[378] **viXra:1609.0439 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-30 14:40:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21]
Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20]
Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19]
Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18]
An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[377] **viXra:1609.0438 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-30 10:18:29*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Thoughts and gravity have common roots. Gravity changes your thoughts, and your thoughts change gravity. How ? According to current, widespread understanding, measurable thoughts are electromagnetic signals of the brain. We made a very simple experiment with force of thought using a paper wheel. We concluded that the energy carried by thoughts (expressed in frequency of energy wave) was eight orders of magnitude beyond the highest frequencies of the brain’s electric waves. The brain’s electromagnetic signal doesn’t explain all effects of thought, it is just a part of measurable thought. Thought is a gravity-like force. According to the General theory of Relativity, gravity is the deformation of space-time. With this definition, however, we can only partially account for the peculiarities of the force of thought. For a complete understanding, we must redefine the concept of gravity; and for this, we must broaden our concept of the "space-time" conceptual system. This broader version can be described as "space-matter" model. Gravity can be regarded as changes in the frequencies of space waves. Thought manifests itself as a gravity-like force, as a new fundamental force. This new force can be given as the changes in the frequencies of space waves, too.
Using thought force is possible in our daily practice, too. We can build devices and create methods that are run by thought force.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[376] **viXra:1609.0436 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-30 07:30:59*

**Authors:** Manoj K. Jaiswal, Avijit K. Ganguly

**Comments:** 3 Pages. A short report

We study the dynamics of photon-scalar interaction (mixing) by operators of mass dimension five
(predicted in numerous theories, beyond standard model), in various kinds of media. Our main
objectives are to study medium specific modifications to the mixing dynamics of of photons with
pseudoscalar (axion a(x)) and scalar e.g., dilaton , moduli etc. (denoted by φ(x)) dark matter
candidates. We look into spectro-polarimetric as well as oscillation aspects of the same and their
possible astrophysical consequences.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[375] **viXra:1609.0435 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-30 07:27:41*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Hundreds of tiny samples of unconventional superconductors called heavy fermions had to be aligned and glued onto aluminum plates for imaging in inelastic neutron scattering experiments. [29] In a recent breakthrough, scientists at the Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory got one step closer to understanding how to make that possible. The research, led by physicist Ivan Bozovic, involves a class of compounds called cuprates, which contain layers of copper and oxygen atoms. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[374] **viXra:1609.0434 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-30 07:27:38*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Using Hall and Reginatto’s condition for a Wheeler De Witt Equation for a Friedman – Walker metric coupled to a (Inflaton) scalar field, we delineate the outer boundary of the value of a scale factor a(t) for quantum effects, in an expanding universe. The inflaton field is from Padamanabhan’s reference, “ An Invitation to Astrophysics” which yields a nonstandard Potential U(a,phi) which will lead to an algebraic expression for a(t) for the value of the outer boundary of quantum effects in the universe. Afterwards, using the expression a(t)= a(initial) times [t(time)] ^ alpha, with alpha given different values, we give an estimation as to a time, t(time) which is roughly the boundary of the range of quantum effects. How this is unusual? We use the Wheeler De Witt Equation, as a coupling to a given inflaton field, phi, and from there find a different way as to delineate a time regime for the range of quantum effects in an expanding universe

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[373] **viXra:1609.0433 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-30 07:45:49*

**Authors:** G. P. Zhang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Analyze the data of orbital semimajor axes and periods of planets in 5-planet systems, and prove the laws of orbital semimajor axes and periods of exoplanets. Link the laws with the orbital semimajor axis and the period of the pseudo-planet orbiting a star at its surface with Keplerian velocity. Apply the laws to predict the position of unknown exoplanets and to calculate the unknown orbital semimajor axes of known exoplanets, such as those of Kepler-20, Kepler-102, Kepler-122, Kepler-154, Kepler-238, Kepler-55, Kepler-84, and HIP 41378’s known planets. Propose that the original reason of the laws is that planets were born from periodic bursts of stars in their youth. Point out the possible mistakes in papers about Kepler-186.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[372] **viXra:1609.0432 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-30 07:57:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Researchers have used the pressure of light—also called optical forces or sometimes "tractor beams"—to create a new type of rewritable, dynamic 3D holographic material. Unlike other 3D holographic materials, the new material can be rapidly written and erased many times, and can also store information without using any external energy. The new material has potential applications in 3D holographic displays, large-scale volumetric data storage devices, biosensors, tunable lasers, optical lenses, and metamaterials. [21]
Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20]
Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19]
Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18]
An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[371] **viXra:1609.0431 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-30 08:24:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

The race towards quantum computing is heating up. Faster, brighter, more exacting – these are all terms that could be applied as much to the actual science as to the research effort going on in labs around the globe. [16]
For the first time, scientists now have succeeded in placing a complete quantum optical structure on a chip, as outlined Nature Photonics. This fulfills one condition for the use of photonic circuits in optical quantum computers. [15]
The intricately sculpted device made by Paul Barclay and his team of physicists is so tiny it can only be seen under a microscope. But their diamond microdisk could lead to huge advances in computing, telecommunications, and other fields. [14]
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13]
One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12]
Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]
Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10]
We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[370] **viXra:1609.0430 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-30 03:32:35*

**Authors:** H.S. Dhaliwal

**Comments:** Pages. Correction: when I refer to "doppler affect", I am also referring to the cosmological redshift

The redshift anomaly is key to understanding dark energy. Unfortunately anomalous redshifts have largely been ignored and require further study. "If we find in observation that the Hubble redshift relationship is subject to notable exceptions, which certainly appears to be the case, it is to be hoped that they would attract careful scrutiny. Just one such exception, reasonably verified, would suffice to cast doubt upon the reliability of redshift/distance theory, with far reaching consequences for astrophysics" (Ratcliffe H., 2010, Journal of Cosmology). This paper will explain the cause of the redshift anomaly and then apply the newfound knowledge to the galaxies in the observable universe. NGC 7603 is one example of a redshift anomaly with a discordant redshift system. The objects in the system that have high-z values are in the process of gaining/accreting mass at a high rate relative to their companions at time of observation which causes the anomaly. Applying this knowledge to galactic objects, as matter condenses, the gravity well will "deepen" or strengthen which has the effect of red shifting photons in accordance with the gravity well's rate of strengthening. Thus the observed redshift of any galaxy isn't solely based on the Doppler effect but also the rate of change of the galaxy's gravitational well. The further the look back time, the younger the galaxy is, the faster its mass is increasing, the faster its gravity well is strengthening, the higher the z-value observed will be. The implications of this interpretation is dark energy is either non existent or is overestimated when the proposed phenomenon isn't taken into account when measuring z-values. It is also plausible the universe is static or contracting while still retaining higher redshifts the further we look due to the nature of the look back time. Conversely, when an object is in the process of losing mass, its gravity well shallows which blue shifts photons. Numerous observations that support the hypothesis are provided in the paper. Several tests to prove the hypothesis are described also.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[369] **viXra:1609.0429 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-01 21:49:02*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 16 Pages. 5 Figures; Include Chinese version

I proposed a new method to detect the neutrinos. The characteristic of this new method is to make use of the interactions between electron and neutrino. These interactions will produce the W bosons and etc. The produced W bosons will decay to pairs of lepton and neutrino. Then we only need to detect the leptons produced by W bosons to make sure how many neutrinos had arrived.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[368] **viXra:1609.0428 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-29 23:33:55*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Global emergence of Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) displays a mechanism of resistance to all existing antimicrobials. Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial sensitivity pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions and biotype number of A. baumannii. A. baumannii cells were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 19606) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocols until needed for experiments. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. ATCC-A sample was revived and divided into two parts i.e. Gr.I (control) and Gr.II (revived) analyzed on day 5 and 10, respectively; likewise, ATCC-B was labeled as Gr.III (lyophilized) and was assessed on day 10. Gr.II and III were treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield and were analyzed for its antimicrobial sensitivity, MIC value, biochemical reactions and biotype number with respect to control. Experimental results showed the impact of biofield treatment directly onto the revived and lyophilized form of A. baumannii and found alteration both in qualitative and quantitative aspect as compared with untreated groups. These results showed altered sensitivity pattern of antimicrobials in biofield treated group as compared to control. Apart from altered MIC values, changes were also observed in biotype number of revived treated group as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment can prevent the emergence of absolute resistance of existing antimicrobials to A. baumannii.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[367] **viXra:1609.0427 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-29 23:35:08*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) is widespread in nature, mainly found in soil, water, and the flora of human gastrointestinal tract. The current study was attempted to investigate the effects of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on P. mirabilis both in lyophilized as well as revived state for antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical characteristics, and biotype. P. mirabilis cells were procured from MicroBioLogics Inc., USA, in a sealed pack bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 25933) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocol until needed for experiments. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. The ATCC A sample was revived and divided into two parts Gr.I (control) and Gr.II (revived); likewise, the ATCC B was labeled as Gr.III (lyophilized). Group II and III were given with biofield treatment. All experimental parameters were studied using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The result of antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration showed 6.67% and 9.38% alteration, respectively in treated cells of P. mirabilis as compared to the control. In addition, the overall biochemical reactions were significantly altered (42.42%) in the treated groups with respect to the control. Moreover, biotype number was changed in the treated cells, Gr. II, day 5 (40061546) and day 10 (77365764), while without alteration of organism as compared to the control (40061544; Proteus mirabilis). The results suggested that biofield treatment has an impact on P. mirabilis in revived state predominately.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[366] **viXra:1609.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-29 13:42:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In a recent breakthrough, scientists at the Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory got one step closer to understanding how to make that possible. The research, led by physicist Ivan Bozovic, involves a class of compounds called cuprates, which contain layers of copper and oxygen atoms. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[365] **viXra:1609.0425 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-27 10:44:46*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A polynomial equation in six variables is given that generalises the definition of regular rational Diophantine triples, quadruples and quintuples to regular rational Diophantine sextuples. The definition can be used to extend a rational Diophantine quintuple to a weak rational Diophantine sextuple. In some cases a regular sextuple is a full rational Diophantine sextuple. Ten examples of this are provided.

**Category:** Number Theory

[364] **viXra:1609.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-29 12:05:28*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A logical proof is provided to prove that planet formation is a mass loss phenomenon.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[363] **viXra:1609.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-29 12:06:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Solid state physics offers a rich variety of intriguing phenomena, several of which are not yet fully understood. Experiments with fermionic atoms in optical lattices get very close to imitating the behaviour of electrons in solid state crystals, thus forming a well-controlled quantum simulator for these systems. Now a team of scientists around Professor Immanuel Bloch and Dr. Christian Groß at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics have observed the emergence of antiferromagnetic order over a correlation length of several lattice sites in a chain of fermionic atoms. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[362] **viXra:1609.0422 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-11 10:11:21*

**Authors:** Michaele Suisse, Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages.

The role of the anomalous moment in the geometric algebra of proton topological mass generation suggests that the anomaly is not an intrinsic property of the free space proton, but rather a topological effect of applying the electromagnetic bias field required to define the eigenstates probed by the magnetic moment measurement. Quantum interpretations strive to explain emergence of the world we observe from formal quantum theory. This variant on the canonical measurement problem is examined in the larger context of quantum interpretations.
A more detailed presentation of this content may be found here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uyM4cZgSprI

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[361] **viXra:1609.0421 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-29 08:00:08*

**Authors:** Emshanov Dima

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This article contains a description representing the logical formula 3-SAT as a conjunction of two polynomial logical formulas.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[360] **viXra:1609.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-29 08:20:02*

**Authors:** Reuven Ianconescu, Vladimir Vulfin

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

There are three kind of losses in transmission lines: ohmic, dielectric and radiation losses. While the first two are local phenomena which are easy to model, the radiation losses lack a simple model. This work analyzes the radiation losses from two conductors transmission lines in free space, and derives a radiation model within the RLCG transmission lines model.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[359] **viXra:1609.0419 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-29 05:28:28*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In earlier papers the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s thought intervention through biofield in his physical presence on the atomic, crystalline and particle characteristics of first series of transition metal powders, group four metals and carbon allotropes are discussed. In the present paper we demonstrate this unusual effect on sieve size distribution, apparent density and flow of several metal powders under PM plant conditions.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[358] **viXra:1609.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-29 05:31:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

An international team of scientists has learned how to determine the spatial structure of a protein obtained with an X-ray laser using the sulfur atoms it contains. This development is the next stage in the project of a group led by Vadim Cherezov to create an effective method of studying receptor proteins. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[357] **viXra:1609.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-29 05:31:30*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is an organosulfur compound having sulfonyl functional group. It is occurred naturally in some primitive plants and used in disease related to chronic pain, inflammation, and arthritis. This study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal, and spectral properties of MSM. The study was performed in two groups viz. the control group was remained as untreated, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. After that, both the control and treated samples were analyzed using surface area analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysisderivative thermogravimetry (TGA-DTG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The surface area analysis exhibited a significant decrease in the surface area of treated sample by 22.96% as compared to the control. The XRD analysis showed the significant increase in average crystallite size by 49.20% in the treated sample with respect to the control. The DSC analysis showed the significant increase (67.20%) in latent heat of fusion of treated sample with respect to the control. The TGA analysis showed the onset temperature of thermal degradation at 170°C in the control sample that was slightly decreased to 168.05°C after biofield treatment. Moreover, the Tmax (maximum thermal degradation temperature) was also decreased slightly from 186.66°C (control) to 183.38°C (treated). This indicated the early phase of vaporization in treated sample as compared to the control. The FT-IR spectroscopic study exhibited the alteration in wavenumber of S=O group that suggests the effect of biofield treatment on force constant and bond strength of MSM molecules.

**Category:** Chemistry

[356] **viXra:1609.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-29 05:32:47*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Carbazole is a class of phytochemical associated with cancer prevention. It attracted a significant interest in recent time for their usefulness in synthetic heterocyclic chemistry, analytical chemistry and pharmacology. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on carbazole by various analytical methods. The study was performed in two groups i.e. control and treatment. The treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, both the samples were characterized with respect to physical and structural properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), laser particle size analyzer, and surface area analyzer. The XRD study revealed that the crystallite size of treated carbazole was decreased significantly with 37.5% as compared to the control. In addition, the intensity of XRD peaks was slightly decreased as compared to the control. The latent heat of fusion (ΔH) of treated carbazole was substantially increased by 253.6% as compared to the control. Maximum degradation temperature (Tmax) of treated carbazole was increased by 41.46°C as compared to the control (211.93°C to 253.39°C). FT-IR spectra showed similar stretching frequencies in both control and treated carbazole samples. GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance ratio of either 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) of treated carbazole was significantly increased up to 278.59%. Particle size analysis showed substantial decrease in average particle size (d50) and d90 of the treated carbazole by 25.24% and 4.31%, respectively as compared to the control. The surface area analysis exhibited an increase in the surface area of treated sample by 4.8% as compared to the control. Overall, the experimental results suggest that biofield energy treatment has significant effect on physical, spectral and thermal properties of carbazole.

**Category:** Chemistry

[355] **viXra:1609.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-29 07:20:50*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

A unique new imaging method, called "polarized nuclear imaging" – combining powerful aspects of both magnetic resonance imaging and gamma-ray imaging and developed by physicists in the University of Virginia's departments of Physics and Radiology – has potential for new types of high-resolution medical diagnostics as well as industrial and physics research applications. [12] An international team of scientists has learned how to determine the spatial structure of a protein obtained with an X-ray laser using the sulfur atoms it contains. This development is the next stage in the project of a group led by Vadim Cherezov to create an effective method of studying receptor proteins. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[354] **viXra:1609.0413 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-29 02:24:59*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Fungi are the group of eukaryotic organisms such as yeast, mold, and mushrooms. The present work investigated the impact of biofield treatment on different pathogenic species of fungi in relation to antifungal sensitivity pattern. Each fungal sample was divided into three parts: C, control; T1, treatment (revived); T2 treatment (lyophilized). Treatment groups received the biofield treatment, and control group was remained as untreated. Mini-API ID32C strip employed for evaluation of antifungal sensitivity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results showed that sensitivity of Candida albicans in T1 cells was changed against itraconazole from intermediate (I) to resistance (R) on day 10. The Candida kefyr exhibited a change in susceptibility against itraconazole in T2 cell from S→I, on day 10. Likewise, Candida krusei showed the alterations in sensitivity against two antifungal drugs: fluconazole from S→I (T1 on day 10) and itraconazole S→I (T1 and T2 on all assessment days). The Cryptococcus neoformans changed from S→I in T1 cell on day 5 and 10, against itraconazole. Sensitivity of Candida tropicalis was also altered from I→R against flucytosine (T1 and T2, on all assessment days). Similarly, Saccharomyces cerevisae altered from S→I (T1) and S→R (T2) on day 10. The MIC values of antifungal drugs were altered in the range of 2-8 folds, as compared to the control. Fungal identification data showed the significant changes in species similarity of few tested fungi as C. albicans changed from 91.9% to 98.5 and 99.9% in T1 and T2 cells, respectively on day 10. C. krusei was changed from 97.9% to 85.9% (T2 day 10), and C. tropicalis was altered from 88.7% to 99.6% (T1 day 5) and 99.0% (T2). These findings suggest that biofield treatment could be applied to alter the susceptibility pattern of antifungal drug therapy in future.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[353] **viXra:1609.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-29 02:34:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Single neutral atoms trapped individually in optical microtraps are incredibly useful tools for studying quantum physics, as the atoms then exist in complete isolation from the environment. Arrays of optical microtraps containing single atoms could enable quantum logic devices, quantum information processing, and quantum simulation. [21]
In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18]
An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[352] **viXra:1609.0410 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-28 18:58:44*

**Authors:** G.P. Zhang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Analyze the data of orbital semimajor axes and periods of planets in extrasolar multi-planets systems, and discover the laws of orbital semimajor axes and periods of exoplanets. Link the laws with the orbital semimajor axis and the period of the pseudo-planet orbiting a star at its surface with Keplerian velocity. Apply the laws to predict the position of unknown exoplanets and to calculate the unknown orbital semimajor axes of known exoplanets, such as those of Kepler-20 and Kepler-102’s known planets. Propose that the original reason of the laws is that planets were born from periodic bursts of stars in their youth. The strong stellar wind near the stars pushed them away to their present orbits.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[351] **viXra:1609.0409 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-28 13:33:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

New findings by a UCLA-led international team of researchers answer a fundamental question about our space environment and will help scientists develop methods to protect valuable telecommunication and navigation satellites. [12] A small team of researchers with Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München and the Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics, both in Germany has successfully demonstrated a means for shaping electron beams in time through interactions with terahertz electromagnetic fields. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[350] **viXra:1609.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-28 08:16:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Scientists have, for the first time, identified a method of visualizing the quantum behaviour of electrons on a surface. The findings present a promising step forward towards being able to manipulate and control the behaviour of high energy, or 'hot', electrons. [18] Physicists have proposed what they believe to be the first method to control the transport of energy at the level of single energy quanta (which are mostly phonons). They show that it's theoretically possible to control the flow of single energy quanta through a quantum magnet using lasers with carefully controlled frequencies and intensities. [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[349] **viXra:1609.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-28 08:41:24*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 18 Pages. 18

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of
elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles.
In Quantum Function Follows FormModel, the Higgs is interpreted as a massless
transformer particle able to create the universe by transforming its shape after real mechanical
collision and merge with other shaped particles into complex and compound knots.
What are the main differences with the standard model?
1, A Fermion repelling- and producing electric dark matter black hole.
2, An electric dark matter black hole splitting Big Bang with a 12x distant symmetric
instant entangled raspberry multiverse result, each with copy Lyman Alpha forests.
3, Fermions are real propeller shaped rigid convertible strings with dual spin and also
instant multiverse entanglement ( Charge Parity symmetric) .
4, The vacuum is a dense tetrahedral shaped lattice with dual oscillating massless Higgs
particles ( dark energy).
5, All particles have consciousness by their instant entanglement relation between 12
copy universes, however, humans have about 500 m.sec retardation to veto an act. (
Benjamin Libet)

**Category:** Astrophysics

[348] **viXra:1609.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-28 08:59:01*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 pages

It is revealed with mathematical justification that the Lorentz transformation is actually limited to events with coordinates satisfying the light speed space-time relation (i.e., x = ct). It is therefore shown that applying the LT on certain events while maintaining the above limitation, leads to mathematical contradictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[347] **viXra:1609.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-28 04:54:05*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Experience is a process of awareness and mastery of facts or events, gained through actual observation or second-hand
knowledge. Recent findings reinforce the idea that a naturalized epistemological approach is needed to further advance
our understanding of the nervous mechanisms underlying experience. This essay is an effort to build a coherent
topological-based framework able to elucidate particular aspects of experience, e.g., how it is acquired by a single
individual, transmitted to others and collectively stored in form of general ideas. Taking into account concepts from
neuroscience, algebraic topology and Richard Avenarius’ philosophical analytical approach, we provide a scheme
which is cast in an empirically testable fashion. In particular, we emphasize the foremost role of variants of the Borsuk-
Ulam theorem, which tells us that, when a pair of opposite (antipodal) points on a sphere are mapped onto a single point
in Euclidean space, the projection provides a description of both antipodal points. These antipodes stand for nervous
functions and activities of the brain correlated with the mechanisms of acquisition and transmission of experience.

**Category:** Mind Science

[346] **viXra:1609.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-28 05:56:22*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 11 Pages. A first step to an effective Grand Unification Theory

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[345] **viXra:1609.0403 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-28 04:35:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

For the first time, scientists now have succeeded in placing a complete quantum optical structure on a chip, as outlined Nature Photonics. This fulfills one condition for the use of photonic circuits in optical quantum computers. [15]
The intricately sculpted device made by Paul Barclay and his team of physicists is so tiny it can only be seen under a microscope. But their diamond microdisk could lead to huge advances in computing, telecommunications, and other fields. [14]
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13]
One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12]
Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]
Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10]
We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[344] **viXra:1609.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-28 04:41:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Now, a team of scientists in Japan may have overcome this obstacle. Using laser light, they have developed a precise, continuous control technology giving 60 times more success than previous efforts in sustaining the lifetime of "qubits," the unit that quantum computers encode. [16]
Physicists at the Australian National University (ANU) have brought quantum computing a step closer to reality by stopping light in a new experiment. [15]
The intricately sculpted device made by Paul Barclay and his team of physicists is so tiny it can only be seen under a microscope. But their diamond microdisk could lead to huge advances in computing, telecommunications, and other fields. [14]
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13]
One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12]
Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]
Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10]
We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[343] **viXra:1609.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-28 04:42:00*

**Authors:** James F Peters, Arturo Tozzi, Sheela Ramanna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

During the exploration of the surrounding environment, the brain links together external inputs in a complex of sensations, giving rise to the perception of a persisting object. During imaginative processes, the same object can be recalled in mind even if it is out of sight. Here, Borsuk’s theory of shape and the Borsuk-Ulam theorem provide a mathematical foundation for Gibson’s notion of persistence perception. Real-scene visual signals are collectively the umbra of physical shapes impinging on the optic nerves, which we map to similar shape representations. We show how Gibson’s ecological theory of perception accounts for our knowledge of world objects by borrowing a concept of invariance in topology. A series of transformations can be endlessly and gradually applied to a pattern, in particular to the shape of an object, without affecting its invariant properties, such as connectedness and boundedness of parts of a visual scene. In sum, high-level representations of objects in our environment are mapped to simplified views (our interpretations) of the objects, in order to construct a symbolic representation of the environment. The fact that our perception of an object continues even when it is out of sight, can be explained by viewing regions on a sphere surface as multiple representations of object shapes. The representations can be projected continuously to an ecological object that we have seen and continue to see, thanks to the mapping from shapes in our memory to shapes in Euclidean space.

**Category:** Mind Science

[342] **viXra:1609.0400 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-27 14:04:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Physicists at the Australian National University (ANU) have brought quantum computing a step closer to reality by stopping light in a new experiment. [15] The intricately sculpted device made by Paul Barclay and his team of physicists is so tiny it can only be seen under a microscope. But their diamond microdisk could lead to huge advances in computing, telecommunications, and other fields. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode,

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[341] **viXra:1609.0398 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-26 15:46:30*

**Authors:** BERKOUK Mohamed

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Ceci est une démonstration de la conjecture de C.Goldbach émise en 1742 , aussi bien la faible que la forte , elle repose essentiellement sur le théorème fondamentale des nombres premiers , ...la démarche consiste à démontrer pour chaque pair ou impair l’existence d’au moins un couplet ou un triplet dont les éléments sont premiers qui répondent aux deux énoncés de la conjecture à savoir la Sommation et la primalité des ses éléments, ...et que plus ce nombre pair ou impair est grand , plus le nombre de couplets ou triplets premiers est grand .

**Category:** Number Theory

[340] **viXra:1609.0397 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-27 16:38:02*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Rebooting Einstein's ideas about local-causality, an engineer brings local-causality to quantum theory via operators and variables in 3-space. Taking realism to be the view that external reality exists and has definite properties, his core principle is common-sense local realism (CLR): the union of local-causality (no causal influence propagates superluminally) and physical-realism (some physical properties change interactively). Endorsing Einstein-separability — system X is independent of what is done with system Y that is spatially separated from X — Bell's famous mission is advanced. That is, by means of parameters λ, a more complete specification of EPRB's physics is successful. A consequent locally-causal refutation of Bell's theorem allows EPRB correlations to be explained in a classical way, in line with Einstein's ideas, without reference to Hilbert space, quantum states, etc. Conclusion: Bell's theorem is based on a mathematical error; an error in reduction is inconsistent with Bell's opening assumptions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[339] **viXra:1609.0396 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-03 05:52:05*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. In three parts due to length. Adding closing statement.

The four forces of physics are considered in terms of the broken symmetry of our "matter only" Universe

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[338] **viXra:1609.0395 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-29 03:42:57*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Cite: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Understanding Today's Science with Help from Special Relativity and General Relativity. figshare. https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3863556.v2 Retrieved: 08 20, Sep 29, 2016 (GMT)

This article began to take shape in my mind when I read an item in Astronomy magazine. That item mentioned how timing by GPS (the Global Positioning System) requires input from both Special Relativity - where time slows down fractionally because the satellites in orbit are fast-moving – and General Relativity, where the satellites' distance from Earth's gravity causes their time to speed up fractionally. This led to the conclusions that 1) the gravitational waves making up the gravity field are, as Einstein suggested in a paper written four years after publication of the general theory, involved in production of mass, 2) these waves participate with the other long-range force, electromagnetism, to also produce the two nuclear forces associated with the mass (making nuclear forces non-fundamental and the Higgs force another name for gravitational-electromagnetic coupling), 3) black holes are composed of gravitational and electromagnetic waves focused on them from deep space, and this accounts for their extreme gravity as well as extreme mass, 4) there's a link between the macroscopic black holes of astronomy and the subatomic gluons of particle physics, and 5) Einstein's contributions don't end with the two Relativities, or even the paper written 4 years after the general theory, but can be extended to his Unified Field Theory.
His Unified Field might not be generally accepted today because it was incomplete, just as he described quantum mechanics as incomplete. In 1957, Charles Misner and John Wheeler, in the “Annals of Physics”, claimed Albert Einstein’s latest equations demonstrated the unified field theory. However, the necessary completion of the unified field may not exclusively lie with the mathematics Einstein seemed to increasingly rely on as he aged but with concepts in computer science as well as intuitions in the mathematical branch called topology. Computer science's binary digits (bits) result from apparently random Virtual Particles that conceal Chaos theory's "order within disorder". These bits are encoded in programs taking the form of topology's Mobius strips, and these combine into four-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottles that make particles sensible (bottles affect every sense and scientific probe because the pulses forming them also form the complete properties of the Gravitational-ElectroMagnetic Field). The bottles also explain space-time's positive and negative curvatures, as well as the flatness of infinity/eternity. Einstein was a Superman at exploring new ideas in his youth. Had electronic computers been invented 30 or 40 years earlier, it appears likely we’d be living with the fruits of the unified field now.
PS
This article also mentions Hawking radiation, spin, superconductivity, imaginary time, complex number plane, quark-gluon plasma, antigraviton, shape of space, tachyons, dark energy, dark matter, antimatter, etc.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[337] **viXra:1609.0394 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-28 00:48:41*

**Authors:** George Kirakosyan

**Comments:** 263 pages with the appendix, Russian language

В книге даются вразумительные ответы на дискуссионные, глобальные вопросы физики относящиеся к сущности элементарных частиц, феномена гравитации, физического смысла квантовых и релятивистских теорий. Нынешнее кризисное состояние в проблемных разделах физики и неутихающая критика в ее адрес представлены в книге, как следствия неэффективной аналитической методологии и отсутствия единой базовой концепции. Старая проблема физической науки, дуализм в законах природы (причинных и квантовых), объясняется произвольностью интерпретации соответствующего круга явлений. Показывается путь ее решения и концептуального объединения, искусственно разделенных ныне, двух частей фундаментальной науки - классической и формальной физики. Вырисовывающаяся в книге картина мировосприятия основывается на естественных суждениях и отчетливых количественных соображениях, приводящих к логически завершенному мировоззрению. Представленные пояснения и простые решения выглядят неожиданными, вопреки бытующему убеждению о чрезвычайной сложности фундаментальных задач физики. Внятная трактовка изучаемых вопросов, с реалистической точки зрения, глубоко отличается от современных формальных теорий, основанных на разобщенных, абстрактных гипотезах.
С учетом большого количества решенных задач фундаментального значения и конкретные результаты, представленный труд может оказаться востребованным как среди оппозиционно настроенных мыслителей, так и в официальной науке.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[336] **viXra:1609.0393 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-28 01:15:43*

**Authors:** Sattawat Suntisurat

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper describe about the elementary proof of FLT by using the graph and irrational number (complete)

**Category:** General Mathematics

[335] **viXra:1609.0392 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-14 07:36:56*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: show the viewpoint with regards to the origin of our Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[334] **viXra:1609.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-27 07:36:35*

**Authors:** Rainer W. Kühne

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Published in: Proceedings of the Conference "On the Origin of Life", 7 August 2015, London, United Kingdom

Earth and Moon were formed 4.6 billion years ago by the collision of the two protoplanets Gaia and Theia. Afterwards the Earth formed a crust where colliding comets provided the water of the oceans. This Hadean Eon was terminated 3.9 billion years ago during the Late Heavy Bombardment when an eccentric orbit of Jupiter caused a bombardment of the Earth by asteroids. Soon thereafter, 3.8 billion years ago, there is geochemical evidence of terrestrial life which performed photosynthesis. The terrestrial life witnessed and survived several cataclysms including the snowball Earth 760 to 580 million years ago, an ice age 440 million years ago which was possibly caused by a gamma-ray burst, and an asteroid impact 65 million years ago which generated the Chicxulub crater and contributed to the extinction of the dinosaurs. The 1908 Tunguska explosion was caused by a small stony asteroid. Amino acids, purines, pyrimidines and sugars, but no proteins, nucleotides or extraterrestrial unicellular organisms were detected in meteorites. This argues against the hypothesis of panspermia. The synthesis of amino acids, small peptides, purines and pyrimidine ribonucleotides under conditions of the primitive Earth (Stanley Miller experiments) and the polymerization of RNA nucleotides on clay minerals suggests that viroids and an RNA world could have existed during the Hadean Eon.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[333] **viXra:1609.0390 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-27 09:47:13*

**Authors:** Kirana Kumara P

**Comments:** 8 Pages. This is the complete specification for the application filed for Indian patent (the patent application filed on September 17, 2016; application number: 201641031739).

