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1403 Submissions

[840] viXra:1403.0981 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-31 16:42:09

A Conjecture About a Way in Which the Squares of Primes Can be Written and Five Other Related Conjectures

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

I was playing with randomly formed formulas based on two distinct primes and the difference of them, when I noticed that the formula p + q + 2*(q – p) – 1, where p, q primes, conducts often to a result which is prime, semiprime, square of prime or product of very few primes. Starting from here, I made a conjecture about a way in which any square of a prime seems that can be written. Following from there, I made a conjecture about a possible infinite set of primes, a conjecture regarding the squares of primes and Poulet numbers and yet three other related conjectures.
Category: Number Theory

[839] viXra:1403.0980 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-06 15:58:58

About Quantising Unconscious Decision Processes and Their Origin and Proving Intelligent Design

Authors: Martin K. Dubreuil, Sergii Koliada
Comments: 30 Pages. This paper will be forwarded to a peer-reviewed journal after its completion. It was submitted here to invite people to review and criticise the paper.

Prompted by previous research results we analysed human decision processes for unconscious patterns. Like former studies [1, 2] we were able to find law-like patterns that were not consciously created. We calculated the residual uncertainty about the pattern to 1 : 1,000,000,000 and proved a high correlation ratio for the data source related to the found pattern through an intra class correlation test (3.2). We showed that conscious (3.3) and unconscious human behaviour and natural selection (3.4) are not able to explain this result. This includes the possibility to prove Intelligent Design (3.4).
Category: Mind Science

[838] viXra:1403.0979 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-01 10:35:56

Effects of Negative Inertia on Some Properties of the Universe

Authors: S.C. Gaudie
Comments: 3 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 11; UK English; Freelance scientist.

NEGATIVE ENERGY particles. From S. Hawking:- “Particle Creation of Black Holes" two quotes. “ Just outside the event horizon there will be virtual pairs of particles, one with negative energy and one with positive energy.” AND “It should be emphasized that these pictures of the mechanism responsible for the thermal emission and area decrease are heuristic only and should not be taken too literally" From a “standard physics point of view" the hypothetical NEGATIVE energy particle has, necessarily, other associated properties. # = breaks “standard physics point of view" laws. [A] Negative energy :: (1) # negative Kelvin temperature! [B] Negative mass :: (1) # negative mass, which cannot be anti-matter because it has positive mass! [C] Negative velocity (The space distance & time is self-referenced to the NEGATIVE energy particle.) [C1] Negative space :: (1) # negative space distance, where all “normal space" has positive space distances. [C2] Negative time :: (1) # negative time difference, where all “normal time" has positive time difference. I suppose that tacyons would fit into the [C] category, but I’m not aware of any observation confirming the existence of [A], [B] or [C]. Of course the “standard physics point of view" does not apply inside a black hole! Theoretically, nothing but tacyons could escape from a black hole! NEGATIVE INERTIA particles. I, somewhat cynically, posit a similar NON-“standard physics point of view" property of matter [impossible in my understanding of the laws of physics]:- NEGATIVE INERTIA particles. [BUT, it does have some predicted properties that are compatible with experimental observations!] Basic consequences [1] If a group of negative inertia “particles” were hit by another they would go flying off in all directions immediately. [Normal matter would tend to have a “stay in the same place" tendency.] [2] From the above, the negative inertia matter would not “clump together. [3] It would be spread evenly, like a gas, throughout the universe. [4] The negative inertia would also apply to how easy it is to add [or remove] angular momentum to [or from] a spinning body. Possible assumptions (A) & conclusions (C) [A1] It would be pushed away by photon pressure from stars & the accretion discs of galactic black holes much easier than normal matter. [C1] The inner parts of galaxies would be emptied of negative inertia matter. The outer reaches of galaxies would have the “I want to go faster” type of negative inertia and, hence move faster! [A2] Because the the negative inertia matter is so evenly and, hence “thinly” spread throughout the universe, its influence only becomes more noticeable as cosmic expansion increases. From our “newest time = greatest expansion", “localised viewpoint" of our universe we would see the greatest cosmic expansion around us. [C2] [The normal matter is “spread out thinner & thinner” with time and also the greatest effect of negative inertia, because the negative inertia matter is initially, spread out fairly evenly [like a gas.]. The “I want to go faster” type negative inertia matter could cause the increased expansion of the universe. It would have a “pushing apart”, “increased velocity” effect! [C3] The negative inertia matter could account for increased star rotation speeds on edges of galaxies and dark energy too. It’s an unexplored aspect of exotic matter! [C4] The negative inertia matter could be viewed as “dark matter” or “shadow matter”.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[837] viXra:1403.0978 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-31 21:51:21

Problem in the Relativistic Energy and Momentum Conservation

Authors: Shalender Singh, Vishnu Priya Singh Parmar
Comments: 20 Pages.

