk

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The point of inside closed curve could not directly connect to the point of outside. If a point of outside closed curve directly connect to points on closed curve then the maximum number of color of map is 4 under only 3 conditions, and the end point of closed curve is located inside newly created closed curve. If another outside point is added then we could prevent maximum color from exceeding 4 by using to rearrange colors of existing points.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[29] **viXra:1408.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-07 22:42:05*

**Authors:** Oh Jung Uk

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

If B(P) is the truth value of proposition P then connectives could be translated to arithmetic operation in the congruent expression of 2 as described below.
B(~p)≡1+B(p)( mod 2 ),B(p∧q)≡B(p)B(q)( mod 2 )
B(p∨q)≡B(p)+B(q)+B(p)B(q)( mod 2 )
B(p⟶q)≡1+B(p)+B(p)B(q)( mod 2 )
B(p⟷q)≡1+B(p)+B(q)(mod 2)
By using this, logical laws could be proved, compound proposition could be simplified, and logical equation could be solved.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[28] **viXra:1408.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-08 03:11:53*

**Authors:** Klaus Lange

**Comments:** 4 Pages. main text in german language

In consideration of the Higgs-,W- and Z-Boson Mass and the fundamental results of [L1] and [L2] a mass estimation for a x-Boson like particle will made to 684 +/- 64,125 GeV/c^2.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[27] **viXra:1408.0037 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-26 09:39:17*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper is concerned with a generalization of the Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle
which I developed in 2012 and that I called the universal uncertainty principle. This
principle takes into account the quantized nature of space-time (granularity) and the
quantum fluctuations of the empty space. I have successfully applied the special version of these relations to calculate the thermodynamic properties of black holes, the approximate size of the electron and to derive the Einstein's formula of equivalence of mass and energy. This formulation can change the standard model of particle physics by introducing gravity into the model through the Planck length and the Planck time.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[26] **viXra:1408.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-08 05:30:28*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page. A spontaneous letter in portuguese

Beyond the question "Gravitational Mass = Inertial Mass?" should be the question "Gravitational Mass Planet X = Gravitational Mass Planet Y"?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1408.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-07 11:49:53*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 3 Pages. in Russian

It is shown that Tomilin's experiments can be explained remaining within the existing physical paradigm. \\ Показано, что эксперименты Томилина можно объяснить, оставаясь в рамках существующей физической парадигмы.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[24] **viXra:1408.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-07 05:56:56*

**Authors:** Francois Zinserling

**Comments:** 11 Pages. To be presented at the ASSA symposium 24-27 September 2014

It is shown mathematically with Newtonian physics that a particle or photon can exit from underneath the event horizon of a singularity or black hole, where it can be observed, even though it may never fully escape the gravitational field. The radius of the event horizon is only an observed effect, dependent on the distance of the observer from the singularity, where Rs (Schwarzchild radius) is the event horizon observed from a distance approaching infinity. We will show that it is possible for matter to exit from the event horizon, and be observed outside the event horizon, as has been observed in many instances. While we may not be able to observe objects under the event horizon, we may observe how objects nearer the event horizon are affected from within.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[23] **viXra:1408.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-20 12:11:24*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 13 Pages. adding new section at end of paper

The term "information" as used in physics or communication theory has a very restricted meaning in terms of entropy and "bits" of information, a definition which makes the term amenable to mathematical formulation but which robs it entirely of its usual significance in the human context of knowledge, meaning, complexity, and consequence. This is equivalent to reducing the human body to its chemical elements (for the sake of simplicity) and ignoring its biological unity and function as a specific type of living organism (because it is too complex). In these papers I am only interested in "information" in the latter complex sense. However, because the hierarchy is arranged by increasing size, its increasing information content is recognized in either case.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[22] **viXra:1408.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-06 12:20:52*

**Authors:** Sergey Kamenshchikov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Those who already faced the Trend following concept know that effective strategies of following the trend suggest dynamic stop loss level movement without profit limitation. The position is kept until the trend is changed and the order is done. With a proper choice of the market entry point the trader switches a position into the breakeven mode and thus relieves the psychological pressure. With this approach, a profit limitation is deliberately not applicable, allowing holding the position for a long time. This approach is also useful as it minimizes the commission fee calculated on the intraday basis that the trader pays to the broker. The Trend-Following strategy uses the market momentum and allows taking profit in the long-term and large-scale trends.
The natural obstacles to this strategy are the long term low volatility in the selected time frame(sideways movement), as well as systematic sudden market changes. We would like to show you
a method of pair trading with inverse spread by the example of сcomposite instruments - PCI
that allows finding new areas of sustainable trend occurrence and hedging systematic risks at the same time.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[21] **viXra:1408.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-06 13:35:55*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the numeric formulas for the Higgs boson mass. The formulas presented here are in agreement with the with the ATLAS detector's results obtained in 2014.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[20] **viXra:1408.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-30 08:47:09*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Compares the current masses of Mercury to Saturn, with the values of Le Verrier and Newcomb and recalculates the value of the deviation obtained for the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury with current masses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1408.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-06 04:15:59*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 10 pages