The present invention relates to a surgical simulator that may be used to train surgeons for minimally invasive surgery. The simulator makes use of the Boundary Element Method together with a simulation approach that was proposed in an academic paper authored by this inventor. Moreover, the simulator makes use of the boundary element codes developed by this inventor. The simulator consists of a computer screen, a keyboard, a mouse, a haptic device, and a multicore CPU. The simulator would include the geometry of representative human kidney and human liver. The simulator has provisions for moving and changing the orientation of the liver and the kidney, and detecting the collision between the liver or the kidney and the mouse pointer. The simulator also has provisions for interactively displaying the deformed shape of the liver or the kidney, depending on the position of the mouse pointer (mouse cursor (pointer) represents the tip of surgical tools). The simulator can be used to train surgeons in the following tasks: eye-hand coordination, manipulating 3D objects while deformation of the objects is observed on 2D screens.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[332] **viXra:1609.0389 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-27 06:09:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The intricately sculpted device made by Paul Barclay and his team of physicists is so tiny it can only be seen under a microscope. But their diamond microdisk could lead to huge advances in computing, telecommunications, and other fields. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[331] **viXra:1609.0388 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-27 06:51:59*

**Authors:** Ranjeet Dalal

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Taking the clues from the recently observed phenomena like correlated neutron-proton ejection from nuclei by energetic e-/protons, EMC effect and inconsistent assumptions of liquid drop and shell models for the same set of nuclei (for explanation of different nuclear properties), a unified approach for the nuclear structure was suggested by the author [1]. In the proposed approach, instead of freely moving individual neutrons/protons, nucleons exist in the form of tightly bound np and npn (and pnp also for proton rich nuclei) quasi-particles, which move in overall Coulomb well due to all other quasi-particles. The proposed approach was found to be very useful in understanding many unexplained phenomena [1]. Now, the existence of np and npn quasi-particles is found to be strongly confirmed by the presence of magic numbers across the periodic table where many stable nuclei with different atomic number are found to be have same number of np and npn. For example, there are 30 different stable (or most stable isotope of nuclei with no stable isotope) nuclei with different Z having the magic number of 38 np, 20 nuclei with the magic number of 32 np and 16 with magic number of 40 np.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[330] **viXra:1609.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 17:14:28*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 74 Pages.

We summarize how the Lorentz Force motion observed in classical electrodynamics may be understood as geodesic motion derived by minimizing the variation of the proper time along the worldlines of test charges in external potentials, while the spacetime metric remains invariant under, and all other fields in spacetime remain independent of, any rescaling, i.e., re-gauging of the charge-to-mass ratio q/m. In order for this to occur, time is dilated or contracted due to repulsive and attractive electromagnetic interactions respectively, in very much the same way that time is dilated due to relative motion in special relativity and due to gravitational fields in general relativity, without contradicting the well-corroborated experimental content of standard electrodynamic theory and both special and general relativity. As such, it becomes possible to lay an entirely geometrodynamic foundation for classical electrodynamics in four spacetime dimensions, in which mechanical motions and objects are merely promoted into canonical motions and objects in accordance with well-established local symmetry principles. Further, when we consider the self-interactions of individual leptons understood to be responsible for the magnetic moment anomalies, and upon identifying a universal relation between time and energy whereby all forms of energy dilate (or contract) time regardless of their kinetic or interaction origin, it is shown how these magnetic moment anomalies which are quintessential hallmarks of quantum field theory, both measure and empirically validate electromagnetic time dilation, and are a direct and immediate consequence of local abelian and non-abelian gauge symmetries.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[329] **viXra:1609.0385 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 20:12:14*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that since stars are not hot enough to engage fusion reactions, it is reasoned that electrostatic pressure from extremely ionized stars makes them really large.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[328] **viXra:1609.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 21:46:39*

**Authors:** Bing He, Long Li

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper we give a finite field analogue of one of the Appell series and obtain some transformation and reduction formulae and the generating functions for the Appell series over finite fields.

**Category:** Number Theory

[327] **viXra:1609.0383 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-01 23:01:09*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

Beal conjecture has been proved on a single page; and the proof has been specialized to prove Fermat's last theorem, on half of a page. The approach used in the proof is exemplified by the following system. If a system functions properly and one wants to determine if the same system will function properly with changes in the system, one would first determine the necessary conditions which allow the system to function properly, and then guided by the necessary conditions, one will determine if the changes will allow the system to function properly. So also, if one wants to prove that there are no solutions for the equation c^z = a^x + b^y when x, y, z > 2, one should first determine why there are solutions when x, y, z = 2, and note the necessary condition in the solutions for x, y, z = 2. The necessary condition in the solutions for x, y, z = 2, will guide one to determine if there are solutions when x, y, z > 2. The proof in this paper is based on the identity (a^2 + b^2 )/c^2 = 1 for a primitive Pythagorean triple (a, b, c). It is shown by contradiction that the uniqueness of the x, y, z = 2, identity excludes all other x, y, z-values, x, y, z > 2 from satisfying the equation c^z = a^x + b^y. One will first show that if x, y, z = 2, c^z = a^x + b^y holds, noting the necessary condition in the solution; followed by showing that if x, y, z > 2 ( x, y, z integers), c^z = a^x + b^y has no solutions. Two proof versions are covered. The first version begins with only the terms in the given equation, but the second version begins with the introduction of ratio terms which are subsequently and "miraculously" eliminated to allow the introduction of a much needed term for the necessary condition for c^z = a^x + b^y to have solutions or to be true. Each proof is very simple, and even high school students can learn it. The approach used in the proof has applications in science, engineering, medicine, research, business, and any properly working system when desired changes are to be made in the system.

**Category:** Number Theory

[326] **viXra:1609.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-27 00:52:16*

**Authors:** Sattawat Suntisurat

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper describe about the elementary of the Fermat's Last Theorem by using the graph.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[325] **viXra:1609.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 13:36:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Measurement of the twisting force, or torque, generated by light on a silicon chip holds promise for applications such as miniaturized gyroscopes and sensors to measure magnetic field, which can have significant industrial and consumer impact. [14] A new technique detects spatial coherence in light at smaller scales than had been possible. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[324] **viXra:1609.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 15:13:52*

**Authors:** Aleksandr Tsybin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Currently, most research suggests that the physical vacuum is not empty, and the medium
is composed of dark matter and dark energy and this allows hope that the speed of light in
the physical vacuum can be transcended.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[323] **viXra:1609.0379 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 10:40:12*

**Authors:** Mihail Vasile Zastavnitchi

**Comments:** 31 Pages. In Russian. © «Физика ZMV. Основы новой физики». Конгресс – 2016, Материалы. Фундаментальные проблемы естествознания и техники. Серия: «Проблемы исследования Вселеннй». Санкт-Петербург 2016, том37, №1, С. 202 – 231. ISSN 2304-0300.

The Beginning of the Beginning is the gravitational field. It is formed of gravitons in chaotic motion. Graviton is an elementary quantum of energy when it is in state of motion and an indivisible particle of mass when it is in state of rest. Mass is a conglomerate of gravitons in the state of rest, that is, of gravitons which gave to mass their kinetic energy of motion. It is possible to explain scientifically many physical phenomena that classical physics cannot explain them or explain them naive, if at the basis of physics put the existence of the gravitational field independent of mass and mass created by gravitational field, independent of the gravitational field: where does the energy of the stars come from? Why are the planets nuclei hot? What kind of relation is there between the potential and thermal energy in any point inside the mass? What is the propagation medium of the electromagnetic field? Why is the mass accelerating when a constant force acts upon it? Why is the mass moving by inertia? What is the maximum speed at which the given mass can move by inertia? Why do fluxes and refluxes take place on the Earth? The masses are not attracted to each other. The potential energies of the gravitational field (distorted by the masses) compress the masses. The compression of masses by the gravitational field (distorted by masses) is named Universal Compression of Masses. Universal Compression of Masses by Gravitational Field (distorted by the masses) is the first fundamental law of Physics ZMV. The thermal energy of the mass (received from the gravitational field at the mass penetration) heats the mass. Heating of Mass by Gravitational Field (during its penetration through the mass) is the second fundamental law of Physics ZMV. That part of gravitons, which gave up their energy to the mass and contributed to the creation of the potential energy of the gravitational field and the thermal energy of mass, remain in the mass and increase the amount of the mass. Growth of Mass by Gravitational Field (during its penetration through the mass) is the third fundamental law of Physics ZMV. Motion of Mass by Inertia Energy of Gravitational Field is the fourth fundamental law of Physics ZMV. Flux and Reflux of Mass, as a result of rectilinear and rotational motion of the mass is the fifth fundamental law of Physics ZMV.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[322] **viXra:1609.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 10:52:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Chinese Quantum Physics Breakthrough Enables New Radar Capable of Detecting 'Invisible' Targets 100 Kilometers Distant. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[321] **viXra:1609.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 11:05:09*

**Authors:** Brekouk

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Ceci est une démonstration de la conjecture de C.Goldbach émise en 1742 , aussi bien la faible que la forte , elle repose essentiellement sur le théorème fondamentales des nombres premiers , et quatre autres théorèmes plus quatre lemmes ...la démarche consiste à démontrer pour chaque pair ou impair l’existence d’au moins un couplet ou un triplet dont les éléments sont premiers qui répondent aux deux énoncés de la conjecture , et que plus ce nombre pair ou impair est grand , plus le nombre de couplets ou triplets premiers est grand .

**Category:** Number Theory

[320] **viXra:1609.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 11:30:05*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 120 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[319] **viXra:1609.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 11:35:38*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 120 Pages.

A Teoria da Relatividade Especial conduz a dois resultados, considerados incompreensíveis por vários renomados físicos, que são a dilatação do tempo e a denominada contração espacial de Lorentz. A solução desses paradoxos me conduziu ao desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória onde a variação temporal é devida à diferença nos percursos de propagação da luz e o espaço é constante entre os observadores.
Da análise do desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória podemos sintetizar as seguintes conclusões:
-é uma teoria com princípios totalmente físicos,
-as transformações são lineares,
-matem intactos os princípios Euclidianos,
-considera a transformação de Galileu distinta em cada referencial,
-une a velocidade da luz e o tempo em um único fenômeno,
-desenvolve uma translação real entre os referenciais.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[318] **viXra:1609.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 10:09:55*

**Authors:** Wei Ren

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Collatz conjecture (or 3x+1 problem) is out for about 80 years. The
verification of Collatz conjecture has reached to the number about
60bits until now. In this paper, we propose new algorithms that can
verify whether the number that is about 100000bits (30000 digits)
can return 1 after 3*x+1 and x/2 computations. This is the largest
number that has been verified currently. The proposed algorithm
changes numerical computation to bit computation, so that extremely
large numbers (without upper bound) becomes possible to be verified.
We discovered that $2^{100000}-1$ can return to 1 after 481603 times
of 3*x+1 computation, and 863323 times of x/2 computation.

**Category:** Number Theory

[317] **viXra:1609.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 10:14:45*

**Authors:** Wei Ren

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Collatz conjecture (or 3x+1 problem) has not been proved to be true
or false for about 80 years. The exploration on this problem seems
to ask for introducing a totally new method. In this paper, a
mathematical induction method is proposed, whose proof can lead to
the proof of the conjecture. According to the induction, a new
representation (for dynamics) called ``code'' is introduced, to
represent the occurred $3*x+1$ and $x/2$ computations during the
process from starting number to the first transformed number that is
less than the starting number. In a code $3*x+1$ is represented by 1
and $x/2$ is represented by 0. We find that code is a building block
of the original dynamics from starting number to 1, and thus is more
primitive for modeling quantitative properties. Some properties only
exist in dynamics represented by code, but not in original dynamics.
We discover and prove some inherent laws of code formally. Code as a
whole is prefix-free, and has a unified form. Every code can be
divided into code segments and each segment has a form $\{10\}^{p
\geq 0}0^{q \geq 1}$. Besides, $p$ can be computed by judging
whether $x \in[0]_2$, $x\in[1]_4$, or computed by $t=(x-3)/4$,
without any concrete computation of $3*x+1$ or $x/2$. Especially,
starting numbers in certain residue class have the same code, and
their code has a short length. That is, $CODE(x \in [1]_4)=100,$
$CODE((x-3)/4 \in [0]_4)=101000,$ $CODE((x-3)/4 \in
[2]_8)=10100100,$ $CODE((x-3)/4 \in [5]_8)=10101000,$ $CODE((x-3)/4
\in [1]_{32})=10101001000,$ $CODE((x-3)/4\in [3]_{32})=10101010000,$
$CODE((x-3)/4\in [14]_{32})=10100101000.$ The experiment results
again confirm above discoveries. We also give a conjecture on $x \in
[3]_4$ and an approach to the proof of Collatz conjecture. Those
discoveries support the proposed induction and are helpful to the
final proof of Collatz conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[316] **viXra:1609.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 04:30:36*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Calcium carbide (CaC2) is known for its wide applications in the production of acetylene and calcium cyanamide, whereas praseodymium Oxide (Pr6O11) is used in sensors and high-temperature pigments. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physical and structural properties of CaC2 and Pr6O11 powder. The powder samples of both compounds were equally divided into two parts, referred as control and treated. The treated part of both compounds was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. After that, both control and treated samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD data revealed that the biofield energy treatment has increased the lattice parameter of unit cell by 3.35% in the treated CaC2 sample as compared to the control. The density of treated CaC2 sample was reduced upto 4.49% and molecular weight was increased upto 4.70% as compared to the control. The crystallite size of CaC2 was reduced from 98.19 nm (control) to 52.93 nm in the treated CaC2 sample as compared to the control. The FT-IR analysis exhibited that the absorption band attributed to C=C stretching vibration was shifted to higher wavenumber as compared to the control. Thus, above data suggested that biofield energy treatment has considerable impact on the physical and structural properties of CaC2. Besides, in Pr6O11, the XRD did not show any significant change in lattice parameter, density and molecular weight. However, the FT-IR spectra revealed that the absorption band attributing to Pr-O stretching vibration was shifted from 593 cm-1 (control) to higher wavenumber 598 cm-1 in the treated Pr6O11 sample. Therefore, the biofield energy treatment could be applied to modify the CaC2 and Pr6O11 powder for the use in chemical industries.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[315] **viXra:1609.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 06:39:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18]
An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[314] **viXra:1609.0370 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 06:59:01*

**Authors:** Trung Kien Vu, Sungoh Kwon

**Comments:** Preprint submitted to Computer Networks, 10 pages, 15 figures

In this paper, we propose an ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing algorithm for mobile ad-hoc networks taking
into account node mobility. Changeable topology of such mobile ad-hoc networks provokes overhead messages in
order to search available routes and maintain found routes. The overheadmessages impede data delivery from sources
to destination and deteriorate network performance. To overcome such a challenge, our proposed algorithm estimates
link duration based neighboring node mobility and chooses the most reliable route. The proposed algorithm also
applies the estimate for route maintenance to lessen the number of overhead messages. Via simulations, the proposed
algorithmis verified in variousmobile environments. In the low mobility environment, by reducing routemaintenance
messages, the proposed algorithm significantly improves network performance such as packet data rate and end-toend
delay. In the high mobility environment, the reduction of route discovery message enhances network performance
since the proposed algorithm provides more reliable routes.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[313] **viXra:1609.0369 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 01:59:35*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The hypothesis of the reason of a polarity reversal of magnetic field of Earth as result of the relative movement of a cloak and bark is made

**Category:** Astrophysics

[312] **viXra:1609.0368 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-01 09:27:43*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment is a strong and compelling evidence for emission theory of light. Emission theory, unlike ether theory, can also explain Bradley stellar aberration. There is also the less known Bryan G Wallace analysis of Venus planet radar range data anomaly, which could be explained only by emission theory. The lunar laser ranging experiment is yet another evidence for emission theory. The emission theory was abandoned because : 1) it was not compatible with Maxwell's electrodynamics: it predicted frozen light for a light source moving with velocity of light away from an observer 2) moving source experiments showed that the speed of light is independent of source velocity. Bradley observed no variation of the angle of aberration with different stars, demonstrating that the speed of light is independent of the velocity of the stars. The first of these problems is solved by a new interpretation of Einstein's thought experiment ( 'chasing a beam of light ' ): constant phase velocity and variable group velocity of light. For an observer moving away from a light source at the speed of light, the phases will still move at the speed of light relative to the observer, but the group will be 'frozen'. This interpretation requires that Doppler effect depend only on source observer relative velocity, demanding a new symmetrical law for Doppler effect of light. This is the Exponential Law of Doppler effect of light proposed in this paper, which can easily explain the Ives-Stilwell experiments. The second problem is resolved by a new hypothesis that the effect of absolute motion of a light source is to change the speed of light relative to the source so that the speed of light is independent of source velocity. Ether theory and emission theory are seamlessly united into a new theory. This is also in line with light having both wave and particle properties. The ether doesn't exist, but absolute motion does. The conception of the Michelson-Morley experiment was fundamentally flawed in that they considered light as ordinary material waves . A new interpretation of absolute motion is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[311] **viXra:1609.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 16:24:49*

**Authors:** Miguel Castro

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A main concept of the geographical science is the landscape. It is from its observation and study that much of the research in Geography has developed. Training to look deeply at the landscape should start from an early age, since the children get into the educational system.
We carried out activities based on games and situations of clear opponents and spatial thought with the students of Pedagogical Practice, in order to train the acuity of observation of the landscape and the coherence of its fundamental elements by the children. In a playful way, children will more easily apprehend and develop skills which will allow them to become more interventional citizens.
This reflection is the product of the results achieved by the students and the supervisor’s field notes about new didactical and pedagogical intervention of the geographical approach in kindergartens and the 1st Cycle of Basic Education.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[310] **viXra:1609.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 16:27:36*

**Authors:** Süleyman Göksoy

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This research aimed to determine the classroom management self-efficacy beliefs of students have been studying in Faculty of Education and students have been maintaining pedagogical formation certificate program. It employed survey model. The study group was composed of 362 trainees who attended to pedagogical formation certificate program in Duzce University in 2015/16 academic year spring term and 255 sophomores, junior and senior class students in Classroom Teaching and Science Teaching Departments in Duzce University Faculty of Education in 2015/16 academic year. In the study, it was aimed to reach the whole population and a scale was implemented instead of sampling. The research was conducted with 410 returning scales. “Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale” was conducted in order to determine the classroom management self-efficacy perceptions of the student teachers. Since the data were not normally distributed, Mann-Whitney U Test which is a nonparametric test. The following results were obtained: Classroom management self-efficacy perceptions of the students who have been studying in Faculty of Education and students who have been attending the pedagogical formation certificate program are high in terms of “Providing the student participation”, “Utilization of Teaching Strategies” and “Classroom management”. The difference between the classroom management self-efficacy perception averages of the two groups was not statistically meaningful. Also, there was no statistically meaningful difference between the students who have been studying in Faculty of Education and students who have been attending the pedagogical formation certificate program in terms of gender variable.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[309] **viXra:1609.0365 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 18:17:04*

**Authors:** James A. Smith

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This document adds to the collection of GA solutions to plane-geometry problems, most of them dealing with tangency, that are presented in References 1-7. Reference 1 presented several ways of solving the CPP limiting case of the Problem of Apollonius. Here, we use ideas from Reference 6 to solve that case in yet another way.

**Category:** Geometry

[308] **viXra:1609.0364 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 21:12:02*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

At a certain point computation will initiate catastrophe. One must then impose computational factorization of variants [of stringy] in metaspace.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[307] **viXra:1609.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 22:24:39*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This work is inspired by the discovery of a new class of dynamical system described by ODE coupled with their Liouville equation. These systems called self-controlled since the role of actuators is played by the probability produced by the Liouville equation. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non-Newtonian properties such as randomness, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. Special attention was paid to the capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics, which makes these systems neither Newtonian, nor quantum. It has been shown that self-controlled dynamical systems can be linked to mathematical models of livings. The discovery of isolated dynamical systems that can decrease entropy in violation of the second law of thermodynamics, and resemblances of these systems to livings implies that Life can slow down heat death of the Universe, and that can be associated with the Purpose of Life.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[306] **viXra:1609.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 22:35:28*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[305] **viXra:1609.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 23:30:48*

**Authors:** Sattawat Suntisurat

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The paper describe about the simplest method to proove the FLT by using irrational number.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[304] **viXra:1609.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 14:40:38*

**Authors:** Kenneth D. Oglesby

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Related to MC Physics or Mono-Charge Physics theories

A physical model of a photon with substructure and mass is presented that satisfies all known properties and characteristics of photons. The model shows that relativistic enhanced rotating mono-charges cause the EMF signature of light, scattering effects, gravity affects, and momentum/ kinetic energy. A photon's kinetic energy (KE) includes both linear KE from its mass travelling at the average speed of light, c, and its rotational KE from instant mass rotating at the frequency required velocity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[303] **viXra:1609.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 11:28:38*

**Authors:** N.Prosh

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

About prime numbers and new way of find prime numbers

**Category:** Number Theory

[302] **viXra:1609.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 12:58:51*

**Authors:** Peter Hlavačka

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Unified gravito-kinematics theory unifies gravity and kinematics on deeper level as current theories. It is generally compatible with equotations of General relativity, but it extends it and introduces different explanations to selected underlying principles on which is General relativity based. Unified gravito-kinematics theory explains or solves following open problems: primary cause and underlying mechanism of inertia, explanation of speed of light as speed limit, primary cause and underlying mechanism of relativity (Lorentz transformations), explanation of creation of rings of planets explanation of increasing speed of expansion of universe (dark energy), explanation of galaxy rotation problem, solving of some singularities in relativity theory and solution for compatibility of relativity theory with quantum mechanics, which will open door to merge of quantum mechanics and what is now relativity theory. What is most important, Unified gravito-kinematics theory makes very specific predictions, which can be tested by experiments and by astronomic observations. This paper includes one proposed rotation experiment and explanation of creation of rings around planets and smaller objects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[301] **viXra:1609.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 07:48:46*

**Authors:** Aneesh R Swamy

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Limbic System,Dreams,Cognitive Neuroscience,

Dreams. A concept very little understood by neuro-scientists. Why don't we know how we dream even after decades of research? To find the answer to that question;how we dream, one has to think out of the box. Or out of the mind.

**Category:** Mind Science

[300] **viXra:1609.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 08:34:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The universe is not spinning or stretched in any particular direction, according to the most stringent test yet. [8] A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[299] **viXra:1609.0353 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 09:09:01*

**Authors:** Brekouk

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

ceci est une démonstration de la conjecture de C.Goldbach émise en 1742 , aussi bien la faible que la forte , elle repose essentiellement sur le théorème fondamentales des nombres premiers , et quatre autres théorèmes plus quatre lemmes ...la démarche consiste à démontrer pour chaque pair ou impair l’existence d’au moins un couplet ou un triplet dont les éléments sont premiers qui répondent aux deux énoncés de la conjecture , et que plus ce nombre pair ou impair est grand , plus le nombre de couplets ou triplets premiers est grand .

**Category:** Number Theory

[298] **viXra:1609.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 09:19:29*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Clifford Chafin, Domenico De Falco

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The vacuum catastrophe refers to the discrepancy between the predicted and detected values of repulsive vacuum energy. To tackle the issue, we start from a model of inflation in a time-symmetric quantistic vacuum, which, due to the Mandelstamm-Tamm inequality, leads to a trapping of a part of the original vacuum during the formation of our closed Universe. We show how the energy of our cosmos is stored in two different compartments, the microscopic quantistic vacuum and the macroscopic detectable cosmos. If we take into account, at the time of the Big Bang, the occurrence of time symmetry breaking into our Universe, we achieve a macroscopic energetic system governed by the second law of thermodynamics, where time acts like a continuous gauge field able to progressively increase the entropy. Our framework makes it possible to assess, among other issues, the vacuum catastrophe, to calculate the minimum three-dimensional volume of the pre-Big Bang vacuum and to make previsions for the future evolution of the two energetic compartments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[297] **viXra:1609.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 05:14:06*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

As No.1 of comparative chemistry series papers, running the comparative studies between the element periodic table and the concepts of “fractal in fractal”, “sub-library in library”, and the like, and reaching the concept of “tables in element periodic table”. Then, some special forms of “tables in element periodic table” are discussed. Also pointing out that in the big data analysis of chemical elements, “tables in element periodic table” will have a good prospect.

**Category:** Chemistry

[296] **viXra:1609.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 06:38:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Physicists have smashed the record for the amount of information a single photon can carry. Their experiment has immediate implications for quantum cryptography. [16] Engineers in the US have developed a chip that can convert visible light into infrared and back again, while preserving the quantum state of the original photons. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[295] **viXra:1609.0349 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-20 11:35:40*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Published at WISE Journal, Volume 6, No. 2 (Summer, 2017), pp. 60-81.

We present solutions for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations in finite and infinite series of time, in spatial dimension N=3, firstly based on expansion in Taylor’s series of time and then, in special case, solutions for velocity given by irrotational vectors, for incompressible flows and conservative external force, the Bernoulli’s law. A little description of the Lamb’s solution for Euler equations is done.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[294] **viXra:1609.0348 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-25 11:27:03*

**Authors:** Mutasim A. Ahmed

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

To explain the flyby anomaly we fully applied the equivalence principle, and we allowed the observer on-board the free-falling craft to claim the state of rest. The telemetry photons considered as particles possessing their mass due to their movement with the light speed. The telemetry photons assumed to generate their respective gravitomagnetic fields according to LITG. The telemetry photons were emitted from the craft and can only be judged by an observer on-board the craft. The observer on-board the spacecraft will claim that the Earth is moving relatively with his same velocity in the opposite direction. The effect will be detected by an observer on-board the craft, that is the frame of reference attached to the craft. The Earth will generate its respective gravitomagnetic field due to its relative motion as claimed by the observer on-board the craft. The flyby effect is highly dependent on the way we observe it, as we will show.
As for the gravity probe-b case, we insisted that the equivalence principle must be fully applied. Therefore an observer in a free falling frame, have the right to claim being at rest, while the rest of the Universe will be moving with his same velocity, in the opposite direction. So from the point of view of the spinning gyroscope, Earth will be orbiting the gyroscope. We usually call this an apparent revolution. But for the gyroscope this apparent revolution of the Earth can produce measurable effects. Using this reasoning and applying the LITG we obtained a field which is about 105.39 times greater than the expected one.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[293] **viXra:1609.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-24 20:56:16*

**Authors:** Kapil Chandra

**Comments:** 4 Pages. prepared for Reseach proposal for Doctoral studies

The cosmological problem has been a long standing unsolved problem of physics. In this manuscript, we propose a new hypothesis to solve it and we reported that the theoretically calculated value is in good agreement with its current observed value. We also derived a new mathematical expression of gravity which is inverse of classical Newton gravity, our hypothesis suggests; the inversion of gravity is responsible for cosmic acceleration. It has been also explained, why the gravity is too weak force of nature. We reported here, there is a close link between the weak gravity and cosmological constant problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[292] **viXra:1609.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-24 11:38:11*

**Authors:** Amir Ali Tavajoh

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Escape velocity for black holes depends on the region we are at. When we are on the Schwarzschild’s sphere, it’s equal to the velocity of light and when we are inside the Schwarzschild’s sphere, it exceeds the velocity of light. On the other hand, tidal forces act on the object and turn it apart into pieces. Based on angular momentum conservation, as the pieces of object go inside the Schwarzschild’s radius, because their distance with singularity decreases, their velocity increases in order to make a balance and the angular momentum stay constant.
The Schwarzschild’s solution for schwarzschild’s sphere and inside, will show what happens to the space-time; in the Schwarzschild’s sphere, the space would be undefined and the time warps, but inside the sphere, "r" and “t” change their place in equation and because of "θ" and "φ" object’s geodesic will bend and object swirl around the singularity but "r" behaves like time and "t" behaves like space. Needless to say, g_μυ will be different.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[291] **viXra:1609.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-24 08:39:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

Quantum measurements are often inherently unpredictable, yet the usual way in which quantum theory accounts for unpredictability has long been viewed as somewhat unsatisfactory. In a new study, University of Oxford physicist Chiara Marletto has developed an alternative way to account for the unpredictability observed in quantum measurements by using the recently proposed theory of superinformation—a theory that is inherently non-probabilistic. The new perspective may lead to new possibilities in the search for a successor to quantum theory. [21] Scientists have known for a long time that an atom or molecule can also be in two different states at once. Now researchers at the Stanford PULSE Institute and the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have exploited this Schrödinger's Cat behavior to create X-ray movies of atomic motion with much more detail than ever before. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[290] **viXra:1609.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-24 09:36:48*

**Authors:** Amir Ali Tavajoh

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Based on the Mach’s principle, black holes warp the space time in a way that geodesic for every object which is moving toward black hole start to bend and object starts to rotate around the black hole. Even light cannot be able to escape from the strong gravitational field of black hole. Before arriving to the Schwarzschild’s Sphere, object faces with length extension because of the difference between amount of tidal forces on the nearest and furthest points of object that take the object apart and after passing the Schwarzschild’s sphere, based on the Special relativity of Einstein, the parts of object face with length contraction.
At the Ergo sphere Region of black hole, a particle that gets into it will divide into 2 pieces, one of them falls into the black hole and another gets out of the Schwarzschild sphere very fast and it’s called the black hole radiation.
According to the Diagram drawn by R. Rafini and J. Weeler, an object gets out of white hole in past space-time, it can be able to send signals to us and we can receive it but black hole which is located in future space-time, after object enters to the Schwarzschild’s Sphere, the signals it sends won’t be received.
In order to reach the third space-time which is like a mirror to our universe, our speed needs to exceed the speed of light to pass the Einstein-Rosen Bridge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[289] **viXra:1609.0343 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-24 02:20:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A world record for a trapped field in a superconductor, was achieved in 2014 by a team of engineers led by Professor David Cardwell. [28] The first practical proposal was formulated 50 years ago by the American physicist Richard Garwin. He proposed that a transmission line of 1000 km, transporting 100 Gigawatt (at that time, all the energy produced in the U.S.) could be transmitted through a single underground superconductive cable, just a mere 30 cm wide, including its cooling system. The drawback was that cooling the wire down to a few degrees above absolute zero would have been too costly. [27], and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[288] **viXra:1609.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-24 02:52:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The Standard Model allows for the Higgs boson to decay to identically flavored pairs of leptons, such as electrons and muons, but not to mixed pairings of lepton flavors. Evidence of the latter would be a sign of new physics. [14] It may only take scientists a few more years to solve one of the biggest puzzles in modern elementary particle physics, the so-called "muon mystery." Russian scientists from the National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI) will make a significant contribution to this research. [13] A large team made up of researchers from across the globe has repeated experiments conducted several years ago that showed a different radius for a proton when it was orbited by a muon as opposed to an electron—a finding dubbed the proton radius puzzle—using a deuterium nucleus this time and has found the same puzzle. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the experiments they conducted, what they found and offer a few possible ideas to help dispel the notion that the puzzle indicates that there may be some problems with the Standard Model. [12] The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[287] **viXra:1609.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-23 20:11:08*

**Authors:** James A. Smith

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Document is in Spanish

This document attempted to obtain analytical solutions for the "Falling Slinky" in three ways. The first two, which used the wave equation, failed for different reasons.
The first attempt used Fourier series, which could not satisfy the initial and boundary conditions. The second attempt used Laplace transforms; this method did give a solution, which correctly predicted the acceleration of the center of mass, but which predicted that the upper part of the Slinky should "fall through" the lower part, which is impossible. This false prediction is not a defect of the use of Laplace transforms, but an artifact of the use of the wave equation to treat the falling Slinky, which is a shock-wave phenomenon.
The third attempt at a solution used the impulse-momentum theorem, obtaining a result whose predictions are internally consistent, as well as agreeing with empirical results.
However, we must point out that the model used here treats only the Slinky's longitudinal behavior, ignoring its torsional behavior.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[286] **viXra:1609.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-23 20:31:46*

**Authors:** Shi-YuanDong

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

On the Qin-JiuShao and Chinese remainder theorem(CRT)
秦九韶的大衍求一术及其矩阵表示

**Category:** General Mathematics

[285] **viXra:1609.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-23 13:38:56*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

If you chop a magnet in half, you end up with two smaller magnets. Both the original and the new magnets have "north" and "south" poles.
But what if single north and south poles exist, just like positive and negative electric charges? These hypothetical beasts, known as "magnetic monopoles," are an important prediction in several theories. [16]
A new study by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory determined that magnetic skyrmions – small electrically uncharged circular structures with a spiraling magnetic pattern – do get deflected by an applied current, much like a curveball getting deflected by air. [15]
Researchers at Aalto University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have demonstrated that polaron formation also occurs in a system of magnetic charges, and not just in a system of electric charges. Being able to control the transport properties of such charges could enable new devices based on magnetic rather than electric charges, for example computer memories. [14]
The electronic energy states allowed by quantum mechanics determine whether a solid is an insulator or whether it conducts electric current as a metal. Researchers at ETH have now theoretically predicted a novel material whose energy states exhibit a hitherto unknown peculiarity. [13]
Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12]
Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11]
A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10]
As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[284] **viXra:1609.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-23 07:07:24*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 pages