Lorentz transformations and special theory of relativity have existed for more than a century and mathematics related to them has been used and applied for innumerous times. Relativistic energy and relativistic momentum equations have been derived and proven to be conserved if energy/momentum transaction is seen from different frames of reference. The set of permissible inertial reference frame velocities from where the energy and momentum of a closed system of particles may be observed to be conserved forms a ball in the velocity vector space. In this paper we use the existing equations of special theory of relativity and Lorentz transformations and the mathematical structure of the observation velocity space to prove that the conservation of kinetic energy implies the conservation of momentum. We also prove that the conservation of momentum implies the conservation of kinetic energy. We further derive many more linearly independent conservation equations directly from the conservation of energy/ momentum. The derivation of the conservation of kinetic energy from the conservation of momentum implies that either potential energy has a momentum thus made of inertial particles or there cannot be a net conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy. Furthermore the existence of many equations lead to extremely strict form of transfers of energy and momentum. It highly restricts the set of states particles in any closed system can assume without changing the overall energy of the system. This has a strong impact on the particle mechanics and as an example we show that the relativistic explanation of the elastic collision of particles striking each other as used by Einstein in the 1934 two blackboard derivation of mass and energy is itself inconsistent and wrong.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[836] viXra:1403.0977 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-31 12:36:51

Solid Angle of the Off-Axis Circle Sector

Authors: Richard J. Mathar
Comments: 6 Pages.

The solid angle of a circular sector specified by circle radius, angle of the sector, and distance of the circle plane to the observer is calculated in terms of various trigonometric and cyclometric functions. This generalizes previous results for the full circle that have appeared in the literature.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[835] viXra:1403.0975 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-31 11:13:23

The Efficient Use of Supplementary Information in Finite Population Sampling

Authors: editors Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 71 Pages.

The purpose of writing this book is to suggest some improved estimators using auxiliary information in sampling schemes like simple random sampling, systematic sampling and stratified random sampling. This volume is a collection of five papers, written by nine co-authors (listed in the order of the papers): Rajesh Singh, Mukesh Kumar, Manoj Kr. Chaudhary, Cem Kadilar, Prayas Sharma, Florentin Smarandache, Anil Prajapati, Hemant Verma, and Viplav Kr. Singh. In first paper dual to ratio-cum-product estimator is suggested and its properties are studied. In second paper an exponential ratio-product type estimator in stratified random sampling is proposed and its properties are studied under second order approximation. In third paper some estimators are proposed in two-phase sampling and their properties are studied in the presence of non-response. In fourth chapter a family of median based estimator is proposed in simple random sampling. In fifth paper some difference type estimators are suggested in simple random sampling and stratified random sampling and their properties are studied in presence of measurement error.
Category: Statistics

[834] viXra:1403.0974 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-23 10:46:58

Categorising Different Types of Noetically Perceived Fields -v2

Authors: Jeffrey S. Keen
Comments: 14 Pages, 11 Figures, 3 Tables

The mind’s intuitive, noetic, or dowsable response to different situations are categorised to help understand its causes. In this paper, nine different subtle energy types have been identified and itemised together with some of their properties. They all have a connection to the earth’s environment and the laws of physics. This is convincingly demonstrated by using an abstract geometrical source that combines tetrahedral geometry and certain Pythagorean triangles allowing the mind to create the 9 subtle energy types. This technique enables the reader to fine-tune his or her noetic or dowsing skills, or use this paper for further serious scientific research into both the mind and its interaction with the cosmos. Key words. Noetics, the mind, dowsing, intent, subtle energy, categorisation, Pythagorean triangles, structure of the universe
Category: Mind Science

[833] viXra:1403.0973 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-04 02:00:54

The Integral Energy-Momentum 4-Vector and Analysis of 4/3 Problem Based on the Pressure Field and Acceleration Field

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin
Comments: 33 pages. American Journal of Modern Physics. Vol. 3, No. 4, 2014, pp. 152-167. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.12

As a result of integration of the equations of motion with regard to the pressure field and acceleration field the system’s integral energy-momentum 4-vector is found. It is shown that this vector in the covariant theory of gravitation must be equal to zero. This allows us to explain the 4/3 problem and the problem of neutrino energy in an ideal spherical supernova collapse. At the same time, in order to describe the system’s state, instead of the integral 4-vector we must use the four-momentum, which is derived from the Lagrangian. The described approach differs substantially from the results of the general theory of relativity, in which the integral 4-vector serves as the system’s four-momentum, and the stress-energy tensor of the gravitational field is replaced by the corresponding pseudotensor.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[832] viXra:1403.0972 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-30 09:57:09

Galactic Rotation Anomaly

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 3 Pages.

Orbital speeds of stars, far from center of a galaxy, are found roughly constant, instead of reductions predicted by current gravitational theories (applied on galactic and cosmological scales). This is called the anomalous rotation of galaxies. This article intends to show that constant angular speeds of all macro bodies in a galaxy are natural phenomenon and there is no mystery about it.
Category: Astrophysics

[831] viXra:1403.0971 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-21 09:47:30

A Preliminary to a Unified Field Theory

Authors: Keith Maxwell Hardy
Comments: 28 Pages.