We determine nonlinear transformations between coordinate systems which are mutually
in a constant symmetrical accelerated motion. The maximal acceleration limit follows from
the kinematical origin. Maximal acceleration is an analogue of the maximal velocity in
special relativity. We derive the dependence of mass, length, time, Doppler effect, Cherenkov
angle and transition radiation angle on acceleration as an analogue phenomena in special
theory of relativity. The derived addition theorem for acceleration can play crucial role in
modern particle physics and cosmology

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1408.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-06 04:59:49*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Simple formulae showing how the electron's mass is linked to the Golden ratio

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] **viXra:1408.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-06 05:48:43*

**Authors:** Gunn Quznetsov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Each vector of state has its own corresponing element of the Cayley–Dickson algebra.
Properties of a state vector require that this algebra was a normalized division algebra. By the Hurwitz and Frobenius theorems maximal dimension of such algebra is 8. Consequently, a dimension of corresponding complex state vectors is 4, and a dimension of the Clifford set elements is 4x4. Such set contains 5 matrices - among them - 3 diagonal.
Hence, a dimension of the dot events space is equal to 3+1.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[16] **viXra:1408.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-05 14:17:56*

**Authors:** A.Antipin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

As a result of search of objective (settlement) methods of the analysis and forecasting of movement of the prices at a stock exchange, the fundamental role of parameter "the maximum deviation of the price from Open by the current moment sessions" (it is named "Base") has been found out.
Base use allows to present session in the form of object with the developed geometrical form-structure. Structure elements are accurately enough localised in space. Structure, as a whole, keep the configuration, at least, some months.
The object is a set of attractors to which the Price and "avoiding areas" for the Price is drawn.
The object, as a whole, has 4 measured character. It is represented in three "spatial" variables plus the coding by colour. Variables are: the transaction Price, Base, a session Present situation, Probability of the transaction to occur till the end of session. All variables have unequivocal numerical character and, thus, are strictly objective. Spatial variables set conditions of realisation of the transaction, the coding colour shows probability of the transaction.
In article the algorithm of construction of Object is given, the basic idea of practical use of Technology is described.
For today the Technology works in current session, i.e. is applicable, while, to day-trading. Use of Technology and supervision with its help behind the market, has shown high degree of conformity of a reality. It has allowed to offer qualitative model for movement of the prices.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[15] **viXra:1408.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-05 11:51:53*

**Authors:** Mark Timothy Sheldrick

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It is possible to use two particles (A and B) with entangled properties to transmit information at faster than light speeds. This can be done, not by trying to modulate the results of how particle A is measured, but by modulating whether particle A is measured or not measured. The effect of this modulating method is to place particle B in either a single value (but arbitrary) state or leave it in a superposition of states.
It is then possible for the reciever of particle B to distinguish between these two states by the use of an appropriately designed interferometer. Such a device can be designed to produce an interference pattern only when particle B is in a superposition of values and a straight simple image when particle B has a single (arbitrary) defined value.
Under the Copenhagen interpretation and existing experimental results, this method will produce a way of signalling fater than light. It will require the use of multiple entangled pairs of particles to effectively transmit a single bit of information.
Under the Multi-Worlds Interpretation, it will not be so easy to communicate faster than light by this mechanism, as detector B will be detecting photon B as a superposition of values in both cases.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1408.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-05 08:54:48*

**Authors:** Thierry Delort

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is interesting to answer to the question: What are the most important, the most general Principles in physics? Considering the importance of the Theory of Relativity and of Quantum physics, we could guess that the main Principles of those theories are also the most important in physics. But we will propose a new principle, called Principle of Anthropocentrism in Physics (PAS), that appears to be more important. Indeed we will see how all fields of physics appear to be consequences of the PAS. We then will show that an analysis of the most important Principles of physics leads to the conclusion that Universe is anthropocentric, and also that the apparition of human being was programmed since the beginning of the Universe, 15 billion years before the apparition of mankind. To end we will see the implications of the anthropocentrism of the Universe, in life science and in astrophysics.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[13] **viXra:1408.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-04 07:22:56*