In this paper the Lorentz Transformation (LT) is shown to be merely a set of equations applicable under the conditions reflecting the theorized principle of the speed of light invariance implemented in the direction of relative motion. It is revealed the LT is limited to events with coordinates satisfying the light speed space-time relation (i.e., x = ct). Einstein’s prediction of time dilation and length contraction is based on applying the LT equations to restricted coordinates. It is shown that such LT applications lead to mathematical contradictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[283] **viXra:1609.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-23 07:27:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The first practical proposal was formulated 50 years ago by the American physicist Richard Garwin. He proposed that a transmission line of 1000 km, transporting 100 Gigawatt (at that time, all the energy produced in the U.S.) could be transmitted through a single underground superconductive cable, just a mere 30 cm wide, including its cooling system. The drawback was that cooling the wire down to a few degrees above absolute zero would have been too costly. [27], and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[282] **viXra:1609.0332 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-23 06:00:56*

**Authors:** Prado, Pf et al

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Addendum to hypothesis

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[281] **viXra:1609.0331 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-23 06:37:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Engineers in the US have developed a chip that can convert visible light into infrared and back again, while preserving the quantum state of the original photons. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[280] **viXra:1609.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-23 01:52:00*

**Authors:** N.N.Leonov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. English and russian texts

A Reason for Stagnation in the Problem of Hidden Mass -
Academic Insufficiency of the Quantum Theory and of the Relativity Theory

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[279] **viXra:1609.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-22 16:05:32*

**Authors:** Austin J. Fearnley

**Comments:** 5 pages.

Pseudo-random data are used to illustrate the relationship between errors in raw data being comparatively judged and the resulting Rasch pairs location parameters, first for data which are relatively homogeneous and second for data which have various amounts of heterogeneity. For each data type, various error sizes are used. Rasch location parameters are designed to be on an interval scale and are here demonstrated to be plotted on a more contracted scale when the objects are more homogeneous.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[278] **viXra:1609.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-22 23:36:31*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Global emergence of Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) displays a mechanism of resistance to all existing antimicrobials. Due to its strong ability to acquire resistance, there is a need of some alternative treatment strategy. Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of P. fluorescens. P. fluorescens cells were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 49838) number. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. ATCC-A sample was revived and divided into two groups (Gr) i.e. Gr.I (control) and Gr.II (revived); likewise, ATCC-B was labeled as Gr.III (lyophilized). Gr.II and III were given biofield treatment and were measured by MicroScan Walk-Away® system before and after treatment. Parameters studied in experiment were antimicrobial sensitivity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype number of both control and treatment groups using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. Experimental results showed antimicrobials such as cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, tetracycline, and tobramycin showed altered sensitivity and MIC values in treated group as compared to control. Biochemical reactions showed positive reaction in malonate, melibiose, nitrate, galactosidase, ornithine, raffinose, sorbitol, sucrose, tobramycin and Voges-Proskauer in Gr.II. Arabinose, colistin, glucose, and rhaminose also showed positive reactions in Gr.II on day 10 while arginine and cetrimide showed negative reaction in Gr.III as compared to control. Biochemical tests results revealed a change in biotype number in Gr.II (34101173, day 5), (77103177, a very rare biotype on day 10) and Gr.III (40000043) as compared to control (02041722). Organism was identified as Enterobacter cloacae (GrII, day 10) and Vibrio fluvialis (Gr.III, day 10) with respect to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment made significant alteration in sensitivity pattern, MIC values, and biotype number of P. fluorescens.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[277] **viXra:1609.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-22 23:37:48*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia) is an opportunistic, Gram negative pathogen which causes infection mainly in immunocompromised population and associated with high rate of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis patients. Aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of biofield treatment on multidrug resistant B. cepacia. Clinical sample of B. cepacia was divided into two groups i.e. control and biofield treated. The analysis was done after 10 days of treatment and compared with control group. Control and treated group were analyzed for susceptibility pattern, MIC value, biochemical studies and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system.Sensitivity assay results showed a change in pattern from resistant to intermediate in aztreonam, intermediate to resistant in ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, and levofloxacin while sensitive to resistant in meropenem and piperacillin/ tazobactam.The biofield treatment showed an alteration in MIC values of aztreonam, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, levofloxacin, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam and tetracycline. Biochemical reactions of treated group showed negative reaction in colistin, lysine, and ornithine while positive reactions to acetamide,arginine, and malonate as compared to control. Overall results showed an alteration of 38.9% in susceptibility pattern, 30% in MIC values of tested antimicrobials and 18.2% change in biochemical reaction after biofield treatment. A significant change in biotype number (02063736) was reported with green pigment as special characteristics after biofield treatment as compared to control (05041776) group with yellow pigment. In treated group, a new species was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as compared to control. Study findings suggest that biofield treatment has a significant effect on the phenotypic character and biotype number of multidrug resistant strain of B. cepacia.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[276] **viXra:1609.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-22 23:39:13*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Study background: Nowadays, hepatitis is a major challenge for clinical research, regulatory bodies, and clinicians who are trying to assess the more effectiveness of antiviral therapy against patients. Viral load count is the amount of particular viral DNA or RNA in a blood samples. It is one of the surrogate biomarker of hepatitis. High viral load indicates that the immune system is failed to fight against viruses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield modality on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in terms of viral load as surrogate marker.
Method: The viral load assay was performed on stock human plasma samples of HBV and HCV before and after 7 days of biofield treatment using Roche COBAS® AMPLICOR analyzer according to manufacturer’s instructions. Viremia (viral DNA for HBV, RNA for HCV) was considered as surrogate marker for assessment of the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment.
Result: The viral load of HBV DNA in infected plasma samples showed a significant alteration in the biofield treated group as compared to control. Additionally, viral load count of HCV RNA in infected plasma samples was significantly reduced by 67% in the biofield treated group as compared to control. As the biofield treatment has significantly reduced HCV RNA, it could be beneficial for particularly HCV infected populations.
Conclusion: Altogether, data suggest that biofield treatment has significantly alteration in HBV and reduced the viral load count in HCV infected plasma samples and could be a suitable alternative treatment strategy for hepatitis patients in near future.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[275] **viXra:1609.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-22 23:40:30*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This study tested the Null Hypothesis for the effect of biofield treatment when used for control of nematode on carrot crops, Daucus carota , under typical growing conditions in year 2012 at Guadalupe, California, USA. Following biofield treatment, carrot seeds were planted in replicate plots with mechanical seeder and their development was recorded compared to control seed growth from untreated plots and plots treated with the commercial standard nematicide, further Vydate L was applied three times at rates of 1 and 0.5 gal/A, at 1, 18 and 35 days after seeding, respectively. At 70 and 109 days after the first application root galling severity in biofield treated crops was reduced by 54% and 22% respectively as compared to untreated while the Vydate response showed 0% and 25% control, respectively. Plots planted with biofield treated seeds resulted in the greatest number and weight of marketable carrot roots. Total yield and gross return were greatest in biofield treated group producing an approximately 33% increase over the untreated controls and 15% increase over those treated with the commercial standard, Vydate L. Vitamin A (beta carotene) was significantly greater (6512 IU/100 g) in biofield treated carrots compared with both the untreated controls (4941) and the commercial standard (5143). The results concluded that, Biofield treatment caused the numerical improvement in yield along with nematode control in carrots however, caused statistically significant increase in Vitamin A content.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[274] **viXra:1609.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-22 14:48:45*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19]
Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18]
In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16]
Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14]
A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[273] **viXra:1609.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-22 10:24:35*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle and the Proton-Proton Chain Reaction processes supposedly powering stars are pseudoscientific.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[272] **viXra:1609.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-22 05:04:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Scientists have known for a long time that an atom or molecule can also be in two different states at once. Now researchers at the Stanford PULSE Institute and the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have exploited this Schrödinger's Cat behavior to create X-ray movies of atomic motion with much more detail than ever before. [20]
Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18]
An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[271] **viXra:1609.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-22 05:44:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

A new study by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory determined that magnetic skyrmions – small electrically uncharged circular structures with a spiraling magnetic pattern – do get deflected by an applied current, much like a curveball getting deflected by air. [15]
Researchers at Aalto University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have demonstrated that polaron formation also occurs in a system of magnetic charges, and not just in a system of electric charges. Being able to control the transport properties of such charges could enable new devices based on magnetic rather than electric charges, for example computer memories. [14]
The electronic energy states allowed by quantum mechanics determine whether a solid is an insulator or whether it conducts electric current as a metal. Researchers at ETH have now theoretically predicted a novel material whose energy states exhibit a hitherto unknown peculiarity. [13]
Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12]
Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11]
A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10]
As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[270] **viXra:1609.0320 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-22 06:58:49*

**Authors:** N.N.Leonov

**Comments:** 12 Pages. English and russian texts

Which structures of the material world are formed through magnetism?

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[269] **viXra:1609.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-22 01:13:11*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The original ideas

We consider the Kapitza-Dirac configuration for the generation of the standing
waves. Electrons are then diffracted by standing waves and Bragg equation is valid.
The situation is considered also in a plane and in the three dimensions. The electron-photon
system forms the electron-photon superconductor. The Kapitza-Dirac effect
is then applied to silicene.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[268] **viXra:1609.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-21 22:02:01*

**Authors:** Mithun K V, Kennath Joseph D'Couthoy, Ligin Cyrilz, Mohammed Mufeed abdullax, Kripa Suvarna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

World is as of now concentrating on alternate material sources that are environment agreeable and biodegradable in nature. Because of the expanding natural concerns, bio composite produced out of regular fiber and polymeric resin, is one of the late advancements in the business and constitutes the present extent of experimental work. The use of composite materials field is increasing gradually in engineering. The composite consists of mainly two phases i.e. matrix and fiber. The accessibility of characteristic fiber and simplicity of assembling have enticed scientists worldwide to attempt by regional standards accessible inexpensive fiber and to learning their achievability of fortification determinations and to what degree they fulfill the obliged particulars of great strengthened polymer composite aimed at structural requisition. Fiber reinforced polymer composites has numerous preferences, for example, generally minimal effort of creation, simple to create and better quality contrast than perfect polymer tars due with this reason fiber strengthened polymer composite utilized within an assortment of provision as class of structure material. This work describe the fabrication and the mechanical behavior of banana fiber reinforced polymer composite at varying composition (25\%, 30\%, 35\%) with that of silicon carbide at 4\%, 8\%, 12\% respectively. Also the test such as the tensile test, hardness test and the bending test are carried out and the mechanical properties of the composite material are studied.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[267] **viXra:1609.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-21 13:19:05*

**Authors:** Dipankar Mandal

**Comments:** 7 Pages. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications ISSN : 2248-9622,Vol. 5, Issue 2,2015, pp.111-117

The paper proposes a calculation algorithm and development of a software in Visual Basic(Visual Studio 2012
Express Desktop) used in heat transfer studies when different heat exchangers are involved (e.g. Helical Type
Triple Tube Heat Exchanger , Plate Type Heat Exchanger).It includes the easy calculation of heat transfer coefficient
and followed by the design and simulation of heat exchanger design parameter by inputting general
known parameters of a heat exchanger into the developed software—DAIRY-HE. A parametric study is
conducted using the software interface to determine the length of tubes or dimensions of heat exchanger.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[266] **viXra:1609.0313 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-21 14:38:18*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Change to the title with Has changed to Have

Andrew Walcott Beckwith
Physics Department, Chongqing University, College of Physics, Chongqing University Huxi Campus, No. 44 Daxuechen Nanlu, Shapinba District, Chongqing 401331, People’s Republic of China
rwill9955b@gmail.com,abeckwith@uh.edu
Abstract.
We argue in this document that initial vacuum state values possibly responsible for GW generation in relic conditions in the initial onset of inflation may have a temporary un squeezed, possibly even coherent initial value, which would permit in certain models classical coherent initial gravitational wave states Furthermore, several arguments pro and con as to if or not initial relic GW should be high frequency will be presented,. The existence of higher dimensions, in itself if the additional dimensions are small and compact will have no capacity to influence the frequency values of relic GW, as predicted by Giovanni, and others in 1995. Furthermore, to consider are the results of Sahoo, Mishra, and Pacif (2016) which via Bianchi universes, removes the necessity of an initial space-time singularity, which may have bearing on the issue of the degree of the initial coherent states, so postulated for gravitational waves, as is brought up in the conclusion.
Key words: Infinite quantum statistics, Quantum gas, semi classical approximation, nonsingular cosmology

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[265] **viXra:1609.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-21 12:24:50*

**Authors:** Dipankar mandal

**Comments:** 15 Pages. International Journal of Engineering Science & Advanced Technology ISSN: 2250-3676. Volume-4, Issue-6, 519-535

The paper proposes development of an interactive, flexible and user friendly software for designing a multipurpose cold storage in
Visual Studio Express Desktop2012 environment and evaluation. The developed software-MCS_BCKV has a criterion for typical
load estimation and designing of cold storage, selection of evaporator, compressor and condenser in developing country. Load
estimating and designing through computer automation is likely to make a positive impact in the dynamic nature of cold storage
applications.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[264] **viXra:1609.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-21 07:22:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[263] **viXra:1609.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-21 04:43:32*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Saadeh et al recently reported in Phys. Rev. Lett.
that ''anisotropic expansion of the Universe is strongly disfavoured, with odds of 121,000:1 agains'', using CMB temperature and polarisation data from the WMAP and Planck satellites. However, it is impossible to determine anything about expansion of the Universe from the WMAP and Planck
datasets for a number of reasons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[262] **viXra:1609.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-21 06:26:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Yale researchers have developed a high-frequency version of a device known as an acoustic resonator that could advance the field of quantum computing and information processing. [29] Scientists at the National University of Singapore (NUS) have demonstrated a new way of controlling electrons by confining them in a device made out of atomically thin materials, and applying external electric and magnetic fields. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[261] **viXra:1609.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-21 02:45:19*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This article, a continuation of the previous article under same title, elaborates further upon the form of Venkatesha, and details how one can visualize forms of divinity corresponding to Abrahamic faiths in the Lord, who is the Universal Mother Bala Ambika Herself as the salvation for the present age of the Kali Yuga.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[260] **viXra:1609.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-21 03:22:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[259] **viXra:1609.0305 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-30 07:14:11*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The electrical current arises in a conductor when an outside force acts upon the free electrons of the conductor. This force is called, in a generic way, of electromotive force (EMF). Usually, it has electrical nature. Here, we show that it can have gravitational nature (Gravitational Electromotive Force). This fact led us to propose an unprecedented system to convert Gravitational Energy directly into Electrical Energy. This system, here called of Gravelectric Generator, can have individual outputs powers of several tens of kW or more. It is easy to be built, and can easily be transported from one place to another, on the contrary of the hydroelectric plants, which convert Gravitational Energy into Hydroelectric energy.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[258] **viXra:1609.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 21:14:36*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A new idea is presented to try and predict the future size of stars as they cool and solidify into solid worlds many billions of years into their metamorphosis, by utilizing the abundances of lithium.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[257] **viXra:1609.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 22:38:05*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Include Chinese version

This work based on my previous works. I postulate that there is proton neutrino just like electron neutrino since protons are also the elementary particles just like electrons. Then I point out that there must be proton meson that consisted with proton and proton neutrino. In this paper, I analysis the proton meson’s decay model by diagrammatic scheme. I also calculate some parameters of proton meson, and give some advises on how to detect these particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[256] **viXra:1609.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 22:49:31*

**Authors:** Lamont Williams

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

When thinking about the origin of the fine-structure constant, renowned physicist Richard Feynman speculated that it might be related to pi or the base of the natural logarithm. However, he could not envision how pi or the natural logarithm’s base could be associated with the constant. This article presents an equation that helps to address Feynman's question.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[255] **viXra:1609.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 11:51:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have visualized the 'melting' of electrons inside a special class of insulators that allows electrons to move freely; the process turns the insulator into a metal and possibly later into a superconductor. The results have been published in Nature Physics. [29] Scientists at the National University of Singapore (NUS) have demonstrated a new way of controlling electrons by confining them in a device made out of atomically thin materials, and applying external electric and magnetic fields. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[254] **viXra:1609.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 08:04:15*

**Authors:** Tibor Endre Nagy

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In the theory of general relativity, it is possible to calculate the size and age of the cosmos using a new Einsteinian gravitational field equation. The equation describing the radius of the universe contains the mass of the Earth, of which the mass under certain conditions is equivalent to the mass of the cosmos. Looking back in time at the point when the universe was the same size as the Earth as a black hole, the mass of the Earth would increase in parallel with the universe’s decreasing size, in the end resulting in the total mass of the cosmos (5.4976•1053kg). Under these conditions, the average main mass density of the present cosmos would be 5.9814•10-26kg∙m-3. Using the masses calculated on the basis of the equatorial and polar radius of the Earth, it is possible to determine the ‘inside mass of the horizon of the cosmos’ in a figure of 2.9075•1051kg, when the mass density of the universe is 3.1634•10-28kg∙m-3. Solving the newfound equation for g, given that the size of the universe equals to that of the Earth as black hole, it is also possible to determine the total gravity of the primordial universe, which is 9.0273•1029m∙s-2. Replacing these results with the original equation, it is possible to determine both the initial radius and mass of the cosmos in figures of 1.5334•10-32m and 6.4877•10-5 kg (both ≈948.8 times the Planck length and Planck mass), while the primordial density is 4.29•1090 kg∙m-3. Under the premise of the above information, the time when the universe may have been formed can be calculated (5.1151•10-41s).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[253] **viXra:1609.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 09:37:38*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

This actual submitted publication refers about recent facts and phenomenas, elusive or real
particles called neutrinos.
During last few months was revealed in giant neutrino's projects in Europe–CERN–LHC
(Large Hadron Collider) ATLAS DETECTOR and in MINOS EXPERIMENT / MAIN
INJECTOR NEUTRINO OSCILLATION SEARCH) Fermilab NUMI / Illinois near Chicago,
U.S.A. many new realities about these elementary nuclear particles, which consists of whole
cosmic matter.
Were studied and observed properties of neutrinos, like emission, oscillation (Nobel Prize
for Physics 2015), detection and the most interesting (qm) superposition in Project MINOS
(735 km of distance between place with Detector 1 in Fermilab and place with Detector 2
in Soudan), under leading of David Kaiser from M.I.T. / Massachussett's Institute
of Technology) in Cambridge, U.S.A.
D. Kaiser easily said: “The particles neutrinos can existed in many quantum states at the same
time.“
According this theory, particles neutrinos can rotate according direction of clocks hands and
against their direction at the same time, or could be together nonexcited and excitated.
About (QM) SUPERPOSITION before 100 years was reflected already Erwin Schrödinger
in mind–experiment the Schrödinger's cat.
In July's number of Journal Physical Review Letters, Physicist David Kaiser and his team
studied distribution of all types of neutrinos produced in Chicago's Fermilab and compared it
with distribution of all types on neutrinos detected in Soudan.
Finally they had come to believe that, observed particles distributions are the best explanated,
that neutrinos are during the flight between Chicago's Fermilab and Mine Soudan, in
MINNESOTA, in state known like quantum-mechanic superposition, and not take
resemblence of one's concretely type of neutrino.
From upper sets realities are offered questions like “are neutrinos immortal or like hologram“.
Further parts of this article is dedicated to summarizing of data from Superkamiokande
and Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (Nobel Prize for Physics 2015), and emission
and detection of neutrinos and other “quanticles“ defined by principles of Prof. Joseph Weber
and other scientists.
In the ending part of this article is dedicated a chapter to theory of Fermi's Golden Rule
(respectively neutrino–antineutrino cross section).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[252] **viXra:1609.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 09:37:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Research led by North Carolina State University sheds new light on the ways in which protons and neutrons can bind and even undergo a quantum phase transition. The work has implications for understanding the connections between nuclear interactions and nuclear structure found in nature. [15] For the first time, researchers at the University of Basel in Switzerland have coupled the nuclear spins of distant atoms using just a single electron. [14] Experiments using inelastic neutron scattering at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering have found indications of a possible new quantum spin state in a novel antiferromagnetic material barium ytterbium zinc oxide (Ba3Yb2Zn5O11) which provides both a challenge and validation of the third law of thermodynamics. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[251] **viXra:1609.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 05:21:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Randomness is vital for computer security, making possible secure encryption that allows people to communicate secretly even if an adversary sees all coded messages. Surprisingly, it even allows security to be maintained if the adversary also knows the key used to the encode the messages. [15] Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[250] **viXra:1609.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 05:59:02*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

This paper has the aim to study the relativistic behaviour of motions that happen in a gravitational field with respect to two reference frames that are in relative motion in the field. Let us consider the two main gravitational motions: the free fall of a body in a gravitational field of first type and the orbital motion in a gravitational field of second type. We will study different physical situations and we will distinguish situations in which the complete physical process happens inside a laboratory (Galilean reference frames) from situations in which physical process happens in open systems (Einsteinian reference frames).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[249] **viXra:1609.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 06:34:03*

**Authors:** Akovantsev Petr Ivanovich

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Аннотация: В статье изложен другой взгляд на наличие фраунгоферовых линий в спектрах, что в корне меняет представление о межгалактическом космологическом красном смещении.
Ключевые слова: спектр, излучение, галактики, красное
Abstract: the article outlines a different view of the existence of Fraunhofer's lines in the spectra that radically changes the picture of the intergalactic cosmological redshift.
Key words: spectrum, radiation, galaxy, red

**Category:** Astrophysics

[248] **viXra:1609.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 01:18:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20]
Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19]
Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18]
An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[247] **viXra:1609.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 04:06:22*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

There are two supposed equivalent versions of the quantum mechanics: the matrix mechanics and the wave mechanics. I think that both would be false.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[246] **viXra:1609.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-19 22:44:15*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

As No.1 of comparative physics series papers, this paper discusses the same points of law of gravity (including improved law of gravity) and general relativity: they are all the effective theories of gravitational interaction, and can be used to solve the problems of advance of planetary perihelion and deflection of photon around the Sun; and the different points of them: general relativity can conform to general relativity principle while law of gravity cannot conform to this principle, and law of gravity can solve the constraint problems in gravitational field (such as a small ball rolls along the inclined plane) while general relativity cannot solve these problems. These two theories can also overcome their own weak points by learning from each other's strong points, and jointly present the new explanation that the advance of planetary perihelion is the combined result of two motions: the first elliptical motion decided by law of gravity creates the perihelion, and the second vortex motion creates the advance of perihelion in which the advance parameters can be decided by general relativity. The common defect of these two theories is that they cannot take into account the principle of conservation of energy, comparing with the result that applying the principle of conservation of energy to derive Newton's second law and law of gravity, the further topic is applying the principle of conservation of energy to derive the related formulae and equations of general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[245] **viXra:1609.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 00:07:49*

**Authors:** Gopal Nayak, Trivedi Science

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Pogostemoncablin is a known aromatic plant which is cultivated for its essential oil widely applicated in perfumery and cosmetic industries. In the present study, the effect of biofield treatment was studied on the growth of P. cablin. For this study an in-vitro culture system was set up in two groups, viz., control and treatment, each of which was derived from three different explant sources, namely leaf, node and petiole. Further these in-vitro plantlets were hardened and transferred to external environment. The stomatal cells and epidermal hair growth were also studied at various morphogenetic stages. The study revealed that a single spell of biofield energy treatment produced significant increase in growth in treated group throughout all the morphogenetic phases from in-vitro to in vivo level. A remarkable increase in stomatal cells and epidermal hair was also seen in treated group.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[244] **viXra:1609.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 00:09:49*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Background : While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science.
The present experiments on Yersinia enterocolitica [ATCC -23715], report the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mr. Mahendrakumar Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner. Methods: Yersinia enterocolitica strains in revived and lyophilized state were subjected to spiritual energy transmitted through thought intervention and/or physical touch of Mr. Trivedi to the sealed tubes containing strain and were analyzed within 10 days after incubation.
Results: The results indicated that Mr.Trivedi's energy has changed 20 of 33 biochemical characteristics of Yersinia enterocolitica along with significant changes in susceptibility pattern in 15 of 32 antibiotics. The Biotype number has changed from the original control strain giving rise to 2 different biotypes in treated samples while the external energy /treatment given was the same for all treated samples suggestive of random polymorphism as analyzed through an automated machine. Conclusions: These results cannot be explained by current theories of science, and indicate a potency in Mr.Trivedi's energy, providing a model for science to be able to investigate the impact of spiritual energy in a rigorous manner. In lyophilized state, biochemical and enzymatic characteristics could be altered.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[243] **viXra:1609.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 00:26:28*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Background: While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science. The present experiments on Enterococcus faecalis [ATCC –51299], report the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mahendra Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner.
Methods: Enterococcus faecalis strains in revived and lyophilized state were subjected to spiritual energy transmitted through thought intervention and/or physical touch of Mr. Trivedi to the sealed tubes containing strain, the process taking about 3 minutes and were analyzed within 10 days after incubation. All tests were performed with the help of automation on the Microscan Walkaway System in Microbiology Laboratory – accredited by The College of American Pathologists.
Results: The results indicated that Mr.Trivedi’s energy has changed 9 of 27 biochemical characteristics of Enterococcus faecalis along with significant changes in susceptibility pattern in 5 of 31 antibiotics. The Biotype number has changed from the original control strain giving rise to 2 different biotypes in treated samples while the external energy /treatment given was the same for all treated samples suggestive of random polymorphism as analyzed through the automated machine.
Conclusions: These results cannot be explained by current theories of science, and indicate a potency in Mr.Trivedi’s energy, providing a model for science to be able to investigate the impact of spiritual energy in a rigorous manner. In lyophilized state, biochemical and enzymatic characteristics could be altered.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[242] **viXra:1609.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-19 14:39:03*

**Authors:** Prado, PF et al

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Temprtive Math exploration

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[241] **viXra:1609.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-19 15:20:52*

**Authors:** Aleksandr Tsybin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Richard Feynman in his famous lectures on physics and popular 4 lectures on quantum electrodynamics (QED), use arrows of different lengths rotating in the plane.I have already mentioned that all these processes are described on the plane, butactually they come in 3-dimensional space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[240] **viXra:1609.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-19 15:42:49*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, stars are the locations for the beginning of life. In this paper it is reasoned that no real evidence for the earliest of life evolution can be found on Earth, as the processes begin in early star evolution, when the Earth was vastly more alien.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[239] **viXra:1609.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-19 15:44:40*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis the worldview of the objects in the galaxy, the Earth, and life and humans is very different than what is accepted by modern scientists.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[238] **viXra:1609.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-19 12:50:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[237] **viXra:1609.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-19 01:08:12*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In the present investigation V2O5 powders are exposed to biofield. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size is found to decrease with increase in number of days after treatment upto a maximum of 15.9% in 110 days indicating severe fracture at agglomerate/crystallite boundaries. The BET surface area showed a surprising decrease (it should increase as particle size is decreased) of 7.22% in 109 days indicating the surface densification/removal of sharp surface corners/formation of large particles. SEM photographs indeed showed that samples exposed to biofield after 20 days showed increase in size as well as rounded corners. Thermal analysis indicated an increase in melting temperature by 9.9% in samples treated after 57 days along with a much reduced change in weight.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[236] **viXra:1609.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-19 01:10:09*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In the present investigation Zirconium oxide and silicon dioxide powders are exposed to Bio-field. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The treated powders when characterized by X-ray diffraction are found to exhibit significant increase and decrease in the lattice parameters of the unit cell, crystallite size and density. The lattice parameters are then used to compute the molecular weight and total number of protons and neutrons in the molecule, which showed an increase up to 0.24 and decrease up to 0.31 percent. It is speculated that the Biofield energy transmitted by Mr. Trivedi is acting on the nucleus in the atoms through some reversible weak interaction of larger cross section causing changes in the proton to neutron ratios and thus energy to mass and mass to energy. Thus the effect is felt by all the atoms, and hence the unit cell, single crystal grain and grain boundaries. The stresses generated in turn may have caused deformation and fracture of the weak interfaces in the polycrystalline powders such as the crystallite and grain boundaries.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[235] **viXra:1609.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-19 01:12:07*

**Authors:** Gopal Nayak, Trivedi Science

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Quantum mechanics was developed when human energies of consciousness were found to influence observations at the scale of elementary particles, here referred as non-contact biofield treatment or biofield energies . Quantum mechanics has also proved efficacious in biological processes. The present experiments found an enhanced and significant impact of the biofield treatment on adaptive micropropagation response and callus induction of two plant species, Withania somnifera and Amaranthus dubius. The enhancement was perhaps due to greater focus on adaptation rather than specific mechanisms, showing high potential including at biochemical and genetic levels. Possible reasons for the enhancement are discussed and a possible model is presented, consistent with current scientific theory.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[234] **viXra:1609.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-19 01:16:55*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science. The present experiment on Staphylococcus epidermis [ATCC –13518], validate the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mahendra Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[233] **viXra:1609.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-19 03:08:25*

**Authors:** Youbang Zhzn

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The discrimination of quantum measurements is an important subject of quantum information processes. In this paper we present a novel protocol for local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD) with multi-qubit entanglement systems. It is shown that, for two space-like separated parties, the local discrimination of two different kinds of measurement can be completed via numerous eight-qubit GHZ entangled states and selective projective measurements without help of classical information. This means that no-signaling constraint can be violated by the LQMD.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[232] **viXra:1609.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-19 04:08:46*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In Russian

Three forces, which according to author determine orbital distances of rocky planets are sufficiently deciphered here.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[231] **viXra:1609.0276 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-26 06:47:10*

**Authors:** Pavel Voráček

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A trivially easy argument, which – in fact – follows from the General relativity theory, is used in order to point out an evident flaw in the commonly accepted interpretation of the Principle of equivalence in Einstein’s box. It is shown that the flaw by itself has no destructive impact on the Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[230] **viXra:1609.0275 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-20 18:04:40*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A simple and clear explanation to the seemingly strange observed phenomenon of the ecliptic alignment of CMB anisotropy is presented. The proposed explanation is based on the wrongly excluded cosmological model of spherical space and radial time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[229] **viXra:1609.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-18 22:01:54*

**Authors:** Robert T. Longo

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

This paper discusses how an observer, when properly defined, can lead to a different interpretation of the universe by providing a way to connect General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. First, this was used to investigate the mass of the Milky Way Galaxy, and the result suggests that dark matter does not exist. Then, Hubble's Law was examined, and we were led to the same conclusion, i.e., dark energy does not exist. Finally, the linkage of quantum mechanics and relativity provides another explanation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and casts doubt on the Big Bang theory. All of these observations and conclusions were made possible by examining the philosophical foundation provided by a better understanding of how intelligent life forms make sense of the physical world. First, we discuss the intelligent life forms that are responsible for all observations and theories related to the universe. With this new understanding of ourselves, from a physics perspective, a philosophy emerges that alters our understanding of space and time. A theory is developed on this philosophical foundation that provides a way to connect the background dependence of quantum mechanics and the background independence of general relativity.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[228] **viXra:1609.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-18 22:43:52*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 1 Page. This Comment was submitted to the editors of 'Astronomy and Astrophysics' on 18 September 2016, for publication in accordance with its Comment criteria.

It has recently been reported in the journal 'Astronomy and Astrophysics' that the active galactic nucleus of Markarian 1018 has likely changed optical type due to the effects of a supermassive black hole or a binary system consisting of two such black holes. It is however impossible for any type or form of black hole to be involved with Mrk 1018 because the mathematical theory of black holes violates the rules of pure mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[227] **viXra:1609.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-19 01:04:55*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In the present investigation silicon, tin and lead powders are exposed to bio field. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size, after an initial decrease is found to increase with increase in number of days after treatment although the size is lee than that exhibited by untreated powder, suggesting the operation of competing mechanisms fracture and sintering. The BET surface area increased slightly in silicon powder but did not change in tin and lead powders. SEM photographs showed that samples exposed to bio field after 20 days showed fracture paths and fractures at inter and intra particle boundaries in treated powders. Thermal analysis indicated a decrease in heat of reaction and decrease in mass in treated samples.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[226] **viXra:1609.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-18 10:23:45*

**Authors:** Michael R Starks

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

As so often in philosophy, the title not only lays down the battle line but exposes the author’s biases and mistakes, since whether or not we can make sense of the language game ‘Seeing things as they are’ and whether it’s possible to have a ‘philosophical’ ‘theory of perception’ (which can only be about how the language of perception works), as opposed to a scientific one, which is a theory about how the brain works, are exactly the issues. This is classic Searle—superb and probably at least as good as anyone else can produce, but lacking a full understanding of the fundamental insights of the later Wittgenstein and with no grasp of the two systems of thought framework, which could have made it brilliant. As in his previous work, Searle largely avoids scientism but there are frequent lapses and he does not grasp that the issues are always about language games, a failing he shares with nearly everyone. After providing a framework consisting of a Table of Intentionality based on the two systems of thought and thinking and decision research, I give a detailed analysis of the book.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[225] **viXra:1609.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-18 07:08:06*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandach

**Comments:** 350 Pages.

In this book authors for the first time introduce study and develop the notion of MOD graphs, MOD directed graphs, MOD finite complex number graphs, MOD neutrosophic graphs, MOD dual number graphs and so on using edge weights from Z_n, C(Z_n),

**Category:** General Mathematics

[224] **viXra:1609.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-18 09:09:58*

**Authors:** J. Akande, L. H. Koudahoun, D. K. K. Adjaï, Y. J. F. Kpomahou, M. D. Monsia

**Comments:** 2 pages

The problem to solve consists of finding explicit solutions for the classical equation of motion of a particle subject to an exponential-type potential and for the quantum version.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[223] **viXra:1609.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-17 19:10:20*

**Authors:** Baz J. Taylor

**Comments:** 1 Page. Images taken from http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2016/g11/

This paper proposes that Supernovae are the remnants of young stars that have expanded and ‘popped’.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[222] **viXra:1609.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-17 19:55:16*

**Authors:** Andrușa R. Vătuiu

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Florentin Smarandache a revenit cu un nou fotovideojurnal instantaneu ˮViitorul a început în trecutˮ, continuând cu o serie de flashuri narative, după cum ne-a obișnuit deja, surprinzând în mod magistral esența experiențelor trăite pe alte meleaguri.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[221] **viXra:1609.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-17 20:02:50*

**Authors:** Andrușa R. Vătuiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

În vara anului 2015, profesorul universitar dr. Florentin Smarandache ne-a surprins cu o noua carte „Am ajuns în Rai!”- un foto-reportaj instantaneu din Polinezia Franceza.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[220] **viXra:1609.0263 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-10 20:15:27*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

Honorable Pierre de Fermat could have squeezed the proof of his last theorem into a page margin. Fermat's last theorem has been proved on a single page. Three similar versions of the proof are presented, using a single page for each version. The approach used in each proof is exemplified by the following system: If a system functions properly and one wants to determine if the same system will function properly with changes in the system, one will first determine the necessary conditions which allow the system to function properly, and then guided by the necessary conditions, one will determine if the changes will allow the system to function properly. So also, if one wants to prove that there are no solutions for the equation c^n = a^n + b^n when n > 2, one should first determine why there are solutions when n = 2, and note the necessary conditions in the solution for n = 2. The necessary conditions in the solutions for n = 2. will guide one to determine if there are solutions when n > 2.. For the first two versions, the proof is based on the Pythagorean identity (sin x)^2 + (cos x)^2 = 1; and for the third version, on (a^2 + b^2)/c^2 = 1, with n = 2, where a, b, and c are relatively prime positive integers. It is shown by contradiction that the uniqueness of the n = 2 identity excludes all other n-values, n > 2, from satisfying the equation c^n = a^n + b^n. One will first show that if n = 2 , c^n = a^n + b^n holds, noting the necessary conditions in the solution; followed by showing that if n > 2 (n an integer), c^n = a^n + b^n does not hold. For the first version of the proof, the proof began with reference to a right triangle. The second version of the proof began with ratio terms without any reference to a geometric figure. The third version occupies about half of a page. The third version of the proof began without any reference to a geometric figure or ratio terms. The second and third versions confirmed the proof in the first version. Each proof version is very simple, and even high school students can learn it. The approach used in the proof has applications in science, engineering, medicine, research, business, and any properly working system when desired changes are to be made in the system. Perhaps, the proof in this paper is the proof that Fermat wished there were enough margin for it in his paper. With respect to prizes, if the prize for a 150-page proof were $715,000, then the prize for a single page proof (considering the advantages) using inverse proportion, would be $107,250,000.

**Category:** Number Theory

[219] **viXra:1609.0262 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-06 01:57:56*

**Authors:** Eli Halylaurin

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This document is french written.

You will find here an attempt to demonstrate a general structure theorem for abelian groups (finite or infinite). Such a theorem already exists in the finite case, but the infinite case does not seem to have been deeply studied. This is what it is proposed to do in this document. To achieve this task, Zorn lemma will be used. We will try to prove each abelian group can be seen as included, modulo isomorphism, in a direct product of groups that can be represented upon a circle or a line.

**Category:** Algebra

[218] **viXra:1609.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-17 12:07:14*

**Authors:** Vito R. D'Angelo

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The Hertz-kilogram relationship constant, although obscure, is nonetheless a bona fide constant listed in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's (CODATA values) fundamental constants list[pg.6]. The Hertz-kilogram relationship constant is being used due to its value of (7.372497201 x10^-51 (91)) being very close to the Democritean indivisible unit, Y' (8.134865168 10^-54) It is shown that the 13/12 schematic of U-theory [2] theoretically calculates the fundamental constants within the uncertainty limits of (NIST) CODATA values [1]; utilizing twelve dimensionless constants.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[217] **viXra:1609.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-17 08:51:16*

**Authors:** J. Akande, D. K. K. Adjaï, L. H. Koudahoun, Y. J. F. Kpomahou, M. D. Monsia

**Comments:** 5 pages

The generalized modified Emden equation also known as the generalized second order Riccati equation, is exactly solved in terms of the periodic solution of the linear harmonic oscillator. The solutions for specific values of parameters are discussed. The conditions for isochronous oscillations are also investigated.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[216] **viXra:1609.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-17 09:37:47*

**Authors:** Junnichi Fujii

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The definition in time in the present-day physics is insufficient. Several problems which are to reconsider a definition in time and concern in time can be settled.

**Category:** Number Theory

[215] **viXra:1609.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-17 04:52:25*

**Authors:** Trivedi Science

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Soybean production in Iowa USA is among the most productive for raínfed regions in the world. Despite generally having excellent soils, growing season temperatures and rainfall, soybean yields are decreased by weed interference and inadequate available soil water at key stages of crop development. A field study was conducted at two locations in lowa in 2012 to determine if seed-applied fungicide or biofield treatments influenced weed community, soil volumetric water concentration and soybean yield and quality. Application of biofield treatment resulted in lower density of tall waterhemp density, greater soybean stand density at R8 stage and greater seed pod-1 compared to the absence of seed fungicide and biofield Soil volumetric water content varied by seed fungicide x biofield x date interaction but differences were not consistent among treatment combinations. Overall, seed fungicide and biofield treatments had similar effects on soybean productivity, however additional research is necessary to determine if biofield treatment is a suitable replacement for seed fungicide application.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[214] **viXra:1609.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-17 04:56:55*

**Authors:** Frank Sances, Eric Flora, Shrikant Patil, Amy Spence, Vishal Shinde, Mahendra Trivedi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This study tested the Null Hypothesis for the effect of BioField Energy applied to two separate crops under typical growing conditions, namely ginseng and organic blueberry in commercial plantings in Wisconsin and California, respectively. Following treatment to replicated plots in standard experimental design, data were collected at harvest for yield quantity and quality. Ginseng plants treated both pre-harvest and a combination of pre- and post-harvest showed market grade increases of 33.3% and 40.0%, respectively. Point of sale gross return for this crop is dependent upon tuber quality, and from these data the economics of these treatments were calculated. Based on stand adjusted yields and quality values, a combination of pre- and post-harvest treatment increased gross income by 57.4%. The second crop showed similar trends in positive responses. In the two blueberry varieties studied, Emerald treated plants showed 96% statistical increase in yield, while Jewel showed 31% increase. At the time of treatment, each variety was in a different stage of flowering. The Emerald variety was in the flowering stage, and Jewel was predominately in the fruiting stage. Both treated cultivars however demonstrated increased yield quantity and quality. The specific mechanisms that lead to these preliminary results need further investigation.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[213] **viXra:1609.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-17 04:59:00*

**Authors:** H.S. Dhaliwal

**Comments:** Pages.

A galaxy's redshift is not related to the Hubble velocity alone. Numerous redshift anomalies have been detected which suggest this. This papers goal is to explain the nature of these redshifts. Redshift anomalies in Quasars with a high-z, binary galaxies with a mass gaining companion with a discordant high-z, and the furthest galaxies with high-z values all have a similar trait, their mass is increasing at a high rate at time of observation. This paper proposes that when an objects gravity well is in the process of strengthening (by gaining mass), the light observed during its gravity well strengthening phase is redshifted accordingly. I provide numerous observations of objects that are closer than their high z values places them under current interpretation that support the hypothesis. The greater the look back time, the younger the galaxy, the younger the galaxy when observed, the faster its gravity well is strengthening. The faster a gravity well is figuratively deepening, the further photons will be stretched that traverse and depart the morphing gravity well. The implications of this phenomenon have one of three outcomes for the nature of the observable universe. A. the universe is not expanding as fast as estimated. B. the universe is static (redshifts will still appear higher the farther we look). C. the universe is contracting (the redshifts still appear higher the farther we look). The redshift anomaly can help us understand dark matter also. Z total = the affects of (change in GW well of the observable universe) + (change in GW of Milky Way) + (change in GW of observed galaxy) + (Velocity of observed galaxy). The paper contains numerous tests that may prove the hypothesis presented. To not even glance at these redshift anomalies because they don't agree with today's model of measuring expansion is just preventing advancement in the field, halting future discoveries. Correction: (Obs. 2) Here, object 2 (z=0.243) and Object 3 (z=0.391) is gaining mass from their surroundings. Object 3 (z=0.391) has a higher z than object 2 (z=0.243) because object 3 (z=0.391) is gaining a higher rate of mass relative to its own size than object 2 (still both are gaining mass from the bridge). Object 1 (z=0.057) has a higher z value than NGC 7603 (z=0.029), which may mean object 1 (z=0.057) is gaining mass from NGC 7603 (z=0.029) through the arm connecting them.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[212] **viXra:1609.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-17 05:05:15*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Aluminium powders are used in a wide range from propelling rockets to improving personal hygiene. More popular industrial applications include manufacture of silver metallic pigments, paints, inks, plastics, packaging, textiles and aerospace industry. As thick film pastes used in the manufacture of silicon solar cells, and as reducing agent and sources of heat, used in alumina thermic and exothermic applications.
In the present investigation, Aluminium powders were exposed to non-contact Biofield treatment. Both the exposed and unexposed powders were later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size, after a slight initial decrease was found to increase after 80 days of treatment substantially, which suggested the operation of competing mechanisms fracture and sintering (micro welding). The BET surface area monotonically decreased which was consistent with increase in particle size. SEM photographs showed that samples exposed to Biofield after 38 days showed growth in particle size and particles joined at inter and intra particle boundaries. X-ray diffraction of the powder samples indicated both increase and decrease in crystallite size, unit cell volume, change in nuclear charge per unit volume of atom and atomic weight of samples exposed to Biofield even after 106 days. These results indicated that properties of Aluminium powders could be changed even up to atomic level by exposure to Biofield.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[211] **viXra:1609.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-17 06:02:30*

**Authors:** Krishn Kumar Gupt, Vinay Kumar Singh

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Modern communications technology revolutionized the way, mobility and efficiency of electronic communications. Starting from with Alexander Graham Bells’ telephone experiments to widely practiced W-CDMA network and the nearly achieved 4G mode of communications, all had and will have great contributions in today’s voice/data network arena. Wireless technology has achieved evolutionary success aiming at unified target: efficiency, performance and feasibility in high mobile environment. The mobile experience is expanding everywhere fulfilling the basic electronic communication needs. The first generation (1G) was analog. 1G established seamless mobile connectivity used for basic mobile voice until being replaced by the second generation (2G) digital telecommunications technologies which increased voice capacity delivering mobile to the masses with network infrastructure supporting text messaging. The success of digital voice and simple data prompted to the development of cellular wireless communication system with improved data connectivity and more accessible features leads to followed by the third generation (3G). Third generation system having mobile optimization for data enabling mobile broadband services with better and higher speed of data transfer and connectivity. The fourth generation (4G) having more capacity for faster and better wireless mobile broadband experiences with accessing capability to wide range of communication services, including advanced mobile services, and enhancement in the quality of services with increase in the bandwidth. In this paper we address the evolution of wireless modern mobile communication systems, from first generation (1G) to the widely practiced third generation (3G), recently introduced fourth generation (4G) and some glimpse of foreseeable future of fifth generation (5G).

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[210] **viXra:1609.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-17 06:33:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Interfaces between different materials and their properties are of key importance for modern technology. Together with an international team, physicists of Würzburg University have developed a new method that allows them to closely analyze these interfaces and to model their properties. [20]
Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18]
An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[209] **viXra:1609.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-16 13:04:20*

**Authors:** Elio Conte

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In quantum mechanics a wave function is connected to a quantum system. This abstract entity represents a description of the quantum state of this system. The wave function is a complex-valued probability amplitude and the probabilities for the possible results of measurements made on the system can be derived from it . In the present paper it is demonstrated that the tentative often adopted from scholars to attribute a wave function as representation of a mental state in current quantum cognition studies cannot be accepted. A mental state is a so complex structure , depending contextually at each instant from a so complex structure of inner and subjective elements and psychological and neurological components, to exclude its representation by a simple and elementary wave function, The mental state may be represented by a quantum wave function that, owing of the complex structure of the mental state, has an intrinsic indetermination and fluctuation of the basic probability amplitudes to respond to the basic notion of intrinsecally , incompletely specified system that was introduced by P. T. Landsberg in 1961. As consequence a simple quantum wave function cannot be adopted and instead an averaging statistical formulation is absolutely required. Therefore, the subsequent quantum statistical theory is formulated.

**Category:** Mind Science

[208] **viXra:1609.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-16 13:12:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A new technique detects spatial coherence in light at smaller scales than had been possible. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[207] **viXra:1609.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-16 13:54:39*

**Authors:** Prado, PF et al

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Offers a math framework to the Perspective: Is there a structural resonant ruler in Nature? An exploratory framework to neuroscience and fundamental physics studies. Addition to Nextex set of conjectures: Version 1.0. Concluding that the resonant phenomenon probably is just the best signaling mark to the Principal phenomenon underlayered in Nature:the physical (realistic) implementation of the Fundamental theorem of Calculus or the called Theorem of Stokes.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[206] **viXra:1609.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-16 19:33:43*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 11 Pages. This is an updated version of the paper.

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[205] **viXra:1609.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-16 10:16:10*

**Authors:** Youbang Zhan

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The discrimination of quantum measurements is an important subject of quantum information processes. In this paper we present a novel protocol for local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD) with multi-qubit entanglement systems. It is shown that, if both two observers (Alice and Bob) agreed in advance that one of them (e.g. Alice) should measure her qubits before an appointed time t, the local discrimination of two different kinds of measurement can be completed via numerous eight-qubit GHZ entangled states and selective projective measurements without help of classical information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[204] **viXra:1609.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-16 10:36:16*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is demonstrated in the present work that the standard integration of the proper time along a freefalling geodesic in Schwarzschild spacetime does not properly account for the coordinate curvature in the vicinity of the event horizon. It is shown that that the condition given by the metric, namely that the change in proper time of the freefalling observer per change of coordinate time goes to zero at the horizon can be maintained while still allowing for an infinite proper time to the horizon. With the aid of a transformation of the radial Schwarzschild coordinate and analysis of light signals, we find that observers at rest will see the freefalling observer slow exponentially as she approaches the horizon, while the freefaller will see rest observers slow asymptotically as she approaches the horizon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[203] **viXra:1609.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-16 07:42:26*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, stars exhibit exponential decay. A simple mathematical relationship based off luminosity as compared to the Sun is given so that stars can have their ages determined. This paper is up for continued revision, as it only serves as a starting point to develop stellar metamorphosis in a mathematical sense.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[202] **viXra:1609.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-16 09:20:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[201] **viXra:1609.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-16 05:22:30*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Phenolic compounds are commonly used for diverse applications such as in pharmaceuticals, chemicals, rubber, dyes and pigments. The objective of present research was to study the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of phenol derivatives such as o-nitrophenol (ONP), m-nitrophenol (MNP) and p-tertiary butyl phenol (TBP). The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control and treated compounds were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and surface area analysis. XRD analysis showed increase in crystallite size by 16.05% in treated ONP as compared to control. However, the treated MNP showed decrease in crystallite size by 16.17% as compared to control. The treated TBP showed increase in crystallite size by 5.20% as compared to control. DSC of treated MNP exhibited increase in melting temperature with respect to control, which may be correlated to higher thermal stability of treated sample. However, the treated TBP exhibited no significant change in melting temperature with respect to control. TGA analysis of treated ONP and TBP showed an increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) as compared to control. However, the treated MNP showed slight decrease in Tmax in comparison with control sample. Surface area analysis of treated ONP showed decrease in surface area by 65.5%. However, surface area was increased by 40.7% in treated MNP as compared to control. These results suggest that biofield treatment has significant effect on physical and thermal properties of ONP, MNP and TBP.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[200] **viXra:1609.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 16:32:52*

**Authors:** D. K. K. Adjaï, Y. J. F. Kpomahou, J. Akande, L. H. Koudahoun, M. D. Monsia

**Comments:** 4 pages

In this paper the qualitative properties of a family of an anharmonic oscillator equations of motion were carried out with phase portraits.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[199] **viXra:1609.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 19:25:33*

**Authors:** Mahdi Fakoor, Amirreza Kosari, Mohsen Jafarzadeh

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Path planning in a completely known environment has been experienced various ways. However, in real world, most humanoid robots work in unknown environments. Robots' path planning by artificial potential field and fuzzy artificial potential field methods are very popular in the field of robotics navigation. However, by default humanoid robots lack range sensors; thus, traditional artificial potential field approaches needs to adopt themselves to these limitations. This paper investigates two different approaches for path planning of a humanoid robot in an unknown environment using fuzzy artificial potential (FAP) method. In the first approach, the direction of the moving robot is derived from fuzzified artificial potential field whereas in the second one, the direction of the robot is extracted from some linguistic rules that are inspired from artificial potential field. These two introduced trajectory design approaches are validated though some software and hardware in the loop simulations and the experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approaches in humanoid robot real-time trajectory planning problems.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[198] **viXra:1609.0237 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-11 13:40:24*

**Authors:** Krishan Vats

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This is a statistical analysis of the experimental data used in a recent paper [M. Giustina et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250401 (2015)], published at https://arxiv.org/abs/1511.03190. The data for this analysis was graciously made available by the authors as a private communication.
This article is not meant in any way to comment upon the originally published findings of the experiment.
Abstract –
Till date, all experiments prove non-locality of quantum entanglement based upon overall statistical correlations and thus demonstrating that Bell’s inequality is violated. No detailed data analysis has been published yet. This article presents a first of its kind experimental analysis and it indicates that there is a real chance that entanglement may be local. This is a huge claim by any means. But it is necessary to make such dramatic claim due to two reasons – 1) It is based upon experimental data and can be tested and verified. 2) So that the QM community makes an effort to analyze detailed data to scrutinize the reality of entanglement.
Due to large amount of data involved, experimentalists only look at data at aggregate level and do not scrutinize the raw data in full detail. When data of this experiment was analyzed at detail level, it was observed that non-locality of entanglement can not be settled until this kind of analysis is completed on data from multiple such experiments.
The natural and prompt reaction from many may be to look for faults with this analysis without presenting the evidence that such analysis has already been completed. For curious people, observation is odd enough to be probed further. The complacent ones will look only for the faults, but those who welcome scrutiny, will challenge it with evidence and/or their own analysis at this detailed level. All sound theories welcome scrutiny and refute it with evidence.
This article does not claim “classical mechanics” to be the solution. Quantum Mechanics predictions are correct in terms of averages. This analysis indicates that the statistical correlation percent of entanglement may be guided/balanced by some real/local mechanism rather than being independently probabilistic and spooky. It presents an intuitive mechanism that can explain statistical correlations without entanglement being non-local or entanglement being defined in a different way then it currently is.
The scope of this article is only statistical data. Anti correlation (Bell’s state, when measured in the same angle) is always true, therefore it is not statistical in nature and is left out of scope. Moreover perfect anti correlation can easily be explained as a direct consequence of conservation laws. In fact, perfect anti correlation is a big red flag to the probabilistic nature. There is no such thing as zero, or one probability. Zero or one probability would actually be a law, not probability. So, perfect anti correlation itself indicates that the outcomes of entanglement can not be probabilistic; they have to be governed by law, not probability.
If some balancing mechanism is found to exist then (in terms of magnitude), it really operates within probabilistic limits thereby making it very difficult to differentiate it from probabilistic nature. Therefore a detailed data analysis on many such experiments is necessary to rule it in/out. In fact it would require special experiments for its independent investigation. This can also explain why the correlations have been considered probabilistic for such a long history. Therefore, this type of experimental investigation is a must in order to conclude existence/nonexistence of non-local entanglement.
By the time this revision is written, another experiment has been analyzed and published at http://vixra.org/abs/1611.0148
Both of the recent experiments give similar indications.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[197] **viXra:1609.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-16 00:26:53*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[196] **viXra:1609.0235 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-21 04:52:50*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Theory of Everything (ToE) is the ordinary sum of the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), General Theory of Relativity (GR) and Quantum-Physics/Standard-Model (QP/SM). The SST causes that GR and QP/SM transform into the coherent theories without infinities, singularities, approximations, mathematical tricks such as the mathematical indeterminate forms and others, and free parameters. Moreover, within SST we can partially unify GR and QP/SM and show that unification of these theories within the same methods is impossible - it does not follow from incompleteness of such ToE but from the fundamental property of spacetime. Here we listed the basic problems that are solved within such ToE - such list overlaps with the list of unsolved basic problems in cosmology, GR, general physics, QP, high-energy physics, particle physics, astronomy, nuclear physics, high-temperature superconductors, and so on. Scientific journals should not validate incoherent theories because it misleading scientific community and radically increases entropy in physics i.e. radically increases mess in physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[195] **viXra:1609.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 09:15:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Researchers have observed quantum effects in electrons by squeezing them into one-dimensional 'quantum wires' and observing the interactions between them. The results could be used to aid in the development of quantum technologies, including quantum computing. [19]
Researchers from MIT and MIT Lincoln Laboratory report an important step toward practical quantum computers, with a paper describing a prototype chip that can trap ions in an electric field and, with built-in optics, direct laser light toward each of them. [18]
An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17]
To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16]
Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15]
Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14]
A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[194] **viXra:1609.0233 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-17 17:23:45*

**Authors:** Manuel Abarca Hernandez

**Comments:** 27 Pages. V2-Two new chapters with DM density formulas through dimensionless variables power.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about non baryonic dark matter nature, which was published by the author in [1] Abarca,M.2014. [3] Abarca,M.2015. [8] Abarca,M.2016. [ 11] Abarca,M.2016 and others papers. It was postulated that non baryonic dark matter density depend on E, gravitational field, through a power of E as a Universal law. In order to check this theory in this paper will be studied DM density in halo region of MW and M31. Throughout the paper, DM refers to Non Baryonic DM.
Briefly will be described paper procedure.
In third chapter are introduced rotation curves of MW, [5] Huang,Y.2016, and M31, [13] Sofue, Y.2015. It is fitted a power regression for velocity depending on radius in halo of both galaxies. Formula is v = a• R^b.
In fourth chapter it is deduced mathematically a DM density profile for MW & M31 in halo region. This new profile is called Direct DM density because it is got directly from power regression velocity depending on radius.
In fifth chapter is found a new DM density as power of E, which is mathematically equivalent to Direct DM density. Its formula is DM density = A• E^B. Where A & B are coefficients which depend on a & b, coefficients of velocity power regression in rotation curve. Also are calculated A&B for MW and M31. Finally it is explained that hypothesis of DM depending on gravitational field as Universal law allows enlarge dominion DM as power E for radius inside disc and radius bigger than dominion measures.
In sixth chapter, according theory of DM generated by gravitational field, is defined galactic halo as region where own gravitational field dominates over neighbour gravitational field. Through this criterion is found halo MW = 310 kpc and halo M31 = 460 kpc.
The seventh is a crucial chapter, because it is successfully compared DM as power E in MW & M31. Both formulas are compared and relative differences throughout dominion of E are below 14 %. Agreement of both functions is the main evidence about DM power E as Universal law.
In eighth chapter is compared DM density as power E with NFW profile given by author of rotation curve in his paper. [5] Huang,Y.2016. NFW density is bigger than DM power E throughout all dominion, and relative differences oscillate between 34% and 13%. Such remarkable differences will be properly justified.
In ninth chapter is calculated total mass through NFW profile and dynamical method. Mass through NFW profile is bigger than through dynamical method. Difference might be explained by the same reason given in previous chapter.
In tenth chapter is calculated Local DM density through DM power E profile, which gives 0,16 GeV/cm^3 and is compared with same magnitude given by [5] Huang,Y.2016, which is 0,32 GeV/cm^3. It is defended that there is not contradiction between both data because the first profile gives Non Baryonic DM only, whereas experimental data measure Baryonic and non Baryonic DM.
In eleventh chapter is developed a mathematical procedure to change physics magnitudes as power into dimensionless power variables. This change has been possible thanks a new parameter Rs called scale radius. So it is defined x = radius/ Rs being x dimensionless. This way velocity v = c• x^d. As a consequence Direct DM is changed into a new dimensionless power and similarly happen to DM as power of E, where E is changed by a new dimensionless variable.
In twelfth chapter is made use of new formulas to Milky Way data. New results have being checked and it has been shown that they are identical to got in previous chapters.
It is concluded three main ideas which will be properly justified in following pages.
The first one is that there are strong evidences about that fraction of Baryonic DM vs Non Baryonic DM inside bulge and galactic disc is bigger than the same fraction inside halo.
The second one is DM generated by gravitational field theory leads rightly a new definition for halo radius. According this theory are calculated halo radius MW equal to 310 kpc and halo radius M31 equal to 460 kpc.
The third one is that there are strong evidences that non baryonic DM density is generated by gravitational field as a Universal law. Main reason to support this hypothesis is got in chapter seventh.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[193] **viXra:1609.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 12:59:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19]
Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18]
An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[192] **viXra:1609.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 13:04:27*

**Authors:** Prado, Pf

**Comments:** 1 Page.

tmeptive of oscilator model

**Category:** Classical Physics

[191] **viXra:1609.0230 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-21 05:20:57*

**Authors:** L. Martino, V. Elvira, G. Camps-Valls

**Comments:** 30 Pages. published in Digital Signal Processing, Volume 74, 2018

Monte Carlo methods are essential tools for Bayesian inference. Gibbs sampling is a well-known Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm, extensively used in signal processing, machine learning, and statistics, employed to draw samples from complicated high-dimensional posterior distributions. The key point for the successful application of the Gibbs sampler is the ability to draw efficiently samples from the full-conditional probability density functions. Since in the general case this is not possible, in order to speed up the convergence of the chain, it is required to generate auxiliary samples whose information is eventually disregarded. In this work, we show that these auxiliary samples can be recycled within the Gibbs estimators, improving their efficiency with no extra cost. This novel scheme arises naturally after pointing out the relationship between the standard Gibbs sampler and the chain rule used for sampling purposes. Numerical simulations involving simple and real inference problems confirm the excellent performance of the proposed scheme in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. In particular we give empirical evidence of performance in a toy example, inference of Gaussian processes hyperparameters, and learning dependence graphs through regression.

**Category:** Statistics

[190] **viXra:1609.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 04:43:35*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Study background: Staphylococci are widespread in nature, mainly found on the skin and mucous membranes. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the key organism for food poisoning due to massive production of heat stable exotoxins. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and biochemical characteristics of S. aureus (ATCC 25923).
Methods: S. aureus cells were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 25923) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocols until needed for experiments. Revived and lyophilized state of ATCC strains of S. aureus were selected for the study. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. aureus were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Revived treated cells were assessed on day 5 and day 10 while lyophilized treated cells on day 10 only. After biofield treatment both treated cells were analysed for its antimicrobial sensitivity, minimum inhibitory concentration value, biochemical reactions and biotype number with respect to control (Gr. I).
Results: The antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration of S. aureus showed significant (86.67%) alteration in lyophilized cells while no alteration was found in revived treated cells as compared to control. It was observed that overall 37.93% (eleven out of twenty nine) biochemical reactions were altered in the treated groups with respect to control. Moreover, biotype numbers were substantially changed in revived treated cells, Gr. II (303137, Staphylococcus capitis subsp. ureolyticus) on day 5 and in lyophilized treated cells, Gr. III (767177, S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum) on day 10 as compared to control (307016, S. aureus).
Conclusion: The result suggested that biofield treatment has significant impact on S. aureus in lyophilized treated cells with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC values and biochemical reactions pattern. Apart from these, biotype numbers with new species were observed in revived treated group on day 5 as Staphylococcus capitis subsp. ureolyticus and in lyophilized cells as Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum with respect to control, i.e., S. aureus.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[189] **viXra:1609.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 04:45:40*

**Authors:** Trivedi Foundation

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Recent studies report the effect of biofield treatment on changes in structural characteristics of organic and inorganic matter, on cancer cells in vitro and on overall plant development. This study tested the impact of the same treatment applied to lettuce and tomato seeds and transplants (Lactuca sativa var. capitata and Lycopersiconesculentum var. Roma) in commercial plantings with and without fertilizers and pesticides, in relation to yield, quality, and pest inhibition. Treated lettuce plants with fertilizer and pesticide applications were more vigorous, exhibited less incidence of soil-borne fungal wilt, and subsequent yield was statistically greater 43% compared to untreated plants. Treated plants with no fertilizer or pesticide applications in the field behaved similarly to untreated plants that received routine fertilizer and pest control inputs. Similarly, fertilizer applied and fertilizer non-applied treated tomato plants exhibited a 25% and 31% increase in total observable yields respectively. Treated tomato and lettuce plants also measured higher in total leaf tissue chlorophyll content. The combination of biofield treatment along with administration of chemical additives demonstrated the best results with statistically increased yields and higher pest resistance in both test cropping systems. The specific mechanisms that lead to these preliminary results have yet to be determined.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[188] **viXra:1609.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 07:53:48*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas for pi constant: pi=3.1415926535...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[187] **viXra:1609.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 07:57:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Researchers at Aalto University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have demonstrated that polaron formation also occurs in a system of magnetic charges, and not just in a system of electric charges. Being able to control the transport properties of such charges could enable new devices based on magnetic rather than electric charges, for example computer memories. [14]
The electronic energy states allowed by quantum mechanics determine whether a solid is an insulator or whether it conducts electric current as a metal. Researchers at ETH have now theoretically predicted a novel material whose energy states exhibit a hitherto unknown peculiarity. [13]
Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12]
Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11]
A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10]
As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[186] **viXra:1609.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 07:58:15*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This note presents a collection of Mathematical formulas involving the mathematical constant pi: pi=3.14159265...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[185] **viXra:1609.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-30 12:41:42*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. part 2 of 3

Abstract
A functional class of particles, the "Alternative Charge Carriers" (ACCs), is recognized as characteristic of the Electroweak domain and the Weak Force Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs). Using a financial analogy, the weak force mechanism is compared to the operation of a government mint.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[184] **viXra:1609.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 01:38:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A targeted way to manipulate beams of protons accelerated using ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses has been demonstrated by a team of researchers led at the University of Strathclyde. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[183] **viXra:1609.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 02:39:10*

**Authors:** Sarangam Majumdar, Sukla Pal

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Scientist predicted the existence of quantum Hawking radiation and now he measures the
entanglement of the Hawking pairs in an analogue black hole --- A theory which was almost
impossible to verify in actual black hole has recently got its experimental confirmation in analog
system.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[182] **viXra:1609.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 02:57:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15]
IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14]
Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13]
Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12]
We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11]
Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10]
There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[181] **viXra:1609.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 03:40:42*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 6 pages

In his 1905 paper on special relativity, Einstein derived the relativistic Doppler shift formula from the Lorentz transformation. The wave time-period equation deduced from the relativistic Doppler shift is shown to result, with the help of the Lorentz transformation, in another time equation in contradiction with the formerly mentioned one. The end result: the Lorentz contraction factor γ is reduced to unity; the whole theory of relativity is thus undermined. Furthermore, for the case of relative circular motion, a critical contradiction of the relativistic Doppler principle with the special relativity time dilation prediction is revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[180] **viXra:1609.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-14 10:32:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The electronic energy states allowed by quantum mechanics determine whether a solid is an insulator or whether it conducts electric current as a metal. Researchers at ETH have now theoretically predicted a novel material whose energy states exhibit a hitherto unknown peculiarity. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[179] **viXra:1609.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-14 11:37:07*

**Authors:** Ion Popescu-Brădiceni

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Mă obişnuisem cu un personaj PĂCALĂ folcloric. Deci cu atât mai surprinzătoare a fost pentru mine ipostaza cu un «PĂCALĂ» postmodern (al dramaturgului Florentin Smarandache). Meritul este tot al regizorului şcolit academic (e doctorand în pedagogie teatrală – n.m.) Ion Alexandrescu. Abilitat, aplicat, posesor al unui limbaj adecvat, posedă rara calitate de a comunica, prin montările sale scenice cu copiii, cu prichindeii chiar.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[178] **viXra:1609.0217 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-15 10:20:46*

**Authors:** Jesus Sanchez

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper, we will derive the following formula for the value of the gravitational constant G:
G=(παq²/me²ε0)*exp(-(1/√2)*((1/α)-0.5πα))=6.67408E-11 m³/(kg s²)
Being α the fine structure constant, q the elementary charge, me the mass of the electron, ε0 the permittivity of the free space and π the relation between a circumference and its diameter.
As it can be checked, all of them are electromagnetic or mathematical constants and properties of the electron. No constant related to gravity has been used to arrive to this value. This formula is ok numerically and in units. And it is the output of this paper.
To get to this formula, we will consider space as being composed by the particles that occupy it. These particles include mass particles and force carriers (as photons). Gravity will appear as an emergent phenomenon caused by this reason. Having in mind these considerations for a special case (an isolated electron emitting photons) we get to this formula that validates the assumptions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[177] **viXra:1609.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-14 13:47:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Superconducting aluminum or superfluid helium could be used to detect superlight dark matter particles. [14] Technological advances are ushering in a new era of understanding in the search for fundamental physical particles-including dark matter-scientists will tell a public event. [13] The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) dark matter experiment, which operates nearly a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in the Black Hills of South Dakota, has already proven itself to be the most sensitive detector in the hunt for dark matter, the unseen stuff believed to account for most of the matter in the universe. Now, a new set of calibration techniques employed by LUX scientists has again dramatically improved the detector's sensitivity. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[176] **viXra:1609.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-14 01:54:49*

**Authors:** editors Sachin Malik, Neeraj Kumar, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 90 Pages.

The main aim of the present book is to suggest some improved estimators using auxiliary and attribute information in case of simple random sampling and stratified random sampling and some inventory models related to capacity constraints.
This volume is a collection of five papers, written by six co-authors (listed in the order of the papers): Dr. Rajesh Singh, Dr. Sachin Malik, Dr. Florentin Smarandache, Dr. Neeraj Kumar, Mr. Sanjey Kumar & Pallavi Agarwal.
In the first chapter authors suggest an estimator using two auxiliary variables in stratified random sampling for estimating population mean.
In second chapter they proposed a family of estimators for estimating population means using known value of some population parameters.
In Chapter third an almost unbiased estimator using known value of some population parameter(s) with known population proportion of an auxiliary variable has been used.
In Chapter four the authors investigates a fuzzy economic order quantity model for two storage facility. The demand, holding cost, ordering cost, storage capacity of the own - warehouse are taken as trapezoidal fuzzy numbers.
In Chapter five a two-warehouse inventory model deals with deteriorating items, with stock
dependent demand rate and model affected by inflation under the pattern of time value of
money over a finite planning horizon. Shortages are allowed and partially backordered
depending on the waiting time for the next replenishment. The purpose of this model is to
minimize the total inventory cost by using the genetic algorithm.
This book will be helpful for the researchers and students who are working in the field of sampling techniques and inventory control.