**Authors:** Mende F. F.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In aircraft, especially in destroyers, the durable wings, which during the turns experience large loads. In helicopters the wings be absent, but the propeller blades, which ensure lift, it is in no way similar to the wings of aircraft. Moreover, these blades are so elastic that at rest they even sag under the dead weight. As such, it would seem, fragile wings, ensure the lift of such heavy helicopters.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[12] **viXra:1408.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-16 05:49:35*

**Authors:** Bernd Ganter

**Comments:** Paper in German language. 90 pages. Comments please to: bernd.ganter.fsk@gmx.de

This paper is about dimensions and fundamental forces in the universe, and especially the derivation of the fine structure constant, the value of which has remained unexplained for over 100 years now. The paper is the German parent document of the condensed version viXra:1405.0226 in English translation. It contains the exact calculation of the value of the fine structure constant which is 1/137.035999100.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[11] **viXra:1408.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-04 03:55:23*

**Authors:** Jacqui Finlay, Andy M. Connor, Russel Pears

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 9th International Conference on Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications

In this paper, we describe the extraction of source code metrics from the Jazz repository and the application of data mining techniques to identify the most useful of those metrics for predicting the success or failure of an attempt to construct a working instance of the software product. We present results from a systematic study using the J48 classification method. The results indicate that only a relatively small number of the available software metrics that we considered have any significance for predicting the outcome of a build. These significant metrics are discussed and implication of the results discussed, particularly the relative difficulty of being able to predict failed build attempts.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[10] **viXra:1408.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-03 19:06:47*

**Authors:** Nathan O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 20 pages, 3 figures, accepted by the Hadronic Journal

In this work, we upgrade the Inopin-Schmidt quark confinement and baryon-antibaryon duality proof with Santilli's new iso-mathematics. For a baryon-antibaryon pair confined to the six-coloring kagome lattice of the Inopin Holographic Confinement Ring (IHCR), we construct a cutting-edge procedure that iso-topically lifts the antisymmetric wavefunctions and matrices to iso-wavefunctions and iso-matrices, respectively. The initial results support our hypothesis that transitions between the energy and resonance states of the hadronic spectra may be rigorously characterized by properly-calibrated iso-topic liftings. In total, these rich developments suggest a promising future for this emerging iso-confinement framework, which must be subjected to additional scientific inquiry, scrutiny, and exploration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9] **viXra:1408.0013 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-14 22:04:22*

**Authors:** Arindam Sinha

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

A simple and intuitive alternative theory of gravity based on Mach's Principle is proposed. At any location, total gravitational potential from the Universe's matter distribution is c^{2}. This Universal background potential constitutes unit rest energy of matter and provides its unit mass, which is the essence behind E=mc^{2}. The background gravity creates a local sidereal inertial frame at every location. A velocity increases gravitational potential through net blue-shift of Universe's background gravity, causing kinematic time dilation, which is a form of gravitational time dilation. Matter and energy follow different rules of motion, as matter does not undergo Shapiro delay. As a consequence, speed of matter may exceed the speed of light. The theory is consistent with existing relativity experiments, and is falsifiable based on experiments whose predictions differ from General Relativity. The theory also explains why all the ICARUS and corrected OPERA experiments still show mean neutrino velocities slightly above speed of light (early arrival of neutrinos by 0.1-6.5ns), even after correcting the issues that had led to the original OPERA experiments to erroneously report faster than light neutrinos (early arrival by ~60ns).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1408.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-04 02:42:53*

**Authors:** Russel Pears, Jacqui Finlay, Andy M. Connor

**Comments:** 6 Pages. wenty-Sixth International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering (SEKE 2014) held at Hyatt Regency, Vancouver, Canada, 2014-07-01 to 2014-04-03

In this research we use a data stream approach to mining data and construct Decision Tree models that predict software build outcomes in terms of software metrics that are derived from source code used in the software construction process. The rationale for using the data stream approach was to track the evolution of the prediction model over time as builds are incrementally constructed from previous versions either to remedy errors or to enhance functionality. As the volume of data available for mining from the software repository that we used was limited, we synthesized new data instances through the application of the SMOTE oversampling algorithm. The results indicate that a small number of the available metrics have significance for prediction software build outcomes. It is observed that classification accuracy steadily improves after approximately 900 instances of builds have been fed to the classifier. At the end of the data streaming process classification accuracies of 80% were achieved, though some bias arises due to the distribution of data across the two classes over time.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[7] **viXra:1408.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-03 15:52:18*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