**Category:** Statistics

[175] **viXra:1609.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-14 03:53:32*

**Authors:** Paul R. Gerber

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Elementary Fermions come in generations, e.g.
(electron, muon, tau), neutrino-triplet, etc., which is an experimental fact and sometimes apostrophized as a mystery [1] because a theoretical explanation is missing. That there are more than three generations is considered possible but unlikely. We show that generations follow from group-theoretical arguments and that their number is determined by the number of space dimensions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[174] **viXra:1609.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 14:03:15*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In Russian

Comparision of oddities in equations of electrostatic interaction of two charges and gravitational interaction of two masses show a mess in both.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[173] **viXra:1609.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 14:54:33*

**Authors:** Prado, Pf

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Discussion on ressonance considerations about fundamental physics

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[172] **viXra:1609.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 11:02:40*

**Authors:** Russell Leidich

**Comments:** 13 Pages. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Unlike other common transcendental functions such as log and sine, James Stirling's convergent series for the loggamma (“logΓ”) function suggests no obvious method by which to ascertain meaningful bounds on the error due to truncation after a particular number of terms. (“Convergent” refers to the fact that his original formula appeared to converge, but ultimately diverged.) As such, it remains an anathema to the interval arithmetic algorithms which underlie our confidence in its various numerical applications.
Certain error bounds do exist in the literature, but involve branches and procedurally generated rationals which defy straightforward implementation via interval arithmetic.
In order to ameliorate this situation, we derive error bounds on the loggamma function which are readily amenable to such methods.

**Category:** Statistics

[171] **viXra:1609.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 04:10:21*

**Authors:** Rajesh Singh, Prayas Sharma, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Singh et al. (20009) introduced a family of exponential ratio and product type estimators in stratified random sampling. Under stratified random sampling without replacement scheme, the expressions of bias and mean square error (MSE) of Singh et al. (2009) and some other estimators, up to the first- and second-order approximations are
derived. Also, the theoretical findings are supported by a numerical example.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[170] **viXra:1609.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 04:12:01*

**Authors:** M. Khoshnevisan, Sukanto Bhattacharya, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Each individual investor is different, with different financial goals, different levels of
risk tolerance and different personal preferences. From the point of view of investment management, these characteristics are often defined as objectives and constraints. Objectives can be the type of return being sought, while constraints include factors such as time horizon, how liquid the investor is, any personal tax situation and how risk is handled.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[169] **viXra:1609.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 04:14:28*

**Authors:** S. Bhattacharya, S. Malakar, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Our paper computationally explores Ricker’s predator satiation model with the objective
of studying how the extinction dynamics of an animal species having a two-stage lifecycle
is affected by a sudden spike in mortality due to an extraneous extreme event. Our
simulation model has been designed and implemented using sockeye salmon population
data based on a stochastic version of Ricker’s model; with the shock size being reflected
by a sudden reduction in the carrying capacity of the environment for this species. Our
results show that even for a relatively marginal increase in the negative impact of an
extreme event on the carrying capacity of the environment, a species with an otherwise
stable population may be driven close to extinction.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[168] **viXra:1609.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 04:18:03*

**Authors:** Olufadi Yunusa, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a new estimator for estimating the finite population mean using two
auxiliary variables. The expressions for the bias and mean square error of the suggested
estimator have been obtained to the first degree of approximation and some estimators are
shown to be a particular member of this estimator. Furthermore, comparison of the suggested estimator with the usual unbiased estimator and other estimators considered in this paper is carried out. In addition, an empirical study with two natural data from literature is used to expound the performance of the proposed estimator with respect to others.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[167] **viXra:1609.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 04:23:28*

**Authors:** M. Khoshnevisan, Florentin Smarandache, Sukanto Bhattacharya

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

In this paper we take a look at a simple portfolio insurance strategy using a protective put
and computationally derive the investor’s governing utility structures underlying such a
strategy under alternative market scenarios. Investor utility is deemed to increase with an
increase in the excess equity generated by the portfolio insurance strategy over a simple
investment strategy without any insurance.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[166] **viXra:1609.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 04:24:33*

**Authors:** Manoj Kr. Chaudhary, V. K. Singh, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This chapter presents the detailed discussion on the effect of non-response on the
estimator of population mean in a frequently used design, namely, stratified random
sampling. In this chapter, our aim is to discuss the existing allocation schemes in
presence of non-response and to suggest some new allocation schemes utilizing the
knowledge of response and non-response rates of different strata. The effects of proposed
schemes on the sampling variance of the estimator have been discussed and compared
with the usual allocation schemes, namely, proportional allocation and Neyman
allocation in presence of non-response. The empirical study has also been carried out in
support of the results.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[165] **viXra:1609.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 04:32:47*

**Authors:** Viplav Kumar Singh, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this article we have proposed an efficient generalised class of estimator using two
auxiliary variables for estimating unknown population variance.We have also extended our problem to the case of two phase sampling. In support of theoretical results we have included an empirical study.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[164] **viXra:1609.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 04:33:58*

**Authors:** Hemant Verma, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we have studied the problem of estimating the finite population mean when information on two auxiliary attributes are available. Some improved estimators in simple random sampling without replacement have been suggested and their properties are studied.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[163] **viXra:1609.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 04:36:02*

**Authors:** Rajesh Singh, Sachin Malik, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In the present article, we proposed a family of estimators for estimating population means using known value of some population parameters. Khoshnevisan et al.proposed a
general family of estimators for estimating population means using known value of some
population parameter(s) which after some substitutions led to some ratio and product estimators initially proposed by Sisodia and Dwivedi, Singh and Tailor, Pandey and Dubey.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[162] **viXra:1609.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 04:45:37*

**Authors:** Jayant Singh, Hansraj Yadav, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Jaipur urban area has grown tremendously in last three decades. Composition of People
migrating due to various reasons has display a meticulous trend. Dominance of people moving due to marriages is getting sturdy whereas Jaipur city is losing its lustre in attractingpersons for education and business.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[161] **viXra:1609.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 04:47:19*

**Authors:** Prayas Sharma, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Chakrabarty (1979), Khoshnevisan et al. (2007), Sahai and Ray (1980), Ismail et al. (2011) and Solanki et al. (2012) proposed estimators for estimating population mean Y. Up to the first order of approximation and under optimum conditions, the minimum mean squared error (MSE) of all the above estimators is equal to the MSE of the regression estimator. In this paper, we have tried to found out the second order biases and mean square errors of these estimators using information on auxiliary variable based on simple random sampling. Finally, we have compared the performance of these estimators with some numerical illustration.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[160] **viXra:1609.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 04:48:14*

**Authors:** Sukanto Bhattacharya, Florentin Smarandache, M. Khoshnevisan

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In our present paper, we have explored the possibilities and developed arguments for an
application of principles of neutrosophic game theory as a generalization of the fuzzy
game theory model to a better understanding of the Israel-Palestine problem in terms of
the goals and governing strategies of either side. We build on an earlier attempted
justification of a game theoretic explanation of this problem by Yakir Plessner (2001) and
go on to argue in favour of a neutrosophic adaptation of the standard 2x2 zero-sum game
theoretic model in order to identify an optimal outcome.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[159] **viXra:1609.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 04:49:49*

**Authors:** Rajesh Singh, Shweta Maurya, Ashish K. Singh

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In this chapter an attempt has been made to study the effect of certain pollutants on water of Ramgarh Lake of Rajasthan. Time series analysis of the observed data has been done using trend, single exponential smoothing and double exponential smoothing methods.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[158] **viXra:1609.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 04:51:09*

**Authors:** Manoj Kr. Chaudhary, Anil Prajapati, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The present paper presents the detail discussion on estimation of population mean in
simple random sampling in the presence of non-response. Motivated by Gupta and Shabbir
(2008), we have suggested the class of estimators of population mean using an auxiliary variable under non-response. A theoretical study is carried out using two-phase sampling scheme when the population mean of auxiliary variable is not known. An empirical study has also been done in the support of theoretical results.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[157] **viXra:1609.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 04:52:30*

**Authors:** Neeraj Kumar, Sanjey Kumar, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Fuzzy set theory is primarily concerned with how to quantitatively deal with imprecision and uncertainty, and offers the decision maker another tool in addition to the classical deterministic and probabilistic mathematical tools that are used in modeling real-world problems. The present study investigates a fuzzy economic order quantity model for two storage facility.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[156] **viXra:1609.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 04:53:54*

**Authors:** Manoj K. Chaudhary, Sachin Malik, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper we have adapted Singh and Shukla (1987) estimator in systematic sampling using auxiliary information in the presence of non-response. The properties of the suggested family have been discussed. Expressions for the bias and mean square error (MSE) of the suggested family have been derived. The comparative study of the optimum estimator
of the family with ratio, product, dual to ratio and sample mean estimators in systematic
sampling under non-response has also been done. One numerical illustration is carried out to
verify the theoretical results.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[155] **viXra:1609.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 04:55:11*

**Authors:** M. Khoshnevisan, Florentin Smarandache, Sukanto Bhattacharya

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this paper we have devised an alternative methodological approach for quantifying
utility in terms of expected information content of the decision-maker’s choice set. We
have proposed an extension to the concept of utility by incorporating extrinsic utility;
which we have defined as the utility derived from the element of choice afforded to the
decision-maker by the availability of an object within his or her object set. We have
subsequently applied this extended utility concept to the case of investor utility derived
from a structured, financial product – an custom-made investment portfolio incorporating
an endogenous capital-guarantee through inclusion of cash as a risk-free asset, based on the Black-Scholes derivative-pricing formulation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[154] **viXra:1609.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 07:17:41*

**Authors:** Masamichi Sato

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Topological data analysis (TDA) is a current hot field in mathematical study of data science and this is based on topology.
On the other hand, information space can be described with differential geometry.
We investigate the critical phenomena of gravitational collapse with these tools, because the gravitational phenomena is described by Einstein's general relativity which is formulated on differential geometry.
After investigations, we give some comments on observation scales obtained from the results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[153] **viXra:1609.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-21 00:18:46*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 45 Pages. Cite: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Mechanism for Possible Electronic Creation of the Universe and its Infinity of Time. figshare. https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3837858.v4 Retrieved: 05 03, Sep 21, 2016 (GMT)

True to the nonlinear nature of time (it's arranged in Einstein's warps and curves), it's also correct that gravity is a product of electromagnetism – in the form of electronic pulses of energy from computers connected to sources of electrical power, and manifesting the pulses as virtual gravitons (the quanta of gravity). This provides a possible, electronic method of explaining how this could be a synthetic universe full of binary digits, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and universal Artificial Intelligence on astronomical, subatomic and biological levels. Please read the following, remembering that in a TV program it was reported that "the physicist and writer Paul Davies thinks the universe is indeed fine-tuned for minds like ours. And who fine-tuned it? Not God but minds from the future, perhaps even our distant descendants, that have reached back through time … and selected the very laws of physics" (as well as, this author thinks, the electronic energy pulses known as virtual particles) "that allow for the existence of minds in the first place. Sounds bizarre, but quantum physics actually allows that kind of thing." [Phillips G (August 29 2013) "Custom Universe – Finetuned For Us?" in Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s "Catalyst" program]
A computer simulation of the universe that's made of 1's and 0's might generate infinity because some of the numbers in the simulation could be infinitely long numbers like pi and e. Pi, plus things like the Mobius and Klein, would be built-in to the cosmos (including electrons and quantum phenomena), like it says about pi in "Contact" by Carl Sagan (1986) - Century Publishing, p.430. Admittedly, Dr. Sagan's book is a work of fiction, but its reference to pi could still be included in a simulation. The simulated universe would then incorporate spatial and temporal infinity - and could include immortality if the programmer(s) wanted it to. Comprehending the idea of infinity really is a very hard concept to wrap your head around. If we achieved this, we'd understand the simulation we built (and would, because of the quantum-mechanical rules present in our cosmos and also programmed into this simulated universe, be entangled with it ... and part of it). What would it be like to stand outside this infinite, simulated universe which I called mini-infinity: and outside its extra dimensions, too. Part of my brain is saying this just isn't possible. But another part is fascinated by the idea of stepping outside the infinite.
Buddha, founder and leader of the Buddhist religion, believed each person must find peace and freedom from suffering by following what is called the Noble Eightfold Path. Presented here is an Eightfold Path to using a certain type of computer simulation of the Universe to completely understand the real Universe. A line or two about each Universal path is in this subsection. It's up to the reader to decide how noble they are.
Admittedly, this Universal Eightfold Path may sound too speculative for some. But there's a place for speculation in cosmology. The universe is too big to put in a lab so experiments can be performed on it. The best we can do is build a simulation of it in that lab which is the result of imagination, intuition and speculation grounded in the laws of science. Hopefully, the programmed model will agree with what is known and offer plausible explanations of the unknown.
The above is a fascinating idea! But without backup from science, it can't be considered seriously. That's why the below sections - about physics, cosmology and mathematics – are essential in an article devoted to computer science. Unfortunately, we live in a world that's in love with putting everything in strict categories. That would quickly put an end to this article, if it were not for interdisciplinary science. The emerging understanding that the different branches of science are interconnected and rely on each other is what this article is all about. However, there are signs that science has not yet put into practice what it preaches. These ideas have been universally rejected by science journals for years - either without explanation, or because I don't know how to write in a manner they consider acceptable. But in my opinion, the science is still valid. So I'll submit my ideas to the "International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications", and trust that computer science is more enlightened than other branches.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[152] **viXra:1609.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 03:16:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11]
When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can “feel” each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10]
The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[151] **viXra:1609.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 03:26:08*

**Authors:** Rajesh Singh, Mukesh Kumar, Sachin Malik, Manoj K. Chaudhary, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this chapter, we have suggested an improved estimator for estimating the population mean in stratified sampling in presence of auxiliary information. The mean square error (MSE) of the proposed estimator have been derived under large sample approximation. Besides, considering the minimum case of the MSE equation, the efficient conditions between the proposed and existing estimators are obtained. These theoretical findings are supported by a numerical example.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[150] **viXra:1609.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 03:27:30*

**Authors:** Mohammad Khoshnevisan, Housila P. Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This paper proposes a family of estimators of population mean using information on several auxiliary variables and analyzes its properties in the presence of measurement errors.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[149] **viXra:1609.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 03:28:56*

**Authors:** Rajesh Singh, Mukesh Kumar, Ashish K. Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This chapter proposes some estimators for the population variance of the variable under study, which make use of information regarding the population proportion possessing certain attribute. Under simple random sampling without replacement (SRSWOR) scheme, the mean squared error (MSE) up to the first order of approximation is derived. The results have been illustrated numerically by taking some empirical population considered in the literature.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[148] **viXra:1609.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 03:29:58*

**Authors:** Hemant K. Verma, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper we have proposed a median based estimator using known value of some population parameter(s) in simple random sampling. Various existing estimators are shown particular members of the proposed estimator. The bias and mean squared error of the proposed estimator is
obtained up to the first order of approximation under simple random sampling without replacement.
An empirical study is carried out to judge the superiority of proposed estimator over others.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[147] **viXra:1609.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 03:31:38*

**Authors:** Mohammad Khoshnevisan, Housila P. Singh, Sarjinder Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this paper we have suggested two classes of estimators for population median MY of the study character Y using information on two auxiliary characters X and Z in double sampling. It has been shown that the suggested classes of estimators are more efficient than the one suggested by Singh et al (2001). Estimators based on estimated optimum values have been also considered with their properties. The optimum values of the first phase and second phase sample sizes are also obtained for the fixed cost of survey.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[146] **viXra:1609.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 03:33:36*

**Authors:** Rajesh Singh, Pankaj Chauhan, Nirmala Sawan, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A general family of estimators for estimating the population variance of the variable under study, which make use of known value of certain population parameter(s),is proposed. Some well known estimators have been shown as particular member of this family. It has been shown that the suggested estimator is better than the usual unbiased estimator, Isaki’s (1983) ratio estimator, Upadhyaya and Singh’s (1999) estimator and Kadilar and Cingi (2006). An empirical study is carried out to illustrate the performance of the constructed estimator over others.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[145] **viXra:1609.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 03:42:29*

**Authors:** Rajesh Singh, Sachin Malik, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, we suggest an estimator using two auxiliary variables in stratified random sampling following Malik and Singh. The propose estimator has an improvement over mean per unit
estimator as well as some other considered estimators. Expressions for bias and MSE of the
estimator are derived up to first degree of approximation. Moreover, these theoretical findings are supported by a numerical example with original data.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[144] **viXra:1609.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 03:51:22*

**Authors:** Hemant K. Verma, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this paper we have suggested difference-type estimator for estimation of population mean of the study variable y in the presence of measurement error using auxiliary information. The optimum estimator in the suggested estimator has been identified along with
its mean square error formula. It has been shown that the suggested estimator performs more efficient then other existing estimators. An empirical study is also carried out to illustrate the merits of proposed method over other traditional methods.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[143] **viXra:1609.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 04:05:46*

**Authors:** M. Khoshnevisan, F. Kaymarm, H. P. Singh, R. Singh, F. Smarandache

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This paper proposes a class of estimators for population correlation coefficient when information about the population mean and population variance of one of the variables is not available but information about these parameters of another variable (auxiliary) is available, in two phase sampling and analyzes its properties. Optimum estimator in the class is identified with its variance formula.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[142] **viXra:1609.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 04:07:05*

**Authors:** Manoj Kr. Chaudhary, V. K. Singh, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The present chapter deals with the study of general family of factor-type estimators for estimating population mean of stratified population in the presence of nonresponse
whenever information on an auxiliary variable are available. The proposed family includes separate ratio, product, dual to ratio and usual sample mean estimators as its particular cases and exhibits some nice properties as regards to locate the optimum estimator belonging to the family. Choice of appropriate estimator in the family in order to get a desired level of accuracy even if non-response is high, is also discussed. The empirical study has been carried out in support of the results.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[141] **viXra:1609.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 04:09:06*

**Authors:** Housila P. Singh, Sharad Saxena, Mohammad Khoshnevisan, Sarjinder Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

This paper is speculated to propose a class of shrinkage estimators for shape parameter
β in failure censored samples from two-parameter Weibull distribution when some ‘apriori’ or guessed interval containing the parameter β is available in addition to sample information and analyses their properties. Some estimators are generated from the proposed class and compared with the minimum mean squared error (MMSE) estimator. Numerical computations in terms of percent relative efficiency and absolute relative bias indicate that certain of these estimators substantially improve the MMSE estimator in some guessed interval of the parameter space of β ,
especially for censored samples with small sizes. Subsequently, a modified class of shrinkage estimators is proposed with its properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[140] **viXra:1609.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-12 16:48:59*

**Authors:** Nicolas Poupart

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The objective of this article is to draw some important consequences of the theory of the entropic relativistic dark matter (GEST) which the weak fields approximation (SWFA) is a model. There will be shown the derivation of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relationship, the derivation of a new form of frequency shift, the intrinsic shift, and the distribution curve of the dark mass (matter). These theoretical extensions may help to understand the inexplicable experimental errors in the calculation of the Hubble constant and the problem of the creation and the stabilization of galactic disks. Moreover, since the exposed dark matter field is probably the BEHHGK field, the implications of the calculation of the distribution curve goes far beyond the field of astrophysics.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[139] **viXra:1609.0161 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-20 18:52:45*

**Authors:** Amine Benachour

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We confirm the self-consistency of the Lorentz transformation by solving the mathematical problem encountered when one deal with some thought experiments involving simultaneous events.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[138] **viXra:1609.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-12 18:16:17*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We aim to produce systemic analysis that produces data efficiency. Data efficiency that requires sacrificing over-emphasis of LF [Logical Form] in favor of solutions that resonates in the classical approximation and statistical quantization.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[137] **viXra:1609.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-12 22:10:51*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

This article elaborates upon the form of Venkatesha, and details how one can visualize all forms of divinity in this Ekamoorthy form of the Lord, who is the Universal Mother Bala Ambika Herself as the salvation for the present age of the Kali Yuga.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[136] **viXra:1609.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-12 22:13:24*

**Authors:** Guiping Zhang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Based on the idea of Fred Hoyle that matter burst from the Sun formed planets, raise the theory of periodic bursts of stars and planets in their youth and provide a simple self-consistent model to explain many facts of the solar system and other planetary systems. Prove the theory with 7 evidences. First, the recently confirmed hot Jupiter V 830 Tau b orbiting a 2-Myr-old solar-mass T Tauri star was born from the burst of the star. Second, the similarity and differences of the architectures of the planetary system of Kepler-90 and the solar system was explained systematically. Third, the composition and low mean densities of the jovian planets which are similar to that of the Sun mean that they were once parts of the Sun. Fourth, parent bodies of meteorites from asteroids cooled down and solidified without or with differentiation from the temperature of the photosphere of the Sun. Fifth, widespread liquid water and valley networks on Mars about 3.7 Ga ago mean Mars was at the present orbit of the Earth or closer to the Sun at that time. Sixth, ancient rocks of the Earth and the Moon recorded solar wind 10 million times stronger than it is now. Seventh, regular satellites were products of bursts of planets in their youth.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[135] **viXra:1609.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-21 20:45:45*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

Beal conjecture has been proved on half of a page. The approach used in the proof is exemplified by the following system: If a system functions properly and one wants to determine if the same system will function properly with changes in the system, one will first determine the necessary conditions which allow the system to function properly, and then guided by the necessary conditions, one will determine if the changes will allow the system to function properly. So also, if one wants to prove that there are no solutions for the equation c^z = a^x + b^y when x, y, z > 2, one should first determine why there are solutions when x, y, z = 2, and note the necessary condition in the solution for x, y, z = 2. The necessary condition in the solutions for x, y, z = 2 will guide one to determine if there are solutions when x, y, z > 2. The proof in this paper is based on the identity (a^2 + b^2 )/c^2 = 1 for a primitive Pythagorean triple, (a, b, c). It is shown by contradiction that the uniqueness of the x, y, z = 2 identity excludes all other x, y, z-values, x, y, z > 2 from satisfying the equation c^z = a^x + b^y . One will first show that if x, y, z = 2, c^z = a^x + b^y holds, noting the necessary condition in the solution; followed by showing that if x, y, z > 2 ( x, y, z integers), c^z = a^x + b^y has no solutions. The proof is very simple, and even high school students can learn it. The approach used in the proof has applications in science, engineering, medicine, research, business, and any properly working system when desired changes are to be made in the system

**Category:** Number Theory

[134] **viXra:1609.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-19 12:56:09*

**Authors:** Mihail Vasile Zastavnitchi

**Comments:** 37 Pages. © Physics ZMV. The basics of new physics. Congress – 2016, Proceedings. Fundamental Problems in Natural Sciences and Engineering. Series: “Problems of Research of the Universe” Saint-Petersburg 2016, volume 37, issue 1, p. 232-260. ISSN 2304-0300.

The Beginning of the Beginning is the gravitational field. It is formed of gravitons in chaotic motion. The graviton is an elementary quantum of energy, when it is in the state of motion and an indivisible particle of mass, when it is in the state of rest. The mass is a conglomerate of gravitons in the state of rest, that is, the gravitons that gave to the mass their kinetic energy. “Physics ZMV” is based on the idea of existence of the gravitational field independent of mass and the mass, created by the gravitational field, independent of the gravitational field. The masses are not attracted to each other. The potential energies of the gravitational field distorted by masses compresses the masses to their common center of mass. The compression of masses by gravitational field (distorted by masses) is named “Universal compression of masses”. Mass grows quantitatively due to gravitons, which gave to mass their kinetic energy (therefore have remained in the mass) and is heated by this energy. These phenomena are named „Growth of mass” and “Heating of mass” in the gravitational field. The motion of mass under the action of the inertia energy of the gravitational field is named "Motion of mass by inertia energy of the gravitational field". In gravitational field mass cannot move by inertia at a higher speed than the maximum speed, which corresponds to the given mass. Mass is not a function of its speed. The inertia energy of the gravitational field depends on the speed of mass. The inertia energy of the gravitational field is equal to the difference between the potential energy of the gravitational field in the back and in the front side of the mass in motion. Mass, which has received rectilinear and rotational movement (axis of rotation is perpendicular to the vector rectilinear velocity), changes the volume of its parts, in synchronism with the rotational speed. This phenomenon is named “Flux and reflux of mass”. The gravitational field is propagation medium of the electromagnetic field. The speed at which the mass is moving under the action of a force in the space without gravitational field is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass: F = zmV, where z – is a coefficient of proportionality. That’s why this Physics is named “Physics ZMV”.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[133] **viXra:1609.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-12 15:01:57*

**Authors:** Emiro Díez Saldarriaga

**Comments:** 52 Pages. Español

Se trata de mostrar algunos aspectos en el desarrollo histórico de las relatividades
que traten de quebrar la ilusoria imagen de teorías
completas e infalibles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[132] **viXra:1609.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-12 12:01:47*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The expansion of the space. and The density of dark energy.
The space continues expanding.
The density of dark energy should become light.
The fixed number of the gravity equation shows a value of the dark energy.
The fixed number of the gravity equation is a constant value. I do not change.
By hypotheses of the elementary particle pulsation principle, I always set fixed number Λ with zero.
I set a density of dark energy level with a vacuum of energy zero.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[131] **viXra:1609.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-12 08:24:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have succeeded at measuring these forces for the very first time on the level of single base pairs. This new knowledge could help to construct precise molecular machines out of DNA. The researchers published their findings in the journal Science. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[130] **viXra:1609.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-16 20:24:58*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In this version I have added a section on rapidity as well as relativity of simultaneity for sub-atomic particles

Haug [1, 2] has recently shown there is a speed limit for fundamental particles just below the speed of light. This speed limit means that the mass of a fundamental particle not will go towards infinity as v approaches c in the Einstein relativistic mass equation. The relativistic mass limit for a fundamental particle is the Planck mass. In this paper we use the same velocity limit in the Lorentz transformation. This leads to what we think could be significant results with some interesting interpretations. In addition we look at rapidity as well as relativity of simultaneity for subatomic particles at this maximum velocity for masses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[129] **viXra:1609.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-11 20:55:54*

**Authors:** Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta

**Comments:** 220 Pages. Book3 of Dynamic Universe Model... ISBN 978-3-639-36469-9

With this Book, we have provided a CD or downloadable software in the e-book which has the simplified version of SITA software. Otherwise anyone can contact the author at
snp.gupta@gmail.com
Anyone with very limited knowledge in Physics and Microsoft Excel can try hands on with this software. This SITA software is developed for the singularity free solution to N-body problem – Dynamic Universe Model; which is, inter body collision free and dynamically stable. Basically this is a “how to go about” for using the SITA software. SITA solution can be used in many places like presently unsolved applications like Pioneer anomaly at the Solar system level, Missing mass due to Star circular velocities and Galaxy disk formation at Galaxy level etc.
This is the third book, after the earlier books, 1) “Dynamic Universe Model- a singularity free N-body problem solution” (ISBN 978-3-639-29436-1), and 2) Dynamic Universe Model- SITA singularity free software (978-3-639-33501-9) Here in this book a subset of SITA (Simulation of Inter-intra-Galaxy Tautness and Attraction forces) computer implementation Excel program software about 3000 equations are explained with usage out of all the 21000 equations used in the second book. Provision for a lot of modifications exists in the SITA program to tune to individual needs. This book is prepared in such a way it can be read independently of the first two books.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[128] **viXra:1609.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-11 23:27:42*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In Russian

The new view on process of radiation as a result of braking of orbiting electrons by an external force field is offered. The substantiation of the Planck’s radiation law without hypotheses and postulates of quantum- mechanical nature is given. The sense of a constant of Planck is opened and is shown that the true quantum of radiation is the soliton.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[127] **viXra:1609.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-11 23:45:15*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Silver is widely utilized as antimicrobial agent and wound dressing, where its shape, size, surface area, and surface charge play an important role. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physicochemical and atomic properties of silver powder. The silver powder was divided into two groups, coded as control and treatment. The treatment group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, control and treated samples were characterized using particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface area analyser. Particle size data exhibited that particle sizes d10, d50, d90, and d99 (Size, below which 10, 50, 90, and 99% particle are present, respectively) of treated silver powder were substantially reduced up to 95.8, 89.9, 83.2, and 79.0% on day 84 as compared to control. XRD results showed that lattice parameter, unit cell volume, and atomic weight were reduced, whereas density and nuclear charge per unit volume were found to be increased as compared to control. In addition, the crystallite size was significantly reduced up to 70% after biofield treatment on day 105 as compared to control. Furthermore, the surface area of treated silver powder was substantially enhanced by 49.41% on day 68 as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the atomic and physicochemical properties which could make silver more useful in antimicrobial applications.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[126] **viXra:1609.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-12 00:12:56*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 15N/14N ≡ (PM+1)/PM in aniline; and (PM+1)/PM and 81Br/79Br ≡ (PM+2)/PM in 4-bromoaniline using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Aniline and 4-bromoaniline samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control part remained as untreated, while the treated part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The treated samples were subdivided in three parts named as T1, T2, and T3 for aniline and four parts named as T1, T2, T3, and T4 for 4-bromoaniline. The GC-MS data revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in aniline was increased from -40.82%, 30.17% and 73.12% in T1, T2 and T3 samples respectively. However in treated samples of 4-bromoaniline the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was increased exponentially from -4.36 % (T1) to 368.3% (T4) as compared to the control. A slight decreasing trend of the isotopic ratio of (PM+2)/ PM in 4-bromoaniline was observed after biofield energy treatment. The GC-MS data suggests that the biofield energy treatment has significantly increased the isotopic abundance of 2H, 13C and 15N in the treated aniline and 4-bromoaniline, while slight decreased the isotopic abundance of 81Br in treated 4-bromoaniline as compared to their respective control.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[125] **viXra:1609.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-12 02:53:24*

**Authors:** Rainer W. Kühne

**Comments:** 3 Pages. published in: Proceedings of the Conference "On the Origin of Life", London, United Kingdom, 7 August 2015

I review the experiments by Stanley Miller and Sidney Fox on the production of amino acids and unicellular forms under primitive terrestrial atmosphere conditions. I continue with a review of the evidence for and against unicellular organisms in the Orgueil meteorite and the ALH84001 martian meteorite. I conclude that the evidence argues against the panspermia hypothesis of Fred Hoyle and Nalin Chandra Wickramasinghe.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[124] **viXra:1609.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-11 14:55:29*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Rafif alhbeib

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

تكمن أهمية البحث في الوصول إلى آفاق جديدة في نظرية الاحتمالات سندعوها نظرية الاحتمالات الكلاسيكية النتروسوفيكية وضع أسسها أحمد سلامة وفلورنتن سمارنداكة والتي تنتج عن تطبيق المنطق النتروسوفيكي على نظرية الاحتمالات الكلاسيكية , ولقد عرف سلامة وسمارانداكه الفئة النتروسوفيكية الكلاسيكية بثلاث مكونات جزئية من الفئة الشاملة الكلاسيكية ( فضاء العينة) وثلاث مكونات من الفئة الفازية هي الصحة والخطأ والحياد (الغموض) وإمتداد لمفاهيم سلامة وسمارنداكة سنقوم بدراسة احتمال هذه الفئات الجديدة واستنتاج الخصائص لهذا الاحتمال ومقارنته مع الاحتمال الكلاسيكي
ولابد أن نذكر أنه يمكن لهذه الأفكار أن تساعد الباحثين وتقدم لهم استفادة كبرى في المستقبل في إيجاد خوارزميات جديدة لحل مشاكل دعم القرار .
مشكلة البحث:
لقد وضع تطور العلوم أمام نظرية الاحتمالات عدداً كبيراً من المسائل الجديدة غير المفسرة في إطار النظرية الكلاسيكية ولم تكن لدى نظرية الاحتمالات طرق عامة أو خاصة تفسر الظواهر الجارية في زمن ما بشكل دقيق فكان لابد من توسيع بيانات الدراسة وتوصيفها بشكل دقيق لنحصل على احتمالات أكثر واقعية واتخاذ قرارات أكثر صوابية وهنا جاء دور المنطق النتروسوفيكي الذي قدم لنا نوعبن من الفئات النتروسوفيكية التي تعمم المفهوم الضبابي والمفهوم الكلاسيكي للفئات والاحداث التي تعتبر اللبنة الأولى في دراسة الاحتمالات النتروسوفيكية .
أهداف البحث:
تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى :
1-تقديم وعرض لنظرية الفئات النتروسوفيكية من النوع الكلاسيكي والنوع الفازي .
2-تقديم وتعريف الاحتمال النتروسوفيكي للفئات النتروسوفيكية .
3-بناء أدوات لتطوير الاحتمال النتروسوفيكي ودراسة خصائصه .
4-تقديم التعاريف والنظريات الاحتمالية وفق المنطق النتروسوفيكي الجديد .
5-مقارنة ما تم التوصل إليه من نتائج باستخدام الاحتمال النيتروسوفكي Neutrosophic probability بالاحتمال الكلاسيكي .
6-نتائج استخدام الاحتمالات النتروسوفيكية على عملية اتخاذ القرار .

**Category:** Statistics

[123] **viXra:1609.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-11 15:56:10*

**Authors:** Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta

**Comments:** 268 Pages. This is Book2 is published in Germany ISBN 978-3-639-33501-9

In this monograph,all the equations of SITA software are explained for the singularity free solution to N-body problem – Dynamic Universe Model; which is, inter body collision free and dynamically stable are presented. SITA solution can be used in many places like presently unsolved applications like Pioneer anomaly at the Solar system level, Missing mass due to Star circular velocities and Galaxy disk formation at Galaxy level etc.
This is the second book, after the earlier book, “Dynamic Universe Model- a singularity free N-body problem solution” (ISBN 978-3-639-29436-1). Here SITA (Simulation of Inter-intra-Galaxy Tautness and Attraction forces) computer implementation Excel program software and its methodology and all the 21000 equations used there are explained in detail. One COPY OF SITA COPYRIGHTED SOFTWARE WILL SENT FREE OF COST BY CONTACTING THE AUTHOR AT ‘snp.gupta@gmail.com’ Provision for a lot of modifications exists in the program to tune to individual needs. This book is prepared in such a way it can be read independently of the first book

**Category:** Astrophysics

[122] **viXra:1609.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-11 12:00:21*

**Authors:** J. Akande, L. H. Koudahoun, D. K. K. Adjaï, Y. J. F. Kpomahou, M. D. Monsia

**Comments:** 3 pages

In this paper the Schrödinger equation is derived for a dynamical system with exponential-type restoring force function.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[121] **viXra:1609.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-27 13:03:54*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We present a solution for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible case given any smooth (C^∞) initial velocity, pressure and external force in N=3 spatial dimensions, based on expansion in Taylor’s series of time. Without major difficulties, it can be adapted to any spatial dimension, N≥1.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[120] **viXra:1609.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-11 06:24:46*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 50 Pages. the logical universe is the bridge between the mind and physical reality

Here I posit the existence of a logical universe, within and behind the physical universe, the existence of fields that can calculate problems and how these relate to strings.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[119] **viXra:1609.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-10 19:13:01*

**Authors:** Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta

**Comments:** 120 Pages. This Book was published in Germany ISBN 978-3-639-29436-1

The failure to arrive at a singularity free solution for a general N-body problem for nearly 300 years has led people to treat this case of N-body simulations as being very turbulent. But I would like to reiterate and say that there is no reason for chaos here in Dynamic Universe Model. I am able to say this confidently after having worked on this Model for the last 18 years and creating 100,000 simulations using this SITA algorithm.
The trick here is to follow the law of Newtonian Gravitation fully without any deviation to calculate the Universal Gravitational force (UGF) on each mass. Other N-body simulations either deviated from this law or did not calculate UGF.
Apprehensions abound in any new field. As pointed earlier, my work in the last 18 years has given me enough confidence and I can say that the solution proposed hereunder will work almost in any physical situation and explain all the anomalies which arose due to the earlier theories. I can prove the working of the algorithm to any technical team.
Many people asked me the reason for selecting 133 masses. There are many reasons for this ‘why133 masses?’ question.
It was in the beginning of the 1990’s that the Dynamic Universal Model project began. The common man had minimal access to computers during this period in India. Processor 8088 prevailed. PC with two floppy drives was becoming redundant and was being slowly replaced by the hard drive. This resulted in limitations to data handling capacity. Computers used to take a few hours to calculate something like 50 iterations. Today, these iterations can be done in 8 to 10 minutes with a five – year old laptop.
The Milkyway, our Galaxy has 1011 Stars approximately with number of planets being an additional 10 times. Estimated number of dwarf planets would be 1000 times the number of planets, say about to 1015. Chunks of planets and asteroids may be a million times the number of planets, say about 1018. All these figures are on the lower side. Hence, about 1019 masses and their positional data is required to simulate a Galaxy. The total number of masses required to simulate would be about 1025 to 1028. Is there any Super computer on Earth, which can handle such huge amount of data, today? Do we have all such data to feed the computer?
May be 133 masses are too less a number to begin a simulation. However, even 3 body problem is not simple to solve directly with the usual differential equations method. Even if we create a simulation with a million or 10 million masses, it will approximately be 1020 less than what is required for simulating the universe. My resources being limited and having no access to higher computers, the best I can do is testing this SITA algorithm of Dynamic Universe model for the various situations within the available resources and time. I have carried out this work out of my own interest and have not sought any Government or University funding for the same.
I came up with the Dynamic Universe Model after 18 years after much effort and hard work. The Model uses Newtonian Gravitation for calculating the resultant Universal Gravitational force on every mass. No special assumptions have been made for arriving at the Model. In those days I did not think of lower side at all like N=2,3 4..etc. What I was aiming is to accommodate as many numbers of masses as possible. I did not take it in the way of mathematical induction process, i.e., if it is true for n=2, and n=3, then test for n and n+1. I have no way of testing that approach.
People asked me why I worked with only 133 masses. The SITA simulations can be done with higher number of masses on any Supercomputer provided funds and resources are available. I have successfully tested the SITA solution for 2, 3, 4, 133, 25000 point masses. I am sure we can arrive at the same results when tried with higher masses also.
Now I can say, this Dynamic Universe model is no more a fantasy, but it is reality …………..

**Category:** Astrophysics

[118] **viXra:1609.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-10 14:07:25*

**Authors:** Alexandris G Nikos

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The prediction of the magnetic field of Sgr A* by the
algorithm of a star's core rotation is presented in my
book “Modified Hawking field” 2010 .In the present
article we can see the way .We can calculate the
electrodynamic parameters of the nucleus of stars and
black holes like Sgr A*

**Category:** Astrophysics

[117] **viXra:1609.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-10 14:26:23*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 6 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

In the "General Theory of Relativity" power formula force. The decomposition of this force into components, interaction of the electric and magnetic forces. If a closer look at the possible expansion of this force, we can find the force that gives the accelerated expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[116] **viXra:1609.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-17 01:58:54*

**Authors:** Krishan Vats

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This is an example description of why and how the wave nature of quantum objects collapses on measurement. The article takes double slit experiment as an example where observing the electrons/photons causes them to abandon the wave nature and start behaving like particles. I.e. the interference pattern disappears. Why the measurement causes a switch from wave nature to particle behavior? It is explained with one specific example scenario. This example can be extended to other scenarios with necessary adjustments.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[115] **viXra:1609.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-10 11:19:00*

**Authors:** Dustin A. Lewis, Gabriella Blum, Naz K. Modirzadeh

**Comments:** 244 Pages.

Compendium on Accountability issues as pertains to Lethal Autonomous Weapons

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[114] **viXra:1609.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-10 12:00:18*

**Authors:** Daniele Ettore Ciriello

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

I invested days creating a graph with PyGraphviz to repre- sent the evolutionary process of deep learning’s state of the art for the last twenty-five years. Through this paper I want to show you how and what I obtained.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[113] **viXra:1609.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-10 12:45:24*

**Authors:** Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

According to General theory of relativity the frequency shift in electro-magnetic (EM) radiation close to a gravitating mass happens in one direction only, but in accordance with Dynamic Universe Model this frequency shift happens on both the sides of spectrum. Here we will derive the results using general Physics and Mathematics that changes the frequency of electromagnetic radiation passing near a moving gravitating mass. The frequency of the radiation will increase (Red shifted) when the relative movement of the gravitating body is in opposite direction to EM radiation and the frequency will reduce when in same direction (Blue shifted).

**Category:** Astrophysics

[112] **viXra:1609.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-21 06:33:39*

**Authors:** John R. Cipolla

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

External-jet propulsion uses a narrow jet of high velocity water or conceptually a bank of high power lasers to “blast” vehicles to high velocity. The original goal of this work was to create a design analogy for launching micro-sized laser-propelled probes to 20 percent of the speed of light to the nearest stars. This work also resulted in the practical capability to launch micro-craft on external jets of high velocity water having a mass of only 0.7 grams, which represents the smallest known reusable jet propelled vehicle in history. A sphere-cone projectile having a hollow interior shaped like a diverging nozzle demonstrated the concept of propelling projectiles to high velocity using the principal of conservation of linear momentum. An extremely narrow streamtube of high velocity water directed into the interior of a sphere-cone successfully demonstrated stable flight and high acceleration for an inherently unstable projectile.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[111] **viXra:1609.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-10 07:59:30*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The article substantiates a new standpoint on origin and nature of the forces causing an accelerated expansion of the Universe. According to this standpoint the Newton’s gravitational theory describing only pairwise interactions and recognizing only attraction forces needs a generalization. Such a generalization made in the article on the basis of energodynamics as a unified theory of transport and the transformation processes of all forms of energy. Herein the existence of gravitational repulsion forces in the non-baryonic matter of the Universe is substantiated, which makes superfluous introducing the dark energy as a hypothetical medium under negative pressure.
At the same time the generalized theory of gravitation predicts existence of strong and weak gravitation, zones of stable and unstable gravitational equilibrium, standing and running gravitational waves, as well as huge stores of free gravitational energy available and ready to be used. The latest results of astronomical observations are also presented as verifying the concept proposed.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[110] **viXra:1609.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-10 08:33:32*

**Authors:** Robert H. McEachern

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

It is almost universally supposed, that “Quantum Correlations”, as discussed in connection with Bell’s Inequality Theorem, cannot be produced by any classical, macroscopic system. Nevertheless, this paper demonstrates the actual construction of just such a system. It then discusses why this peculiar type of classical system, unlike any other, behaves in this “weird” fashion. The reason illuminates the Physics Community’s profound misunderstanding of exactly what a single, classical “bit” is, in the context of Shannon’s Information Theory, and the resulting misinterpretation of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and the EPR paradox.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[109] **viXra:1609.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-10 04:11:29*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Eggplant and watermelon, as one of the important vegetative crops have grown worldwide. The aim of the present study was to analyze the overall growth of the two inbreed crops varieties after the biofield energy treatment. The plots were selected for the study, and divided into two parts, control and treated. The control plots were left as untreated, while the treated plots were exposed with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Both the crops were cultivated in different fields and were analyzed for the growth contributing parameters as compared with their respective control. To study the genetic variability in both plants after biofield energy treatment, DNA fingerprinting was performed using RAPD method. The eggplants were reported to have uniform colored, glossy, and greener leaves, which are bigger in size. The canopy of the eggplant was larger with early fruiting, while the fruits have uniform shape and the texture as compared with the control. However, the watermelon plants after the biofield treatment showed higher survival rate, with larger canopy, bright and dark green leaves compared with the untreated plants. The percentage of true polymorphism observed between control and treated samples of eggplant and watermelon seed samples were an average value of 18% and 17%, respectively. Overall, the data suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the ability to alter the plant growth rate, and can be utilized in better way as compared with the existing agricultural crop improvement techniques to improve the overall crop yield.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[108] **viXra:1609.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-10 04:12:36*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Naphthalene and 2-naphthol are two naphthalene derivatives, which play important roles in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H and 18O/16O in naphthalene and 2-naphthol using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Naphthalene and 2-naphthol samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control group remained as untreated, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The treated samples were subdivided into four parts named as T1, T2, T3 and T4. Control and treated samples were characterized using GC-MS. The GC-MS data revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2H/1H, (PM+1)/PM and 18O/16O, (PM+2)/PM were increased significantly in treated naphthalene and 2-naphthol (where PM-primary molecule, (PM+1) isotopic molecule either for 13C or 2H and (PM+2) is the isotopic molecule for 18O). The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in the treated T2 samples of naphthalene and 2-naphthol was increased up to 129.40% and 165.40%, respectively as compared to their respective control. However, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in the treated T1, T3 and T4 samples of naphthalene was decreased by 44.41%, 33.49% and 30.3%, respectively as compared to their respective control. While in case of 2- naphthol, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM was decreased by 39.57% in T1 sample and then gradually increased up to 9.85% from T3 to T4 samples. The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+2)/PM in treated T2 sample of 2-naphthol was increased up to 163.24%, whereas this value was decreased by 39.57% in treated T1 sample. The GC-MS data suggest that the biofield energy treatment has significantly altered the isotopic abundance of 2H, 13C in naphthalene and 2H, 13C and 18O in 2- naphthol as compared to the control.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[107] **viXra:1609.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-10 04:54:56*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[106] **viXra:1609.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-10 07:02:09*

**Authors:** IElkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 6 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

In the "General Theory of Relativity" power formula force. The decomposition of this force into components, interaction of the electric and magnetic forces. If a closer look at the possible expansion of this force, we can find the force that gives the accelerated expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[105] **viXra:1609.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-09 22:00:50*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

The challenge of this work is to connect physics with the concept of intelligence. By intelligence we understand a capability to move from disorder to order without external resources, i.e. in violation of the second law of thermodynamics. The objective is to find such a mathematical object described by ODE that possesses such a capability. The proposed approach is based upon modification of the Madelung version of the Schrodinger equation by replacing the force following from quantum potential with non-conservative forces that link to the concept of information. A mathematical formalism suggests that a hypothetical intelligent particle, besides the capability to move against the second law of thermodynamics, acquires such properties like self-image, self-awareness, self- supervision, etc. that are typical for Livings. However since this particle being a quantum-classical hybrid acquires non-Newtonian and non-quantum properties, it does not belong to the physics matter as we know it: the modern physics should be complemented with the concept of the information force that represents a bridge to intelligent particle. As a follow-up of the proposed concept, the following question is addressed: can artificial intelligence (AI) system composed only of physical components compete with a human? The answer is proven to be negative if the AI system is based only on simulations, and positive if digital devices are included. It has been demonstrated that there exists such a quantum neural net that performs simulations combined with digital punctuations. The universality of this quantum-classical hybrid is in capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics by moving from disorder to order without external resources. This advanced capability is illustrated by examples. In conclusion, a mathematical machinery of the perception that is the fundamental part of a cognition process as well as intelligence is introduced and discussed.
The discovery of isolated dynamical systems that can decrease entropy in violation of the second law of thermodynamics, and resemblances of these systems to livings implies that Life can slow down heat death of the Universe, and that can be associated with the purpose of Life.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[104] **viXra:1609.0123 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-25 02:41:46*

**Authors:** T.Nakashima

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

First, we prove the relation of the sum of the mobius function and Riemann Hypothesis. This relationship is well known. I prove next section, without no tool we prove Riemann Hypothesis about mobius function. This is very chalenging attempt.

**Category:** Number Theory

[103] **viXra:1609.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-09 13:22:00*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In Russian

Considerations about radial strenghts of vortices of solar system and counteracting gravity

**Category:** Classical Physics

[102] **viXra:1609.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-09 13:54:25*

**Authors:** Bijoy Rahman Arif

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, we are going to prove Oppermann’s conjecture which states there are at least one prime presents between first and second halves of two consecutive pronic numbers greater than one. Subsequently, we are going to prove the logarithmic sum of primes between two pronic numbers increase highest magnitude of log(4).

**Category:** Number Theory

[101] **viXra:1609.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-09 14:05:34*

**Authors:** Thomas Neil Neubert

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

From LEAR in 1980s to AEGIS today, CERN experiments that measure the gravitation interaction between antimatter and matter have all given null results. The CERN AEGIS null experimental results showing that antimatter is neither attracted nor repelled by matter have been ignored in the way that the null Michelson-Morley experimental results were ignored. It is urgent to interpret this precise results while awaiting decades more of ever more precise experiments. In this short paper, I will build a Simple Toy Universe that explains the apparent result that
Fgravity = G mmatter mantimatter / (rmatter/antimatter)2 = 0

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[100] **viXra:1609.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-09 15:09:53*

**Authors:** Asaf Farhi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Chemical reaction dynamics are usually tackled within the framework of Quantum Mechanics which can be computationally demanding. Here we suggest to use the energy-dependent Hamilton-Jacobi description with a classical reactive force field to obtain the most probable path. This may enable to calculate the reaction rate.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[99] **viXra:1609.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-27 23:29:31*

**Authors:** Peter Horst Rehm

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

It is well known that the electrostatic force has infinite range, but an unheralded property of this force is that as the distance between charges approaches zero the force increases without bound. Applied to the atomic nucleus, if a positive fractional charge in one nucleon (proton or neutron) can get close enough to a negative fractional charge in a neighboring nucleon, the attractive force between them would bind these nucleons in an electrostatic bond. For example, at a distance of 5% of a nucleon radius they will experience an attractive force of -25 kN. This is orders of magnitude stronger than the repulsive force between whole protons in the nucleus. Contrary to what is normally expected from the electrostatic force, such a bond would have a short range, shorter than the radius of a nucleon. Ironically, this charge-based bond would match the nuclear force’s characteristic of charge independence (affecting both neutrons and protons), because the required positive and negative fractional charges occur inside both neutrons and protons. This electrostatic bonding of fractional charges may therefore be an overlooked factor in the search for understanding the nuclear force and may shed light upon the structure of the nucleons and the atomic nucleus.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[98] **viXra:1609.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-09 10:40:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Are time crystals just a mathematical curiosity, or could they actually physically exist? Physicists have been debating this question since 2012, when Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek first proposed the idea of time crystals. He argued that these hypothetical objects can exhibit periodic motion, such as moving in a circular orbit, in their state of lowest energy, or their "ground state." [28] Researchers from the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter and the University of Amsterdam (the Netherlands), together with researchers from the Institute for Materials Science in Tsukuba (Japan), have discovered an exceptional new quantum state within a superconducting material. This exceptional quantum state is characterised by a broken rotational symmetry – in other words, if you turn the material in a magnetic field, the superconductivity isn't the same everywhere in the material. [27], and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[97] **viXra:1609.0116 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-18 22:00:53*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Include Chinese Version

I have proposed an intuitive diagrammatic method to explore the elementary particles’ structures and decay processes based on virtual space-time. Then I discuss the possibilities of the existing of new particles. I also raised some issues that need to attention when probing those new particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[96] **viXra:1609.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-09 08:08:37*

**Authors:** Bijoy Rahman Arif

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, we are going to find the number of primes between consecutive squares. We are going to prove a special case: Brocard’s conjecture which states between the square of two consecutive primes greater than 2 at least four primes will present. Subsequently, we will approximate the number of primes between consecutive square

**Category:** Number Theory

[95] **viXra:1609.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-09 04:35:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[94] **viXra:1609.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-09 05:47:27*

**Authors:** Damodar Rajbhandari

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we'll be discussing about the "Seven Bridges of Königsberg Problem". This paper will help you to understand, "How Euler solved this problem?". And, It will give some intuition of "Topology" and "Graph Theory".

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[93] **viXra:1609.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-09 06:28:05*

**Authors:** Bijoy Rahman Arif

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper, we are going to prove a famous problem concerning prime numbers. Legendre’s conjecture states that there is always a prime p with n^2 < p < (n+1)^2, if n > 0. In 1912, Landau called this problem along with other three problems “unattackable at the presesnt state of mathematics.” Our approach to solve this problem is very simple. We will find a lower bound of the difference of second Chebyshev functions using a better Moiver-Stirling approximation and finally, we transfer it to the difference of first Chebyshev functions. The final difference is always greater than zero will prove Legendre’s conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[92] **viXra:1609.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-09 06:51:41*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[91] **viXra:1609.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 22:02:39*

**Authors:** Pawan Kumar Joshi, O.P.S.Negi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Considering the generalized charge and generalized four potential associated of dyons as complex quantities with their real and imaginary parts as electric and magnetic constituents, in this present discussion we have constructed a gauge covariant and rotational symmetric angular momentum operator for dyons in order to analyze the integer and fractional quantum Hall effect. It has been shown that the commutation relations of angular momentum operator possesses a higher symmetry to reproduce the eigen values and eigen function Lowest Landau Level (LLL) for quantum Hall system. The LLL has also been constructed in terms of I^{st}
Hopf map \left(S^{3}\rightarrow S^{2}\right)
and it is concluded that dyons are more suitable object to investigate the existence of quantum Hall effect (both integer and fractional )

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[90] **viXra:1609.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 23:37:05*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) has become an important nosocomial pathogens and increased resistant isolates were reported. The current study evaluates the impact of an alternate energy medicine i.e. Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on S. marcescens for changes in sensitivity pattern of antimicrobial, biochemical characteristics, and biotype number. S. marcescens cells were procured from MicroBioLogics Inc., USA in sealed pack bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 13880) number and divided into two groups, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treated. Gr. II was further subdivided into two sub-groups, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, while Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 159 (Study I). After retreatment on day 159, the sample (Study II) was divided into three separate tubes as first, second and third tube, which were analyzed on day 5, 10 and 15 respectively. All experimental parameters were studied using the automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed that 42.85% of tested antimicrobials results in altered sensitivity pattern, while decreased minimum inhibitory concentration values in 40.62% tested antimicrobials as compared to the control after biofield treatment on S. marcescens. The biochemical study showed that 12 out of 33 tested biochemicals (36.36%) were reported for alteration of biochemical reactions pattern as compared to the control. Biotype study showed an alteration in biotype number in all the experimental treated groups as compared to the control. These results suggested that biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on S. marcescens. Overall, it is expected that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment as an integrative medicine could be better therapy approach in near future.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[89] **viXra:1609.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 23:43:25*

**Authors:** Pierre A. Mandrin

**Comments:** 7 pages.

We examine how a thermodynamic model of the boundary of 4d-manifolds can be used for an approach to quantum gravity, to keep the number of assumptions low and the quantum degrees of freedom manageable. We start with a boundary action leading to Einstein's Equations under a restriction due to additional information from the bulk. Optionally, a modified form with torsion can be obtained. From the thermodynamic perspective, the number of possible microscopic states is evaluated for every macroscopic configuration, and this allows to compute the transition probability between quantum states. The formalism does not depend on specific microscopic properties. The smoothness and the topological space condition of the manifold structure are viewed as a preferred representation of a macroscopic space on mathematical grounds. By construction, gravity may be interpreted as thermodynamic model which is forced to be out of equilibrium depending on the restrictions imposed by matter. Instead of an ill-behaved path integral description of gravity, we obtain a non-divergent concept of sums over microstates.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[88] **viXra:1609.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 23:41:48*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Cellulose and its derivatives are used as potential matrices for biomaterials and tissue engineering applications. The objective of present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical, chemical and thermal properties of ethyl cellulose (EC) and methyl cellulose (MC). The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The biofield treated polymers are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), CHNSO analysis, X-ray diffraction study (XRD), Differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR analysis of treated EC showed downward shifting in C-O-C stretching peak from 1091→1066 cm-1 with respect to control. However, the treated MC showed upward shifting of –OH stretching (3413→3475) and downward shifting in C-O stretching (1647→1635 cm-1) vibrations with respect to control MC. CHNSO analysis showed substantial increase in percent hydrogen and oxygen in treated polymers with respect to control. XRD diffractogram of EC and MC affirmed the typical semi-crystalline nature. The crystallite size was substantially increased by 20.54% in treated EC with respect to control. However, the treated MC showed decrease in crystallite by 61.59% with respect to control. DSC analysis of treated EC showed minimal changes in crystallization temperature with respect to control sample. However, the treated and control MC did not show any crystallization temperature in the samples. TGA analysis of treated EC showed increase in thermal stability with respect to control. However, the TGA thermogram of treated MC showed reduction in thermal stability as compared to control. Overall, the result showed substantial alteration in physical, chemical and thermal properties of treated EC and MC.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[87] **viXra:1609.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 13:57:46*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

When facing a proposition, the brain straightforwardly understands its grammar and discriminates whether it is true or false. Unlike computers, the brain is able to identify signs of sequences in terms of both syntactic symbols and semantic meaning. We show, based on the current literature, that a testable algebraic topological approach gives helpful insights into brain’s computational activity during semantic recognition. Indeed, recent suggestions allow us to hypothesize that the semantic properties of a proposition are processed in brain dimensions higher than the syntactic ones. Furthermore, we show how, in a fully reversible process, the syntactic elements embedded in Broca’s area might project to scattered semantic cortical zones, where the presence of higher functional dimensions gives rise to an increase in proposition’s information content. Taking into account the dictates of novel versions of the Borsuk-Ulam and the fixed-point theorems, we build a framework that provides a feasible explanation for semantics processing in the brain, and also paves the way to novel computers which nodes are built in higher dimensions.

**Category:** Mind Science

[86] **viXra:1609.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 14:03:41*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F. Peters, Mehmet Niyazi Çankaya, Jan Korbel, Marzieh Zare, David Papo

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Oscillations in brain activity exhibit a power law distribution which appears as a straight line when plotted on logarithmic scales in a log power versus log frequency plot. The line’s slope is given by a single constant, the power law exponent. Since a variation in slope may occur during different functional states, the brain waves are said to be multifractal, i.e., characterized by a spectrum of multiple possible exponents. A role for such non-stationary scaling properties has scarcely been taken into account. Here we show that changes in fractal slopes and oscillation frequencies, and in particular in electric spikes, are correlated. Taking into account techniques for parameter distribution estimates, which provide a foundation for the proposed approach, we show that modifications in power law exponents are associated with variations in the Rényi entropy, a generalization of Shannon informational entropy. Changes in Rényi entropy, in turn, are able to modify brain oscillation frequencies. Therefore, results point out that multifractal systems lead to different probability outcomes of brain activity, based solely on increases or decreases of the fractal exponents. Such approach may offer new insights in the characterization of neuroimaging diagnostic techniques and the forces required for transcranial stimulation, where doubts still exist as to the parameters that best characterize waveforms.