In this paper we apply our version of biquaternion math-phys to electrodynamics, especially to moving electromagnetic dipole moments. After a terminological introduction and applying the developed math-phys to the Maxwell environment, we propose to fuse the Larmor angular velocity with the Lorentz Force Law, producing the biquaternion Lorentz-Larmor Law. This might be a more economic way to deal with cyclotron and tokamak related physics, where the Lorentz Force Law and the Larmor angular velocity actively coexist. Then we propose a biquaternion formulation for the energy-torque-hidden-momentum product related to a moving electromagnetic dipole moment. This expression is then used to get a relativistically invariant force equation on moving electromagnetic dipole moments. This equation is then used to get at the force on a hidden electromagnetic dipole moment and for a derivation of the Ahanorov-Casher force on a magnetic dipole moving in an external electric field. As a conclusion we briefly relate our findings to Mansuripurs recent critique of the Lorentz Force Law and the electrodynamic expressions for the energy-momentum tensor.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[6] **viXra:1408.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-03 13:48:21*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 3 Pages. In Russian

The conclusion of Coulomb's law from the first principles of energodynamics is given, based on
non-uniform distribution of electric charge in space

**Category:** Classical Physics

[5] **viXra:1408.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-03 10:17:37*

**Authors:** Alejandro Edera, Yanela Strappa, Facundo Bromberg

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Markov networks are models for compactly representing complex probability distributions. They are composed by a structure and a set of numerical weights. The structure qualitatively describes independences in the distribution, which can be exploited to factorize the distribution into a set of compact functions. A key application for learning structures from data is to automatically discover knowledge. In practice, structure learning algorithms focused on "knowledge discovery" present a limitation: they use a coarse-grained representation of the structure. As a result, this representation cannot describe context-specific independences. Very recently, an algorithm called CSPC was designed to overcome this limitation, but it has a high computational complexity. This work tries to mitigate this downside presenting CSGS, an algorithm that uses the Grow-Shrink strategy for reducing unnecessary computations. On an empirical evaluation, the structures learned by CSGS achieve competitive accuracies and lower computational complexity with respect to those obtained by CSPC.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[4] **viXra:1408.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-06 16:04:19*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 134 Pages.

Almost a century ago Stern-Gerlach laid important foundations for quantum mechanics. Based on these, Bell formulated a model of local hidden variables, which is supposed to describe "all possible ways" in which classical systems can generate results, but Bell did not consider one possibility in which classical behavior leads to quantum results. Bell buried the key fact needed to challenge his logic: the ø-dependence of two energy modes: rotation and deflection. An *Energy-Exchange theorem* is presented and proved: if dø/dt is not equal to zero, the implied time-evolution will affect expectation values and the essentially classical mechanism yields quantum correlations *-a·b*. Analysis of the spin-component measurement brings Bell's counterfactual logic into question. I show that Watson’s formal linking of time-evolution operator to measurement operation addresses Bell's stated concerns about *measurement* in quantum mechanics and produces the *-a·b* correlation. Our results, restricted to particle spin, have wider implications, including relevance to the ontic versus epistemic issues currently debated in the literature. The suggested formalism extends beyond Stern-Gerlach to other quantum mechanical processes characterized by a 'jump' or 'collapse of the wave function'.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1408.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-02 01:48:13*

**Authors:** Russell Letkeman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We study the spacings of numbers co-prime to an even consecutive product of primes, P_m\# and its structure exposed by the fundamental theorem of prime sieving (FTPS). We extend this to prove some parts of the Hardy-Littlewood general prime density conjecture for all finite multiplicative groups modulo a primorial. We then use the FTPS to prove such groups have gap spacings which form arithmetic progressions as long as we wish. We also establish their densities and provide prescriptions to find them.

**Category:** Number Theory

[2] **viXra:1408.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-03 17:28:46*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

The paper presents a relativistic extension of Newton’s mechanics, termed Newtonian Relativity, and utilizes it to infer the state of the observable universe. The theory is successful in making significant predictions regarding the accelerating nature of the universe, its composition of matter, dark matter and dark energy, and regarding the time-line of the evolution of chemical elements. The theory yields simple expressions for the dynamics of normal matter, dark matter, kinetic energy and dark energy, in their dependence on redshift. It also yields simple expressions for the prediction of Ω_matter and Ω_Λ for any given redshift range. Predictions from these expressions are compared with observations based ΛCDM cosmologies. Strikingly, the theoretical distribution of the kinetic energy density in the universe is bell shaped and symmetrical around the famous Golden Ratio. With regard to the evolutionary time-line of chemical elements, the theory predicts that the chemical elements may have been formed twice: first, in massive galaxy structures at the early universe, and second, in young galaxies in the recent history of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1408.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-01 05:16:54*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make two conjectures, one about how could be expressed a prime of the form 6k + 1 and one about how could be expressed a prime of the form 6k – 1.

**Category:** Number Theory