**Category:** Mind Science

[85] **viXra:1609.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 15:20:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Random number generators are crucial to the encryption that protects our privacy and security when engaging in digital transactions such as buying products online or withdrawing cash from an ATM. For the first time, engineers have developed a fast random number generator based on a quantum mechanical process that could deliver the world's most secure encryption keys in a package tiny enough to use in a mobile device. [15]
Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14]
Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they’ve done it. [13]
What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12]
The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11]
Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10]
Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that - surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9]
New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch - the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8]
Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7]
A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[84] **viXra:1609.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-28 08:44:22*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci, Brian Metzger

**Comments:** 32 Pages. Accepted at PSAM13 (Seoul, October 2016) and RAMS2017 (Orlando, January 2017), but not presented due to lack of travel funds; published in Fire Technology, 2017 (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10694-016-0633-z)

Since the publication of NUREG/CR-6850 / EPRI 1011989 in 2005, the US nuclear industry has sought to re-evaluate the default peak heat release rates (HRRs) for electrical enclosure fires typically used as fire modeling inputs to support fire probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), considering them too conservative. HRRs are an integral part of the fire phenomenological modeling phase of a fire PRA, which consists of identifying fire scenarios which can damage equipment or hinder human actions necessary to prevent core damage. Fire ignition frequency, fire growth and propagation, fire detection and suppression, and mitigating equipment and actions to prevent core damage in the event fire damage still occurred are all parts of a fire PRA. The fire growth and propagation phase incorporates fire phenomenological modeling where HRRs have a key effect. A major effort by the Electric Power Research Institute and Science Applications International Corporation in 2012 was not endorsed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for use in risk-informed, regulatory applications. Subsequently the NRC, in conjunction with the National Institute of Standards and Technology, conducted a series of tests for representative nuclear power plant electrical enclosure fires designed to definitively establish more realistic peak HRRs for these often important contributors to fire risk. The results from these tests are statistically analyzed to develop two probabilistic distributions for peak HRR per unit mass of fuel that refine the values from NUREG/CR-6850, thereby providing a fairly simple means by which to estimate peak HRRs from electrical enclosure fires for fire modeling in support of fire PRA. Unlike NUREG/CR-6850, where five different distributions are provided, or NUREG-2178, which now provides 31, the peak HRRs for electrical enclosure fires can be characterized by only two distributions. These distributions depend only on the type of cable, namely qualified vs. unqualified, for which the mean peak HRR per unit mass is 11.3 and 23.2 kW/kg, respectively, essentially a factor of two difference. Two-sided, 90th percentile confidence bounds are 0.091 to 41.15 kW/kg for qualified cables, and 0.027 to 95.93 kW/kg for unqualified cables. From the mean (~70th percentile) upward, the peak HRR/kg for unqualified cables is roughly twice that that for qualified, increasing slightly with higher percentile, an expected phenomenological trend. Simulations using variable fuel loadings are performed to demonstrate how the results from this analysis may be used for nuclear power plant applications.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[83] **viXra:1609.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 08:31:43*

**Authors:** Allen Graycek

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Extending from galaxies are huge halos of gas and dust, much larger than previously thought. Mass estimates of these halos indicate a mass about equal to the galaxy’s stars. Material type verifies these halos to be the exudate of the galaxy’s supernovae (SNs). It is known stars that explode give considerable force and speed to the gas and dust they blow off. The rate of SNs when searched for was found to be very low. Simple calculations using this data results in a very great age for a Milky Way size galaxy and provides answers to current research on mysteries such as dark matter. It is known it takes trillions of years for stars to cool down, and once cool they would emit millions of times less heat, and no light. They might be IR detectable within a few light years from us.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[82] **viXra:1609.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 09:41:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The physicists describe the hypothetical new particle as an "electrophobic scalar boson." Currently there are five bosons in the standard model, only one of which is a scalar (the Higgs), meaning it has zero spin. All five bosons have been experimentally confirmed, and all are force carriers that play a role in holding matter together. [14] It may only take scientists a few more years to solve one of the biggest puzzles in modern elementary particle physics, the so-called "muon mystery." Russian scientists from the National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI) will make a significant contribution to this research. [13] A large team made up of researchers from across the globe has repeated experiments conducted several years ago that showed a different radius for a proton when it was orbited by a muon as opposed to an electron—a finding dubbed the proton radius puzzle—using a deuterium nucleus this time and has found the same puzzle. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the experiments they conducted, what they found and offer a few possible ideas to help dispel the notion that the puzzle indicates that there may be some problems with the Standard Model. [12] The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[81] **viXra:1609.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 09:58:55*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This is a review article. There are tens unsolved basic problems in cosmology and particle physics. It suggests that the two main theories, i.e. General Theory of Relativity (GR) and Quantum-Physics/Standard-Model (QP/SM), are the incomplete theories. To solve the hierarchy problem, we need a theory of size scales, not the postulated supersymmetric particles. There are the three self-similar scales i.e. the Planck scale, nuclear scale and a cosmological scale. A few additional symmetries that follow from properties of the inflation field (i.e. of the initial state of the superluminal Higgs field) lead to the self-similar fractal-like size scales that look as the analogs of quasars i.e. there is torus with central condensate (bigger tori are built of smaller tori). Such structures of basic bare fermions in the three self-similar scales (they are not the mathematical points) eliminate from theories all infinities, singularities, approximations, mathematical tricks as the mathematical indeterminate forms, free parameters, and reduce number of initial parameters to 7 only. The local/global duality of time, the non-linearity--linearity duality of phenomena and the non-local phenomena in GR and QP/SM lead to the two-component spacetime with radically different properties of the components - it causes that unification of GR and QP/SM within the same methods is impossible. Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) we partially unified GR and QP/SM via the size scales - besides the three gravitating self-similar scales, there appear two non-gravitating superluminal scales that are associated one with gravitational fields and the second with quantum entanglement. The carriers of quantum entanglement, due to their internal helicities, produce only single jet composed of antiparallel half-jets. We need very big number of such carriers to create the volumetric gravitational field - it is realized via neutrinos. How long theoretical cosmology and particle physics will move in a blind alley? Two decades is not enough (the theory of size scales was formulated in 1997)? Who is responsible for this i.e. for the present mess in the two major areas of knowledge? No one can see that Nature cannot be such complicated as the present-day theories suggest (the tens of parameters, many wrong basic results as the spin of proton, infinities, singularities, approximations, tricks)? Is it arrogance?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[80] **viXra:1609.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 10:02:37*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown that the large-scale application of the Newtonian approximation and general relativity leads to certain value for the cosmological constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[79] **viXra:1609.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 10:12:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

One of the biggest mysteries of dwarf galaxies has to do with dark matter, which is why scientists are so fascinated by them. [17] Using the world's most powerful telescopes, an international team of astronomers has found a massive galaxy that consists almost entirely of dark matter. [16] Astrophysicists from the Johns Hopkins University have proposed a clever new way of shedding light on the mystery of dark matter, believed to make up most of the universe. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[78] **viXra:1609.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 04:36:55*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In the world scenario, India occupies a premier position contributing to about 43 per cent production of the cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) along with export and processing. The aim is to study the impact of biofield energy treatment on selected farms for cashew farming. The control and biofield treated farms were divided as control and treated farms, and Mr. Trivedi provided the biofield energy treatment to the treated farms. Further, the plants and fruits were analyzed for overall growth of plants, chlorophyll content, productivity, pathological study, and shelf life using UN specifications for International Trade, biophoton emission study, and DNA fingerprinting using RAPD method. No chemicals, fertilizers, were used on the treated plot, although regular practices were followed on control farms such as fertilizers, pesticides and fungicides due to the high incidence of disease and the requirement of nutritional supplements in the region. The analysis showed that biofield treated farm plants have thicker and stronger branches with more secondary and tertiary branches, flowering pattern, and canopy of plants was improved than trees of the same variety along with height of the plants, as compared with the control. The results showed that chlorophyll a and b content in biofield treated lands plants were increased by approximately 30% and 93% respectively, while total chlorophyll content by 45% as compared with the control. The pathological examination showed the presence of fungi namely Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae in control, which were absent in treated plants. Biophoton study suggested that the cashew fruits were bigger in size with high density, strength, and vitality as compared with the control. The shelf life analysis reflected that the biofield treated cashews showed sweet taste, and can be stored for longer duration due to less moisture, and altered minerals content, such as high iodine, and low p-anisidine level. RAPD analysis showed a high level of polymorphism among control and treated samples, while level of true polymorphism among V4 variety of cashew was ranges from 0 to 100%, and in V7 variety, it ranged from 25 to 91% using different set of RAPD primers. Overall, study results suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on land planted with cashew could be an alternative approach to improve the overall growth of plant, and fruit yield.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[77] **viXra:1609.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 04:41:56*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Acrylamide (AM) and 2-chloroacetamide (CA) are widely used in diverse applications such as biomedical, drug delivery, waste water treatment, and heavy metal ion removal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of amide group containing compounds (AM and CA). The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and surface area analysis. XRD of treated AM showed decrease in intensity of peaks as compared to control sample. However, the treated AM showed increase in volume of unit cell (0.16%) and molecular weight (0.16%) as compared to control. The crystallite size was decreased by 33.34% in treated AM as compared to control Whereas, the XRD diffractogram of treated CA showed increase in intensity of crystalline peaks as compared to control. The percentage volume of unit cell (-1.92%) and molecular weight (-1.92%) of treated CA were decreased as compared to control. However, significant increase in crystallite size (129.79%) was observed in treated CA as compared to control. DSC of treated AM showed increase in melting temperature as compared to control sample. Similarly, the treated CA also showed increase in melting temperature with respect to control. Latent heat of fusion (ΔH) was significantly changed in treated AM and CA as compared to control samples. TGA showed increase in thermal stability of treated AM and CA which was evidenced by increase in thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) as compared to control. Surface area analysis of treated AM showed increase (31.6%) in surface area as compared to control. However, a decrease (30.9%) in surface area was noticed in treated CA as compared to control. Study results suggest that biofield treatment has significant impact on the physical and thermal properties of AM and CA.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[76] **viXra:1609.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 06:25:59*

**Authors:** Brazhnik Gennadyi

**Comments:** 183 Pages.

Сравнение эзотерических знаний и законов физического взаимодействия материализма дает порой неожиданные результаты восприятия реалий окружающей действительности. В рамках рубрики философии бытия настоящая книга, возможно, позволит читателю определиться с основными направлениями развития и совершенствования Сознания его Души.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[75] **viXra:1609.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 07:07:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[74] **viXra:1609.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-07 22:17:34*

**Authors:** Clifford E Chafin

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A classical field theory is introduced that is defined on a tower of dimensionally increasing spaces and is argued to be equivalent to QED. The domain of dependence is discussed to show how an equal times picture of the many coordinate space gives QED results as part of a well posed initial value formalism. Identical particle symmetries are not, a priori, required but when introduced are clearly propagated. This construction uses only classical fields to provide some explanation for why quantum fields and canonical commutation results have been successful. Some old and essential questions regarding causality of propagators are resolved. The problem of resummation, generally forbidden for conditionally convergent series, is discussed from the standpoint of particular truncations of the infinite tower of functions and a two step adiabatic turn on for scattering. As a result of this approach it is shown that the photon inherits its quantization \hbar ω from the free lagrangian of the Dirac electrons despite the fact that the free electromagnetic lagrangian has no hbar in it. This provides a possible explanation for the canonical commutation relations for quantum operators, [P,Q] = i hbar without ever needing to invoke such a quantum postulate. The form of the equal times conservation laws in this many particle field theory suggests a simplification of the radiation reaction process for fields that allows QED to arise from a sum of path integrals in the various particle time coordinates. A novel method of unifying this theory with gravity, but that has no obvious quantum field theoretic computational scheme, is introduced.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[73] **viXra:1609.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 03:46:54*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

"Settling" of Earth began with poles. The general cold snap is inevitable.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[72] **viXra:1609.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-07 10:29:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Applied scientists led by Caltech's Kerry Vahala have discovered a new type of optical soliton wave that travels in the wake of other soliton waves, hitching a ride on and feeding off of the energy of the other wave. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[71] **viXra:1609.0089 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-07 06:30:07*

**Authors:** Alexander P. Sobolev

**Comments:** 27 Pages. 1-27 in english, 28-53 in russian

The gravitational equations were derived in general relativity (GR) using the assumption of their covariance relative to arbitrary transformations of coordinates. It has been repeatedly expressed an opinion over the past century that such equality of all coordinate systems may not correspond to reality. The internal problems inherent in GR are indirectly confirming it. Nevertheless, no actual verification of the necessity of this assumption has been made to date. There must undoubtedly be weighty physical reasons for the introduction of the constraints on the group of coordinate transformations. The initial equations of a theory of gravity with general covariance restricted due to introduction of the constraints are formulated in the paper. The constraint can be interpreted from a physical point of view as a sufficient condition for adiabaticity of the process of evolution of the metric of space-time manifold. A basic model of evolution of the Universe is constructed on this basis which consistent with the observational astronomical data but without using of the hypotheses of the existence of a dark energy, dark matter and inflatons.
Keywords: Gravitation, restricted covariance, nonsingular theory, exact solutions, evolution of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[70] **viXra:1609.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-07 05:10:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

By using a clever approach to increase the sensitivity of the optical fibers to small index changes within the surrounding environment, small concentrations of molecules on or near the fiber's surface can be detected. While the general idea is well known, this particular approach solves an existing sensitivity problem. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[69] **viXra:1609.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-07 05:13:22*

**Authors:** Arayik Emilevich Danghyan

**Comments:** 14 Pages. The article is a translation from the Russian language previously published work.

In the scientific community dominates the conviction that the hydrogen atom is the simplest, and existing theories based on equations of Schrodinger and Dirac fully describe all the subtleties of behavior of an electron in a hydrogen atom.
In this paper and in the following articles will be shown that in addition to the known state-based solutions of the Schrödinger and Dirac equations, there are states which were not studied and they were not known, or often simply were discarded with the phrase "have no physical meaning."
Further it will be shown that the existing equations of quantum mechanics, namely the Dirac equation, Klein-Gordon equation and especially the Schrödinger equation, can not accurately describe all the subtleties of behavior of an electron in a hydrogen atom.
As a result there will be given a reasonable basis for the feasibility of an experimental search or targeted synthesis of new unknown states of the hydrogen atom.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[68] **viXra:1609.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-07 05:22:00*

**Authors:** Arayik Emilevich Danghyan

**Comments:** 13 Pages. The article is a translation from the Russian language previously published work.

In the study of the hydrogen atom, in order to reveal all the details of the behavior of an electron, one of the main conditions is the use of the correct, appropriate equations. Until recently, this applied Schrödinger equation, Klein-Gordon and Dirac. Schrödinger equation will not analyze because it is not relativistic, and therefore can not qualify for a full and accurate description of the range of high energies and velocities.
It will be shown as the Klein-Gordon equation is also unacceptable, because the assumption is deeply disguised errors in the derivation of this equation.
Since, in connection with the intended purpose, we will analyze the behavior of an electron in the states with energy below the ground state, it will be shown that the same should be treated with some suspicion in this regard to the results of the Dirac equation.
As a result, the only acceptable equation is the equation М2 [1].

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[67] **viXra:1609.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-07 07:14:57*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on mustard (Brassica juncea) and chick pea (Cicer arietinum) for their growth, yield, and yield attributes. Both the samples were divided into two groups. One group was remained as untreated and coded as control, while the other group (both seed and plot) was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and referred as the treated. The result showed the plant height of mustard and chick pea was increased by 13.2 and 97.41%, respectively in the treated samples as compared to the control. Additionally, primary branching of mustard and chick pea was improved by 7.4 and 19.84%, respectively in the treated sample as compared to the control. The control mustard and chick pea crops showed high rate of infection by pests and diseases, while treated crops were free from any infection of pests and disease. The yield attributing characters of mustard showed, lucidly higher numbers of siliquae on main shoot, siliquae/plant and siliquae length were observed in the treated seeds and plot as compared with the control. Moreover, similar results were observed in the yield attributing parameters of chick pea viz. pods/plant, grains/pod as well as test weight of 1000 grains. The seed and stover yield of mustard in treated plots were increased by 61.5% and 25.4%, respectively with respect to the control. However, grain/seed yield of mustard crop after biofield energy treatment was increased by 500% in terms of kg per meter square as compared to the control. Besides, grain/seed yield of chick pea crop after biofield energy treatment was increased by 500% in terms of kg per meter square. The harvest index of biofield treated mustard was increased by 21.83%, while it was slight increased in case of chick pea. In conclusion, the biofield energy treatment could be used on both the seeds and plots of mustard and chick pea as an alternative way to increase the production and yield.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[66] **viXra:1609.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-06 13:46:39*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Until the early twentieth century, the three-dimensional space and one-dimensional time were considered separate beings. In 1909, German mathematician H. Minkowski connected together space and time into single idea, creating a new the four-dimensional spacetime.
In this paper we proposed the extension of this idea by the connection together the Minkowski four-dimensional spacetime and the mass density into the single idea, creating a new entity: the four-dimensional spacetime with the mass density.

**Category:** Topology

[65] **viXra:1609.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-06 10:50:17*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The updated version also gives a limit on the maximum relativistic Doppler shift

In 1905, Einstein presented his famous relativistic mass energy equation mc^2/Sqrt(1-{v^2/c^2). When v approaches c, the expression containing the moving mass approaches infinity. Einstein interpreted this in the following way: since one needs an infinite amount of energy to accelerate even a small mass to the speed of light, it would appear that no mass can ever reach the speed of light. In this paper, we present a new solution to the infinite mass challenge based on combining special relativity with insights from Max Planck and maximum frequency. By doing this we show that there is an exact limit on the speed v in Einstein's formula. This limit is only dependent on the Planck length and the reduced Compton wavelength of the mass in question. This also gives us a limit on the maximum relativistic Doppler shift that is derived and discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[64] **viXra:1609.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 19:08:36*

**Authors:** Marvin Ray Burns

**Comments:** 8 Pages. This classic paper shows the utter simplicity of the geometric description of the MRB constant (oeis.org/A037077).

The MRB constant is the upper limit point of the sequence of partial sums defined by S(x)=sum((-
1)^n*n^(1/n),n=1..x). The goal of this paper is to show that the MRB constant is geometrically
quantifiable. To “measure” the MRB constant, we will consider a set, sequence and alternating series of
the nth roots of n. Then we will compare the length of the edges of a special set of hypercubes or ncubes
which have a content of n. (The two words hypercubes and n-cubes will be used synonymously.)
Finally, we will look at the value of the MRB constant as a representation of that comparison, of the length of the edges of a special set of hypercubes, in units of dimension 1/ (units of dimension 2 times
units of dimension 3 times units of dimension 4 times etc.). For an arbitrary example we will use units of
length/ (time*mass* density*…).

**Category:** Geometry

[63] **viXra:1609.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-23 20:03:55*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 16 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Polish).

W artykule wykazaliśmy, że istnieje cała klasa teorii z eterem, które prawidłowo wyjaśniają eksperymenty, w których mierzono prędkość światła.
Przedstawiliśmy założenia Szczególnej Teorii Eteru z dowolnym skróceniem poprzecznym oraz wyprowadziliśmy ogólną postać transformacji eter-układ inercjalny. Następnie wyznaczyliśmy prędkość światła w próżni dla ruchomego obserwatora oraz pokazaliśmy trzy konkretne przykłady transformacji eter-układ inercjalny.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[62] **viXra:1609.0080 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-16 01:53:45*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

Fermat's last theorem has been proved on half of a page. The approach used in the proof is exemplified by the following system: If a system functions properly and one wants to determine if the same system will function properly with changes in the system, one will first determine the necessary conditions which allow the system to function properly, and then guided by the necessary conditions, one will determine if the changes will allow the system to function properly. So also, if one wants to prove that there are no solutions for the equation c^n = a^n + b^n when n > 2, one should first determine why there are solutions when n = 2, and note the necessary condition in the solution for n = 2. The necessary condition in the solutions for n = 2 will guide one to determine if there are solutions when n > 2. The proof in this paper is based on the identity (a^2 + b^2)/c^2 = 1 for a Pythagorean triple, a, b, c, where a, b, and c are relatively prime positive integers. It is shown by contradiction that the uniqueness of the n = 2 identity excludes all other n-values, n > 2, from satisfying the equation c^n = a^n + b^n. One will first show that if n = 2 , c^n = a^n + b^n holds, noting the necessary condition in the solution; followed by showing that if n > 2 (n an integer), c^n = a^n + b^n does not hold. The proof began without reference to any geometric figure or ratio terms. The proof is very simple, and even high school students can learn it. The approach used in the proof has applications in science, engineering, medicine, research, business, and any properly working system when desired changes are to be made in the system. Perhaps, the proof in this paper is the proof that Fermat wished there were enough margin for it in his paper. With respect to prizes, if the prize for a 150-page proof were $715,000, then the prize for a half-page proof (considering the advantages) using inverse proportion, would be $214,500,000.

**Category:** Number Theory

[61] **viXra:1609.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-07 03:30:51*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Recent approaches to brain phase spaces reinforce the foremost role of symmetries and energy requirements in the assessment of nervous activity. Changes in thermodynamic parameters and dimensions occur in the brain during symmetry breakings and transitions from one functional state to another. Based on topological results and string-like trajectories into nervous energy landscapes, we provide a novel method for the evaluation of energetic features and constraints in different brain functional activities. We show how abstract approaches, namely the Borsuk-Ulam theorem and its variants, display real, energetic physical counterparts. When topology meets the physics of the brain, we arrive at a general model of neuronal activity, in terms of multidimensional manifolds and computational geometry, that has the potential to be operationalized.

**Category:** Mind Science

[60] **viXra:1609.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-07 03:42:13*

**Authors:** Manuel Abarca Hernandez

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this work has been calculated two new DM density profiles inside halo region of Milky Way, MW hereafter, and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents.
The first is called direct DM density because it is got directly from velocity as power regression of radius in halo rotation curve. In other words velocity of rotation curve depend on radius as a power function. In fact this function got by power regression has a correlation coefficient of 0,85.
The second one, DM density as power of E, E is gravitational field, has been introduced by author in previous papers, [8] Abarca,M.2016, where it has been used to study DM in several galaxies. It is called as power of E because DM density depend on E as a power function.
Hypothesis which is the basis of theory is that DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according a power law. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field.
To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [8] Abarca,M.2016. Dark matter density on big galaxies depend on gravitational field as Universal law and other papers quoted in bibliography.
Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data points inside MW halo. These data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. In addition it is got a power regression for rotation curve points in halo region whose function is v = a•r^b getting a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,85.
In fourth chapter it is developed a mathematical method to get a new DM density depending on radius called direct DM density because it is got directly from power regression function got in chapter three.
In fifth chapter it has been demonstrated that a power regression function for rotation curve is mathematically equivalent that DM density depend on gravitational field, as a power function i.e. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are cleared up depending on a & b (parameters of power regression of rotation curve).
In sixth chapter it has been got that for radius bigger than 44 kpc ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 2% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic density in order to develop theory introduced in this work.
The seventh is a short chapter where is compared direct DM density got with NFW density profile fitted by Sofue in his paper. [5] Sofue, Y.2015. Relative differences between both density profiles are under 25% inside main part of halo dominion. In addition it is explained why NFW profile is bigger than direct DM throughout dominion.
Eighth chapter, called Masses in Milky Way, is dedicated to calculate masses through dynamical method and NFW profile. In addition both methods are compared at different radius. Results show that relative differences of masses are under 20% inside main part of radius dominion.
In ninth chapter is compared DM density as power E in MW with DM density as power E in M31, which was published in [ 11] Abarca,M.2016. Results show that at a specific E, both DM densities are very similar. Relative differences are under 15 % inside main part of dominion. This fact support strongly author hypothesis about DM as power of E as Universal law.
In tenth chapter, it is introduced a new definition for halo radius. According theory DM generated by gravitational field, it is right to definite halo as region where gravitational field dominate over gravitational field of galactic neighbour. So it is calculated that halo radius for MW is 292 kpc and halo radius for M31 is 478 kpc. Also are calculated total masses which belong these new radius and it is calculated new ratio baryonic mass vs total mass. Such ratio is 18% for MW and 8 % for M31.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[59] **viXra:1609.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-07 03:55:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[58] **viXra:1609.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 13:12:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Scientists at the High Energy Physics Group (HEP) of the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg predict the existence of a new boson that might aid in the understanding of Dark Matter in the Universe. [15] For decades, researchers have tried to detect this invisible dark matter. Several types of devices have been put up on Earth and in space to capture the particles that dark matter is supposed to consist of, and experiments have attempted to create a dark matter particle by colliding ordinary matter particles at very high temperatures. [13] " Call it the sound of dark matter, " says Asimina Arvanitaki, a theoretical particle physicist at Perimeter Institute. Despite making up the vast majority of stuff in our universe, dark matter remains invisible. But perhaps it's not inaudible. Dark matter is some of the most abundant, yet most elusive, stuff in the universe. Though scientists are confident it is out there (thanks to the gravitational effects it has on its surroundings), the search to identify it has thus far come up empty. [12] An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter's deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron's army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[57] **viXra:1609.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 13:47:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape,

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[56] **viXra:1609.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-27 17:12:07*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We present a solution for the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible case with any smooth (C^∞) initial velocity given a pressure and external force in n = 3 spatial dimensions, based on expansion in Taylor’s series of time. Without major difficulties, it can be adapted to any spatial dimension, n≥1.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[55] **viXra:1609.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 15:29:04*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The validity of the logical relations between the basic propositions of modern cosmology is examined and the source of the cosmological constant problem is determined and a proposed solution is given.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[54] **viXra:1609.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-07 02:47:56*

**Authors:** Andrzej Gecow

**Comments:** 16 Pages. in Polish

Understanding of Lamarck was and are very different, but currently the view clarifies where Darwinian and Lamarckian mechanisms are not conflicting. Lamarckian mechanisms exist and offer evolutionary changes “from instructions”, usually much more accurate adaptively than if they were completely random, but this instruction was found earlier by Darwinian natural selection. Lamarckian mechanisms alone do not explain the obtained purposefulness. They gain this ability only with the mechanism of their occurrence, which is Darwinian. In the case of multicellular usually their effect requires the strengthening of inherited through genetic assimilation, but in range of memes and culture "realized needs" seems to be the main mechanism.

**Category:** Mind Science

[53] **viXra:1609.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 07:47:18*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Кому понравилось, могут пожертвовать некоторую сумму денег на WM: R335877695266 или Z300715849159

Einstein's general relativity gives excellent results of calculations, which are based on the principle of least action. But the principle is not in a position to make the move in a certain path, it can only make the interaction, the disclosure of which is derived from this principle. In other words, there are some well-known interaction. It is, according to formulas derived from the principle of least action, acts on a material object. Therefore, a material object and makes movement, according to the principle of least action. About this and made to explain the inertia of bodies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[52] **viXra:1609.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 09:29:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

A team of researchers with the National University of Singapore has found a way to get around what they describe as 'Rayleigh's curse'—a phenomenon that happens when two light sources appear to coalesce as they grow closer together, limiting the ability to measure the distance between them. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the team describes how they applied a quantum mechanics technique to solve the problem. [14] Quantum mechanics wreaks even more havoc with conventional ideas of causality than some have suspected – according to a team of researchers based in Australia, with collaborators in Scotland and Germany. They have shown that even allowing causality to be nonlocal – so that an event in one place can have an influence on another, distant place – is not enough to explain how quantum objects behave. [13] A research team led by a Heriot-Watt scientist has shown that the universe is even weirder than had previously been thought. Quantum correlations do not imply instant causation. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[51] **viXra:1609.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 05:09:34*

**Authors:** Kumar Deepayan Turja

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Special Relativity leads us to draw conclusion on mass-energy conversion but does not tell about the governing limits occupied with the process. This paper has developed a probabilistic approach to show the proper limit of mass-energy conversion in an inertial frame of reference. Here we will see that mass or energy can never be converted fully into each other by itself. An indirect proof & restatement of the 2nd law of thermodynamics has been given from the view-point of special relativity and the conclusion derived from the method. At the end an alternative explanation of radioactive decay & fate of the universe has been discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:1609.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 05:12:54*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) are two isomers of dichlorophenols, have been used as preservative agents for wood, paints, vegetable fibers and as intermediates in the production of pharmaceuticals and dyes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 2H/1H or 13C/12C, and 18O/16O or 37Cl/35Cl, in dichlorophenol isomers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 2,4- DCP and 2,6-DCP samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control sample remained as untreated, while the treated sample was further divided into four groups as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The GC-MS spectra of 2,4-DCP and 2,6-DCP showed three to six m/z peaks at 162, 126, 98, 73, 63, 37 etc. due to the molecular ion peak and fragmented peaks. The isotopic abundance ratios (percentage) in both the isomers were increased significantly after biofield treatment as compared to the control. The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM and (PM+2)/PM after biofield energy treatment were increased by 54.38% and 40.57% in 2,4-DCP and 126.11% and 18.65% in 2,6-DCP, respectively which may affect the bond energy, reactivity and finally stability to the product.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[49] **viXra:1609.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-15 19:17:54*

**Authors:** Marvin Ray Burns

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

First we will follow the path the author took to find out that for
integral(cos[pi*I*x]x^(1/x),{x,1,a}) and
integral(sin[pi*I*x]x^(1/x),{x,1,a}), the limit of the ratio of a to a-1,as a goes to infinity is Gelfond's Constant, (e^pi).
We will consider that the hypothesis and provide hints for a proof using L'Hospital's Rule (since we have indeterminate forms as a goes to infinity).
We find we there is no limit of the ratio of the previous forms of integrals when the "I" is left out, and give a small proof for them.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[48] **viXra:1609.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-05 20:51:13*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, stellar evolution is planet formation, a star is a young planet and a planet is an ancient star, they are the same objects. Therefore a complete reinterpretation of isotopic abundances of radioactive elements needs to be done. A simple principle is presented to guide future physicists away from the false nebular hypothesis and all of its modern variants, and towards a new theory of stellar evolution/planet formation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[47] **viXra:1609.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 03:29:19*

**Authors:** 8O. Aizpurua-Olaizola, J. Omar, P. Navarro, M. Olivares, N. Etxebarria, A. Usobiaga

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

High performance liquid chromatography tandem
mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been successfully applied to cannabis plant extracts in order to identify cannabinoid compounds after their quantitative isolation by means of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). MS conditions were optimized by means of a central composite design (CCD) approach, and the analysis method was fully validated. Six major cannabinoids [tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabigerol (CBG), and
cannabinol (CBN)] were quantified (RSD < 10%), and seven more cannabinoids were identified and verified by means of a liquid chromatograph coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-ToF) detector. Finally, based on the distribution of the analyzed cannabinoids in 30 Cannabis sativa L. plant varieties and the principal component analysis (PCA) of the resulting data, a clear difference was observed between outdoor and indoor grown plants, which was attributed to a higher concentration of THC, CBN, and CBD in outdoor grown plants.

**Category:** Chemistry

[46] **viXra:1609.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 03:34:41*

**Authors:** 7O. Aizpurua-Olaizola, M. Ormazabal, A. Vallejo, M. Olivares, P. Navarro, N. Etxebarria, A. Usobiaga

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this study, supercritical fluid extraction has been successfully applied to a sequential fractionation of fatty acids and polyphenols from wine wastes (2 different vitis vinifera grapes). To this aim, in a 1st step just fatty acids were extracted and in a 2nd one the polyphenols. The variables that affected to the extraction efficiency were separately optimized in both steps following an experimental design approach. The effect of extraction temperature flow, pressure, and time were thoroughly evaluated for the extraction of fatty acids, whereas the addition of methanol was also considered in the case of the polyphenols extraction. A quantitative extraction with high efficiency was achieved at a very short time and low temperatures. Concerning quantification, fatty acids were determined by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry after a derivatization step, whereas the polyphenols were analyzed by means of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and the Folin–Ciocalteu method.

**Category:** Chemistry

[45] **viXra:1609.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-05 08:08:46*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas for pi constant: pi=3.14159265...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[44] **viXra:1609.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-05 08:35:53*

**Authors:** J. Akande, D. K. K. Adjaï, L. H. Koudahoun, Y. J. F. Kpomahou, M. D. Monsia

**Comments:** 5 pages

This research work proposes a Lagrangian and Hamiltonian analysis for the unique class of position-dependent mass oscillator characterized by a harmonic periodic solution and parabolic potential energy and its inverted version admitting a position-dependent mass dynamics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[43] **viXra:1609.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-05 09:16:55*

**Authors:** Aleksandr Tsybin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The presence of dark matter and dark energy, which is also called physical vacuum
substantially change our views on gravity. This is due to the fact that the vacuum has
physical properties possessed by the liquid. These properties should be attributed
primarily flow rate, density and impermeable screen for this substance

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1609.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-05 10:02:11*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Einstein's general relativity gives excellent results of calculations, which are based on the principle of least action. But the principle is not in a position to make the move in a certain path, it can only make the interaction, the disclosure of which is derived from this principle. In other words, there are some well-known interaction. It is, according to formulas derived from the principle of least action, acts on a material object. Therefore, a material object and makes movement, according to the principle of least action. About this and made to explain the inertia of bodies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1609.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-04 16:05:23*

**Authors:** Aleksandr Tsybin

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This problem is devoted a huge number of articles and books. So it does
not make sense to list them. I wrote this note 10 years ago and since then
a lot of time I tried to find the error in the reasoning and I can not this to
do. I’ll be glad if someone will be finds a mistake and even more will be
happy if an error will be not found.

**Category:** Number Theory

[40] **viXra:1609.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-04 16:36:37*

**Authors:** Ramzi suleiman

**Comments:** 6 Pages. relevant also to relativity

In a recent Nature article, Hensen et al. reported that they have accomplished a "loophole-free" test of Bell's theorem. The authors speculated that further improvements in their experimental design could settle an 80 years debate in favor of quantum theory's stance that entanglement is "action at a distance". We direct attention to a spatial aspect of locality, not considered by Bell's Theorem nor by any of its experimental tests. We refer to the possibility that two particles distancing from each other could remain spatially disconnected, even when they have distanced enough to ensure that information between them was transmitted faster than the velocity of light. We show that any local-deterministic relativity theory which violates Lorentz's contraction for distancing bodies can maintain spatial locality. We briefly note that the recently proposed Information Relativity Theory satisfies the aforementioned condition, and that it predicts and explains several quantum phenomena, despite being local and deterministic. We conclude by arguing that quantum entanglement is not nonlocal and that the unnoticed spatial dimension of locality is in fact the hidden variable conjectured in the seminal EPR paper.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[39] **viXra:1609.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-04 18:01:20*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

First, we calculate the minimum length for the creation of a 10^45 Hz relic Gravitational wave. Next, we look Padamababhan’s inflaton physics, and work done by the author for a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle for constraints on a minimum time step. Sciama’s work in “Black hole explosions” (1982) gives us a linkage between a decay rate for black holes, in terms of a life time, and the mass, M of the black hole, which when combined with a simple exposition from Susskind and Hrabovsky (2013) for the most basic evolution the time change in energy E(t), which is how we form a first order treatment of the square of a minimum time step Delta t. We then reference what was done by Ng (2008) as far as infinite quantum statistics, for entropy as a particle count, and from first principle get constraints upon entropy production, as a function of boundaries on minimum time step. We assume massive Gravity, and obtain a peak 10^36 Giga Hertz frequency range (10^45 Hertz) for relic Gravitational waves, and Gravitons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[38] **viXra:1609.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-05 06:28:40*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Polynomial time compositeness tests for generalized Fermat numbers are introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[37] **viXra:1609.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-05 07:10:28*

**Authors:** Yoav Weinstein, Gabriel Sinbar, Eran Sinbar

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Based on Einstein’s equation matter and anti-matter annihilate into photonic radiation energy. Photons have unique characteristics since they are massless and they travel at the speed of light in all the inertial reference frames. No other particle shares these unique characteristics. We claim that this unique behavior is due to the fact that photons do not apply gravitational effects on space-time, meaning,although photons will be forced to move in a curved line if space-time is curved they
will not curve space time by themselves or apply gravity forces and time dilation on
one another.
In order to prove our claims we suggest a thought experiment that leads to a paradox.
The only way to explain this paradox is to conclude that anti-matter impose anti–gravity and therefore matter and anti-matter together impose zero gravity.
Furthermore, this proves that the photonic energy from the annihilation phase has also zero gravity effect on space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1609.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-04 16:01:51*

**Authors:** Aleksandr Tsybin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

For a positive integer n I construct an n × n matrix of special shape,
whose determinant equals the n-th prime number, and whose entries
are equal to 1,-1 or 0. Specific calculations which I have carried out
so far, allowed me to construct such matrices for all n up to 63.
These calculations are based on my own method for quick
calculations of determinants of special matrices along with a
variation on the Sieve of Eratosthenes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[35] **viXra:1609.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-04 10:50:43*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The brain is a system at the edge of chaos equipped with nonlinear dynamics and functional energetic landscapes. However, still doubts exist concerning the type of attractors or the trajectories followed by particles in the nervous phase space. Starting from an unusual system governed by differential equations in which a dissipative strange attractor coexists with an invariant conservative torus, we developed a 3D model of brain phase space which has the potential to be operationalized and assessed empirically. We achieved a system displaying both a torus and a strange attractor, depending just on the initial conditions. Further, the system generates a funnel-like attractor equipped with a fractal structure. Changes in three easily detectable brain phase parameters (log frequency, excitatory/inhibitory ratio and fractal slope) lead to modifications in funnel’s breadth or in torus/attractor superimposition: it explains a large repertoire of brain functions and activities, such as sensations/perceptions, memory and self-generated thoughts.

**Category:** Mind Science

[34] **viXra:1609.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-03 16:15:57*

**Authors:** Brian Beckman

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper fills in some blanks left between part 1 of this series, Kalman Folding (http://vixra.org/abs/1606.0328), and the rest of the papers in the series. In part 1, we present basic Kalman filtering as a functional fold, highlighting the advantages of this form for hardening code in a test environment. In that paper, we motivated the Kalman filter as a natural extension of the running average and variance, writing both as functional folds computed in constant memory. We expressed the running statistics as recurrence relations, where the new statistic is the old statistic plus a correction. We write the correction as a gain factor times some transform of a residual. The residual is the difference between the current (old) statistic and the incoming (new) observation. In both expressions, for brevity, we left derivations to the reader. Here, we present those derivations in full “school-level” detail, along with some basic explanation of the programming language that mechanizes the computations.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[33] **viXra:1609.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-03 18:01:36*

**Authors:** Mahmoud Mohsen Ali Alsayes

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Despite its significant importance in the economy growth, concrete industry faces several environmental and economic challenges like the emissions of toxic gases during production and high prices of the products, respectively. Consequently, the project aims to produce an alternative solution to the conventional concrete by following the design requirements of low cost, high efficiency and through recycling the fly ash, another industrial pollutant. The idea depends on mixing the fly ash with a liquid alkaline activator, under certain conditions to produce solidified concrete that has proven efficiency after testing. Finally, the mixture, put for 24 hours in 75℃ in dry oven to solidify, has shown the best results. In conclusion it can be easily deduced that such cement is an eco-friendly cheap alternative to conventional concrete; in addition to getting rid of another pollutant.

**Category:** Chemistry

[32] **viXra:1609.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-03 19:18:52*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 illustration

In stellar metamorphosis the majority of the cementation of rocks and minerals in the newly forming crust occurs during the transition of early stage ocean worlds and worlds with exposed rocky surfaces similar to the Earth.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[31] **viXra:1609.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-03 20:45:14*

**Authors:** Basudeba Mishra

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Freewill is actually not free – it has limited degrees of freedom. Like non-living bodies, living organisms also obey mechanical laws of nature and
act according to external forces to fulfill their needs, though, it is not self evident. All organisms - living or not - follow
laws of nature. However, only living organisms can perceive through their sensory
agencies when these impulses are reflected in the Conscious Self that illuminates every
thing and is the repository of all knowledge (results of measurement) and processes. Since
knowledge, i.e., result of measurement for any instant, is frozen for ever, Consciousness is
universal, immutable, eternal, un-moving and timeless; thus, is the universal and ubiquitous
foundation of life – it is the Observer of everything that are observables.

**Category:** Mind Science

[30] **viXra:1609.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-03 20:49:57*

**Authors:** Basudeba Mishra

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

While the cause and effect sequence have been established earlier and the effect of all actions are deterministic, freewill can change the projected outcome generating not only uncertainty, but also deterministic variety subject to universality of physical laws, which can be classified into different groups. But who determines the universal laws? If there is such an Agency (God?) and if causality operates universally, then what is the effect of death? Every action has invariably a determinate reaction that may materialize immediately (eating satisfies hunger) or after certain interval, when suitable conditions appear or reactions take place (taking medicine cures later). Though the reactions take place in the physical body, they are cognized by the causal body. Cognition can initiate reaction in physical body. If we see a snake and become afraid, the cause of fear (snake) is away from us, but the adrenalin flow shoots up within our body. The causal body is unable to initiate action without a physical body. Hence what does the causal body do when physical body is destroyed? There is no proof that it also is destroyed. Thus, it must seek a new physical body. In that case, the new body must exhibit symptoms of prior knowledge. A new born child has to start learning everything starting with a blank slate. How do all new born babies know that if they cry, someone will look after their needs? How does it learn to suckle when the mother brings her breast near its mouth? Other children also show some intriguing behavior. For example, a rhino mother faints after giving birth. The new born child moves far away from the mother before she regains consciousness. The child returns only after its skin hardened just like hens laying eggs sitting on walls are not broken, as it is spongy at the beginning, which hardens immediately thereafter. Surprisingly, both the mother and the child rhinos recognize each other. This is done because the soft skin of the new born cannot tolerate the affectionate licking of the mother’s thorny tongue. How does the new born rhino know to move away immediately after birth? Since this identical perception is generated every time we look at a new born baby, it proves some prior to birth connection.

**Category:** Mind Science

[29] **viXra:1609.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-04 01:49:32*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Substantiates the concept, according to which all forms of matter in the universe formed from a single "protomatter", which was previously called ether, and now - dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[28] **viXra:1609.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-04 05:06:48*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The internal helicity distinguish particles from antiparticles. Fermions, due to the internal helicity, produce weak jets (they are produced in both the Higgs field composed of non-gravitating tachyons and the luminal Einstein spacetime) that are responsible for the CP (so T as well) violation. Generally, according to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), the weak interactions are along the jets whereas the nuclear strong interactions are in plane perpendicular to the jets. It causes that the nuclear strong interactions are CP (so T as well) invariant - it solves the strong CP problem. Both interactions, due to the thermal motions, can be volumetric. According to SST, there is the two-component spacetime i.e. the Higgs field associated with gravitational fields and the Einstein spacetime associated with the Standard-Model (SM) interactions. To cancel turbulences, there must be produced virtual or/and real particle-antiparticle pairs. But in the gravitational fields, due to their very low density, pairs cannot be produced - it causes that gravity is non-linear and non-linear are phenomena with dominating gravity i.e. phenomena that follow from dynamic viscosity of the non-gravitating tachyons all objects consist of such as friction or motions of the atmosphere of Earth. On the other hand, the quantum mechanics is linear, i.e. superposition and quantum entanglement are linear because in the luminal Einstein spacetime can be produced fermion-antifermion pairs, especially electron-positron pairs. Range of electrons to move in a superconductive manner is equal to the radius of the Bohr orbit in the hydrogen atom - it leads to the threshold for density of bound and free electrons for superconducting materials (about 1.5 kg per cubic meter).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[27] **viXra:1609.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-04 06:28:30*

**Authors:** Y.F.J. Kpomahou, L.H. Koudahoun, D.K.K. Adjaï, J. Akande, M.D. Monsia

**Comments:** 3 pages

The main objective of this paper is to propose two simple analytical linearizing transformation for determining the exact analytical harmonic periodic solution of a class of Liénard-type position-dependent mass oscillator equations. The performed exact analysis shows that both employed analytical methods are efficient to solve this class of equations.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[26] **viXra:1609.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-03 12:10:32*

**Authors:** M. D. Monsia, J. Akande, D. K. K. Adjaï, L. H. Koudahoun, Y. J. F. Kpomahou

**Comments:** 3 pages

This paper purposes to show the existence of exact analytical solutions to a class of generalized Duffing-van der Pol and modified Emden type oscillator equations using nonlocal transformation.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[25] **viXra:1609.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-03 09:36:01*

**Authors:** Manuel Abarca Hernandez

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Direct DM density profile has been calculated directly from rotation curve of M31

In this work has been calculated two new DM density profiles inside halo region of M31 galaxy and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents.
The first is called direct DM density because it is got directly from velocity as power regression of radius in rotation curve. In other words velocity of rotation curve depend on radius as a power function. In fact galactic rotation curve inside M31 halo has a power regression of velocity depending on radius with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,95 inside halo region.
The second one, called Bernoulli profile has been introduced by author in previous papers, [8] Abarca,M.2016, and others papers quoted in bibliography, where it has been used to study DM in several galaxies. It is called Bernoulli because it is got from a Bernoulli differential equation.
Hypothesis which is the basis to get Bernoulli profile stated that DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according a power law. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field. In addition A& B are similar for different galaxies on condition that galaxies are similar and giants, not dwarfs.
To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [8] Abarca,M.2016. Dark matter density on big galaxies depend on gravitational field as Universal law and other papers quoted in bibliography.
Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data points inside M31 halo. These data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. In addition it is got a power regression for rotation curve points in halo region whose function is v = a•r^b getting a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,95.
In fourth chapter it is developed a mathematical method to get a new DM density depending on radius called direct DM density because it is got directly from power regression function got in chapter three.
In fifth chapter it has been demonstrated that a power regression function for rotation curve is mathematically equivalent that DM density depend on gravitational field, as a power function i.e. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are cleared up depending on a & b (parameters of power regression of rotation curve).
In sixth chapter it has been got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc then ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 1% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic density in order to develop theory introduced in this work.
The seventh is a short chapter where is compared direct DM density got with NFW density profile fitted by Sofue in his paper. [5] Sofue, Y.2015. Relative differences between both density profiles are under 25% inside main part of halo dominion. In addition it is shown that NFW profile is bigger than direct DM through all dominion.
In eighth chapter is got a Bernoulli differential equation for gravitational field. Hypothesis to state this equation is that DM density is a power function of gravitational field i.e. DM density = A• E^B. Solution for E allows to get Bernoulli density profile.
In ninth chapter is demonstrated that Bernoulli profile is mathematically equivalent to direct DM profile.
In tenth chapter has been got masses for M31 by direct DM and NFW profiles at different radius. Through whole dominion masses got by NFW are bigger than direct DM profile although relative difference between both profiles are under 25 %. In conclusion chapter will be pointed reason, which in author opinion, explain that NFW profile gives bigger values than direct DM profile.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[24] **viXra:1609.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-03 09:40:03*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** Pages. Thank you for this great site. Sorry for the mistake in the title

A method for obtaining a reduction of Co2 emissions

**Category:** Climate Research

[23] **viXra:1609.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-03 06:46:46*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Murashige and Skoog medium (MS media) is a chemically defined and widely used as a growth medium for plant tissue culture techniques. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal, and spectral properties of MS media. The study was performed in two groups; one was kept as control while another was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and coded as treated group. Afterward, both the control and treated samples were analyzed using various analytical techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed 19.92% decrease in the crystallite size of treated sample with respect to the control. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed the increase in onset temperature of thermal degradation (Tonset) by 9.41% and 10.69% in first and second steps of thermal degradation, respectively after the biofield energy treatment as compared to the control. Likewise, Tmax (maximum thermal degradation temperature) was increased by 17.43% and 28.61% correspondingly in the first and second step of thermal degradation in the treated sample as compared to the control. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis indicated the 143.51% increase in the latent heat of fusion of the treated sample with respect to the control sample. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrum of treated MS media showed the alteration in the frequency such as 3165→3130 cm-1 (aromatic C-H stretching); 2813→2775 cm-1 (aliphatic C-H stretching); 1145→1137 cm-1 (C-N stretching), 995→1001 cm-1 (S=O stretching), etc. in the treated sample with respect to the control. The UV spectra of control and treated MS media showed the similar absorbance maxima (λmax) i.e. at 201 and 198 nm, respectively. The XRD, TGA-DTG, DSC, and FT-IR results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the impact on physical, thermal, and spectral properties of the MS media. As a result, the treated MS media could be more stable than the control, and might be used as better media in the plant tissue culture technique.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[22] **viXra:1609.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-03 06:48:26*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The present study was aimed to analyse the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectral properties of 4-MBA. The compound was divided into two parts which are referred as the control and treated sample. The treated sample was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and analysed with respect to the control sample. The various analytical techniques used were X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and UV-visible spectroscopy. The XRD data revealed the alteration in the relative intensities of the peaks as well as reduction in the average crystallite size (24.62%) of the treated sample as compared to the control. The surface area analysis revealed a slight reduction in the surface area of the treated sample. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis reported a slight increase in the melting point while significant reduction in the latent heat of fusion of the treated sample (39.96 J/g) as compared to the control (133.72 J/g). Moreover, the TGA thermogram of the treated sample revealed the reduction in the onset temperature and maximum thermal degradation temperature as compared to the control. However, the FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra of treated sample did not show any significant alteration as compared to their respective control spectra. The overall data indicated the improved physical and thermal properties of the biofield treated 4-MBA sample that might be helpful in increasing the reaction kinetics, where it will be used as a reaction intermediate.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[21] **viXra:1609.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-02 15:17:50*

**Authors:** M. D. Monsia, J. Akande, D. K. K. Adjaï, L. H. Koudahoun, Y. J. F. Kpomahou

**Comments:** 3 pages

The objective in this paper is to show that the generalized Duffing-van der Pol and modified Emden type equations consist of limiting cases of the exactly integrable Monsia et al.[2] nonlinear oscillator equation by expanding the exponential-type damping and restoring forces in a Taylor series.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[20] **viXra:1609.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-02 11:49:36*

**Authors:** Rodolfo Henrique Cerbaro, Jamie Lyn Whisler

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The idea of progress as it currently stands is not well understood. This is because it is taken to be both context-dependent and stands independently, without a formal structure. It is an idea which is applied in cases that can be as diverse as simply finishing an essay to the complex progress of humanity. If the idea appears in such diverse scenarios, is there an underlying mechanism through which we can easily understand it? Here we structure the idea and propose a simple postulate which allows us to have a more adequate knowledge of it. The expected result is the capability of realizing it’s intellectual appearance and understanding it in any given practical scenario; even if it is not totally clear based on what we define as progress. This short and simple model implies that the action of a goal definition should be handled with care, as the concept of progress is engulfed by the goal system.

**Category:** Mind Science

[19] **viXra:1609.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-02 12:14:39*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Monster group, the biggest of the sporadic groups, is equipped with the highest known number of dimensions and symmetries. Taking into account variants of the Borsuk-Ulam theorem and a novel topological approach cast in a physical fashion that has the potential to be operationalized, the Universe can be conceived as a lower-dimensional manifold encompassed in the Monster group. Our Universe might arise from spontaneous dimension decrease and symmetry breaking that occur inside the very structure of the Monster Module. We elucidate how the energetic loss caused by projection from higher to lower dimensions and by the Monster group’s non-abelian features is correlated with the present-day asymmetry in thermodynamic arrow. By linking the Monster Module to theoretical physical counterparts, we are allowed to calculate its enthalpy and Lie group trajectories. Our approach also reveals how a symmetry break might lead to a Universe based on multi-dimensional string theories and CFT/AdS correspondence.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] **viXra:1609.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-02 12:31:10*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Brain electric activity exhibits two important features: oscillations with different timescales, characterized by diverse functional and psychological outcomes, and a temporal power law distribution, which appears as a straight line when plotted on logarithmic scales in a log power versus log frequency plot. In order to investigate the relationships between low- and high- frequency spikes in the brain, we used a variant of the Borsuk-Ulam theorem which states that, when we assess the nervous activity as embedded in a sphere equipped with a fractal dimension, we achieve two antipodal points with similar features (the slow and fast, scale-free oscillations). We demonstrate that slow and fast nervous oscillations are correlated and provide, through the Bloch theorem from solid-state physics, the possible equation which links the two timescale activities.

**Category:** Mind Science

[17] **viXra:1609.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-02 07:36:57*

**Authors:** Prashanth R. Rao

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The even Goldbach conjecture states that any even integer greater than four may be expressed as the sum of two odd primes. The odd Goldbach conjecture states that any odd integer greater than seven must be expressible as a sum of three odd primes. These conjectures remain unverified. In this paper we explore the possible constraints that exist on the smallest possible counterexample of the even Goldbach conjecture. We prove that the odd numbers immediately flanking the smallest counterexample of the even Goldbach conjecture are themselves expressible as the sum of three odd primes and are therefore consistent with the odd Golbach conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[16] **viXra:1609.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-23 08:59:11*

**Authors:** Miroslav Josipović

**Comments:** 82 Pages. geometric algebra

The text is intended as some motivational survey of geometric algebra in 3D. Proofs are short and original. Multiplication of vectors is discussed in general, then basics of geometric algebra are founded. Among others, the special relativity, quantum mechanics and electromagnetic theories are discussed, operations on subspaces, dual, hyperbolic and complex numbers, linear transformations, idempotents, nilpotents, rotations, functions on multivectors, conformal model, calculus in geometric algebra, etc. Some problems are left to reader to solve. This is a new version with extended literature, software and list of names. Some typos are corrected.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[15] **viXra:1609.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-02 08:21:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A mysterious X-ray signal from clusters of galaxies recently caused some excitement among astronomers: Does it perhaps originate from dark matter, which makes up around 80 percent of the matter in the universe, but which scientists have not yet been able to detect? In order to help answering this question, physicists at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg checked an alternative explanation. [15] For decades, researchers have tried to detect this invisible dark matter. Several types of devices have been put up on Earth and in space to capture the particles that dark matter is supposed to consist of, and experiments have attempted to create a dark matter particle by colliding ordinary matter particles at very high temperatures. [13] " Call it the sound of dark matter, " says Asimina Arvanitaki, a theoretical particle physicist at Perimeter Institute. Despite making up the vast majority of stuff in our universe, dark matter remains invisible. But perhaps it's not inaudible. Dark matter is some of the most abundant, yet most elusive, stuff in the universe. Though scientists are confident it is out there (thanks to the gravitational effects it has on its surroundings), the search to identify it has thus far come up empty. [12] An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter's deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron's army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[14] **viXra:1609.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-02 05:08:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Quantum mechanics wreaks even more havoc with conventional ideas of causality than some have suspected – according to a team of researchers based in Australia, with collaborators in Scotland and Germany. They have shown that even allowing causality to be nonlocal – so that an event in one place can have an influence on another, distant place – is not enough to explain how quantum objects behave. [13] A research team led by a Heriot-Watt scientist has shown that the universe is even weirder than had previously been thought. Quantum correlations do not imply instant causation. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1609.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-01 23:12:12*

**Authors:** Abbad Vakil, Saransh Kacharia, Brian Liao, Haytham Shaban, Ibrahim Mohiuddin

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We explore and apply methods of image analization in
several forms in order to monitor the condition and health of a crowd.
Stampedes, congestion, and traffic all occur as a result of inefficient
crowd management. Our software identifies congested areas
and determines solutions to avoid congestion based on live data. The
data is then processed by a local device which is fed via camera. This
method was tested in simulation and proved to create a more efficient
and congestion-free scenario. Future plans include depth sensing for
automatic calibration and suggested course of action.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[12] **viXra:1609.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-02 01:25:23*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is widely used in pharmaceutical industries and as a supplement in probiotics. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical properties of the CaCO3. The CaCO3 powder was divided into two parts and referred as control and treated. The control part was remained untreated, whereas treated part was subjected to Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and biofield treated samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

**Category:** Biochemistry

[11] **viXra:1609.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-02 01:28:22*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Peptone and Malmgren modified terrestrial orchid (MMTO) has been used as a growth medium for tissue culture applications. This research study was conducted to explore the influence of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on physicochemical properties of peptone and MMTO. The study was performed in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was kept aside as untreated, and the treated group was received the biofield energy treatment. The control and treated samples were further subjected to characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, particle size analyzer and surface area analyzer. The XRD analysis revealed the amorphous nature of the control and treated peptone samples. The DSC analysis showed an increase in thermal denaturation temperature of the treated peptone (196.22°C) as compared to the control sample (141.20°C). Additionally, the exothermic peak of treated sample (280°C) was increased as compared to the control (270°C). The DSC of control and treated MMTO showed the absence of the melting temperature in their respective DSC thermograms. The TGA analysis of the treated peptone showed an increase in onset of thermal degradation (172°C) with respect to the control (170°C). Nevertheless, the TGA thermogram of the treated MMTO (293.96°C) showed an increase in maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) as compared with the control (281.41°C). It indicated the good thermal stability of the treated peptone and MMTO samples. The FT-IR result of the treated peptone showed an upward shift in C-H (2817→2833 cm-1), and amide I (1635→1641 cm-1), stretching in the treated sample with respect to the control sample. Whereas, the FT-IR spectrum of the treated MMTO showed an increase in the frequency of the C-H (2817→2833 cm-1) and amide I (1596→1606 cm-1) bands as compared to the control. Particle size analysis of the treated peptone showed an increase in d50 (average particle size) and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of particles) by 9.3 and 41.4%, respectively with respect to the control. Surface area analysis showed increase in surface area by 4.3% in the treated peptone. Altogether, the results corroborated that the biofield energy treatment had altered the physical, thermal and spectral properties of peptone and MMTO. It is assumed that biofield treated peptone and MMTO could be utilized as potential candidates for cell culture applications.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[10] **viXra:1609.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-06 22:14:05*

**Authors:** Krishan Vats

**Comments:** 8 Pages. To avoid any confusion, this is the latest update

This article presents analysis of experimental data. The data was acquired from a recently published experiment, the link to the published paper is https://arxiv.org/abs/1511.03190. The data analysis gives an indication that the outcomes may not be totally probabilistic and may be guided by some other mechanism. This article only presents an independent observation and is not meant in any way to comment on the originally published findings of the referred experiment from which the data was acquired. This article also does not dispute any quantum mechanics quantitative predictions. It only presents the observation made so that more experiments/analysis may be conducted if deemed necessary. As such, the observation pointed out is minor and its magnitude can be attributed to independent probability. But the same “cumulated imbalance” direction and trend in all four setup combinations is something that would be hard to attribute to probability alone. Also, the accumulated imbalance cleared for all four setups exactly at the same time.
The scope of this article is only statistical data. Anti correlation (when measured in the same angle) is always true, therefore it is not statistical in nature and is left out of scope.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1609.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-02 01:57:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A debate that has been raging for 20 years about whether a certain interaction between photons can be used in quantum computing has taken a new twist, thanks to two physicists in Canada. The researchers have shown that it should be possible to use "cross-Kerr nonlinearities" to create a cross-phase (CPHASE) quantum gate. Such a gate has two photons as its input and outputs them in an entangled state. CPHASE gates could play an important role in optical quantum computers of the future. [16] Researchers at Aalto University have demonstrated the suitability of microwave signals in the coding of information for quantum computing. Previous development of the field has been focusing on optical systems. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1609.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-21 08:56:42*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Updated to include presentation.

Borrowing concepts from the Electric/Plasma Universe theories [1], I examine a possible explanation of at least part of the observed behavior for the galactic rotation anomaly for spiral galaxies by considering an idealized case where the combined magnetic fields from the galactic core (assumed to be a rotating charged sphere) and spiral arms (assumed to be a rotating charged disk exhibit a trend toward the ‘flatness’ in these rotation curves as one proceeds outward radially from the galactic core to its edge. This hopefully is a plausible addition to the various alternate explanations for this anomaly that do not invoke the likely fiction of ‘dark matter,’ alleged to comprise roughly 85% of the total matter in the universe (and, with the other likely fiction ‘dark energy,’ alleged to comprise roughly 95% of the total mass-energy of the universe). In the process, I provide at least an introduction to some of these other alternative explanations for the galactic rotation anomaly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1609.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-01 10:58:22*

**Authors:** Vito R. D'Angelo

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is demonstrated that constants (and groupings of constants)are ratios, with theoretically inherent exact values. Based on the exact value of the speed of light in vacuum, as defined by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, CODATA value: 299792458.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[6] **viXra:1609.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-01 00:00:52*

**Authors:** D. D. Somashekara, S. L. Shalini, K. N. Vidya

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper, we give an alternate and simple proofs for Sear’s three term 3 φ 2 transformation formula, Jackson’s 3 φ 2 transformation formula and for a nonterminating form of the q-Saalschütz sum by using q exponential operator techniques. We also give an alternate proof for a nonterminating form of the q-Vandermonde sum. We also obtain some interesting special cases of all the three identities, some of which are analogous to the identities stated by Ramanujan in his lost notebook.

**Category:** Number Theory

[5] **viXra:1609.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-01 00:52:55*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 15N/14N) in indole using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample of organic compound indole was divided into two parts - one part was designated as a control sample (untreated), and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample, which was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect®). The biofield energy treated indole sample was analyzed at different time intervals and were symbolized as T1, T2, T3, and T4 to understand the effect of the biofield energy on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. From the GC-MS spectra, the presence of the molecular ion peak C8H7N+ (m/z 117) along with major fragmented peaks C7H6+ (m/z 90), C7H5+ (m/z 89), C5H3+ (m/z 63), C4H2+ (m/z 50), C3H3+ (m/z 39), and C2H4 (m/z 28) were observed in both control and biofield treated samples. Only, the relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated indole was notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis of indole using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated indole at T1 and T2 was significantly decreased by 44.28 and 28.18% as compared to the control sample. On the contrary, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated sample at T3 and T4, was significantly increased by 41.22 and 180.88%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 15N/14N) was significantly altered in the biofield energy treated indole as compared to the control with respect to the time. The biofield treated indole with the altered isotopic abundance ratio might have altered the physicochemical properties and rate of reaction. This biofield energy treated indole might be more useful as a chemical intermediate in the production of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, plastics, dyes, and perfumes.

**Category:** Chemistry

[4] **viXra:1609.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-04 02:05:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the origin of entropy and information and their evolution in time in the Cosmos as a whole (the Cosmos has radius about 30 powers of ten of meters i.e. is much greater than the present-day radius of the expanding Universe). On the lowest level of Nature, the global information depends on distribution of rotational and kinetic energies and orientation of the infinitesimal spins of all free and bound non-gravitating tachyons all objects in the Cosmos consist of. The field composed of the free tachyons is the Higgs field - this field causes that neutrinos acquire their gravitational mass. During the inflation, almost whole Higgs field transformed into the luminal gravitating Einstein spacetime that ground state consists of the non-rotating-spin neutrino-antineutrino pairs interacting gravitationally only. Orientation of spin is not important in gravitational field so all such pairs are in the same energetic state i.e. entropy of the ground state is equal to zero and this state dominates in the Cosmos. Moreover, the tachyonic energy frozen inside the neutrino-antineutrino pairs (it is the missing energy that results from quantum physics) is about 119 powers of ten times higher than their gravitational energy. The SST and the Kasner solution (which concerns the non-gravitating objects) show that there is a left-handedness of the residual Higgs field. The collapse of the outer shell of the Einstein spacetime at the end of the inflation created the returning shock wave. The shock wave plus the left-handedness of the residual Higgs field produced more matter than antimatter - it solves the matter-antimatter asymmetry. The returning energy-matter wave created the Universe in the centre of the Cosmos. Due to the boundary of the Cosmos, the Universe behaves cyclically. We start from the era before the inflation and via the inflation and via the neutron-black-holes state of the early Universe and via the present-day, we finish the description in the distant future. The tachyons cause that information cannot be destroyed by the SST black holes - the same concerns the energies of photons in gravitational fields. Entropy of the initial state of the inflation field and of the SST black holes is equal to zero. We can define time as the succeeding changes in the global information. In an approximation, Information behaves cyclically. In the Cosmos as a whole, entropy per particle is infinitesimal whereas total energy is conserved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1609.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-04 01:30:38*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The alignment of the angular-momentums/spins of quasars and the perpendicularity of the planes of the main disc of massive spiral galaxies and the disc of a vast polar structure (VPOS) which contains the satellite galaxies, some globular clusters and stellar and gaseous streams, suggest that the Universe as a whole and the massive galaxies have a history that cannot be easily explained within the Cosmological Standard Model (CSM). Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we showed that at the beginning of expansion of the Universe there appeared in the binary systems of protogalaxies two perpendicular discs each composed of the dark-matter (DM) loops. Dynamics of the binary systems of protogalaxies and the early Universe leads to perpendicularity of the main disc and VPOS. During the highest radial acceleration of the protogalaxies just at the beginning of expansion of the Universe (initially it was cosmic double loop with left-handed internal helicity of each loop), to stabilize the main disc and conserve its angular momentum, the binary systems of protogalaxies made a rotation (i.e. a rotation of their rotation and magnetic axes) of 90 degrees in such a way that initially the angular-momentums/spins (and magnetic axes) were mostly antiparallel to their radial velocities, i.e. initially the expanding Universe looked as a magnetic monopole. But the succeeding inflows of dark energy (locally they could be turbulent and they lasted a few Gyr) that initially caused the explosions of the binary systems of protogalaxies (in such a way appeared the VPOSs), partially destroyed the monopole-like structure of the early Universe. But a statistical analyse should show that described here correlation is preferred i.e. in the distant Universe, there should be a little more massive spiral galaxies with counter-clockwise rotation i.e. left-handed. The initial radial polarization of the spins of quasars explains their alignment.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1609.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-19 09:35:22*

**Authors:** Michael Parfenov

**Comments:** 46 Pages

The high efficiency of complex analysis is attributable mainly to the ability to represent adequately the Euclidean physical plane essential properties, which have no counterparts on the real axis. In order to provide the similar ability in higher dimensions of space we introduce the general concept of essentially adequate differentiability, which generalizes the key features of the transition from real to complex differentiability. In view of this concept the known Cauchy-Riemann-Fueter equations can be characterized as inessentially adequate. Based on this concept, in addition to the usual complex definition, the quaternionic derivative has to be independent of the method of quaternion division: on the left or on the right. Then we deduce the generalized quaternionic Cauchy-Riemann equations as necessary and sufficient conditions for quaternionic functions to be H-holomorphic. We prove that each H-holomorphic function can be constructed from the C-holomorphic function of the same kind by replacing a complex variable by a quaternionic in an expression for the C-holomorphic function. It follows that the derivatives of all orders of H- holomorphic functions are also H-holomorphic and can be analogously constructed from the corresponding derivatives of C-holomorphic functions. The examples of Liouvillian elementary functions demonstrate the efficiency of the developed theory.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[1] **viXra:1609.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-01 08:27:12*

**Authors:** M. D. Monsia, J. Akande, D. K. K. Adjaï, L. H. Koudahoun, Y. J. F. Kpomahou

**Comments:** 2 pages

This communication consists of additions to a previous work [1]. It presents certain Liénard-type and Duffing-type nonlinear oscillators equations with exponential-type restoring force, according to the recent theory of nonlinear differential equations of position-dependent mass oscillators formulated by Monsia et al. [1].

**Category:** Mathematical Physics