All forces emerge from a simple field based on the analogy of waves rippling out from a source. New ideas are applied to this field such as plus and minus space and time, an absolute reference frame of nothingness, and origins of influence. This approach results in a basic unified field theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[830] viXra:1403.0968 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-29 07:55:34

Three Conjectures on Three Possible Infinite Sequences of Poulet Numbers

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we present four conjectures, one of them regarding a possible infinite sequence of primes and three of them regarding three possible infinite sequences of Poulet numbers, each of them obtained starting from other possible infinite sequence of Poulet numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[829] viXra:1403.0967 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-29 08:18:54

Electromagnetic Potential of Rotating Currents

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 6 Pages. In Russian

Existence of vector potential of rotating currents and unity of its analytical expression with other potentials is shown. The sense of this potential as angular speed of rotation of a current is opened and its communication with work is found. (Показано существование векторного потенциала вращающихся токов и единство его аналитического выражения с другими потенциалами. Вскрыт смысл этого потенциала как угловой скорости вращения тока и найдена его связь с работой)
Category: Classical Physics

[828] viXra:1403.0966 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-28 18:21:30

Supplementary Notes to my Paper “The Theological Basis of Big Bang Cosmology and the Failure of General Relativity”

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 5 Pages.

These notes constitute a supplement to my paper ‘The Theological Basis of Big Bang Cosmology and the Failure of General Relativity’ and should therefore be read after that paper.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[827] viXra:1403.0965 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-28 22:18:01

On the Reconstruction of Graphs

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 2 pages,

Reconstruction conjecture asks whether it is possible to reconstruct a unique (up to isomorphism) graph from set of its one vertex deleted subgraphs. We show here the validity of reconstruction conjecture for every connected graph which is uniquely reconstructible from the set of all its spanning trees. We make use of a well known result, namely, the reconstruction of a tree from the deck of its pendant point deleted subtrees.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[826] viXra:1403.0964 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-24 22:04:48

Do Electromagnetic Waves Exist in a Short Cable at Low Frequencies? What Does Physics Say?

Authors: Hsien-Pu Chen, Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-GÖran Granqvist, Gabor Schmera
Comments: 13 Pages. Version after Galley proof corrections in Fluctuation and Noise Letters

We refute a physical model, recently proposed by Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf], to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution. Their model, and its theoretical underpinnings, is found to be fundamentally flawed because their assumption of electromagnetic waves violates not only the wave equation but also the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the Principle of Detailed Balance, Boltzmann’s Energy Equipartition Theorem, and Planck’s formula by implying infinitely strong blackbody radiation. We deduce the correct mathematical model of the GAA scheme, which is based on impedances at the quasi-static limit. Mathematical analysis and simulation results confirm our approach and prove that GAA’s experimental interpretation is incorrect too.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[825] viXra:1403.0962 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-29 03:04:16

An Interpretation of Electromagnetic Wave Quantization Based on Relativistic Laws

Authors: Keith Ferrer
Comments: 2 Pages.

The quantization of electromagnetic radiation can be interpreted based on the relativistic properties of light waves given its constant velocity relative to bodies that are slower than them.
Category: Quantum Physics

[824] viXra:1403.0961 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-28 10:23:00

Mach Principle Applied to Rotary Motion: Centrifugal Force in a Spinning Reference Frame as a Consequence of Gravitational Interaction with the Universe

Authors: Leonid Filippov
Comments: 41 Pages. in Russian

Lorentz transforms are derived and electrodynamic and optical effects of Special theory of relativity. A known formula for centrifugal force of inertia, which is a consequence of the emergence of gravitational interaction of the test body with all bodies of the Universe, is deduced. This corresponds to Mach’s principle, explaining the equivalence of inertial and gravitational masses.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[823] viXra:1403.0960 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-28 11:27:39

Nixing the 3-Center Orbital Bond Concept of Diborane

Authors: Joel M Williams
Comments: 5 Pages.

The bonding of the hydrogen atom in the B—H—B sequence of diborane is just a standard overlapping of atomic orbitals. With the MCAS model, hydrogen naturally has the capacity to form linear and non-linear bonds between two atoms, when necessary. There is no need for the nebulous 3-center, two-electron, bond that has been used to honor the unassailable s-orbital of the spdf-QM model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[822] viXra:1403.0958 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-29 00:04:16

Generalized Determinant

Authors: Nikolay Dementev
Comments: 7 Pages.

The report suggests an approach to extend a concept of determinant to the systems of any order.
Category: Algebra

[821] viXra:1403.0957 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-28 08:51:39

A Novel Model for Implementing Security over Mobile Ad-hoc Networks using Intuitionistic Fuzzy Function

Authors: A. A. Salama
Comments: 7 Pages.

Abstract: Mobile adhoc network is a special kind of wireless networks. It is a collection of mobile nodes without having aid of establish infrastructure. In mobile adhoc network, it is much more vulnerable to attacks than a wired network due to its limited physical security, Securing temporal networks like Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) has been given a great amount of attention recently, though the process of creating a perfectly secured scheme has not been accomplished yet. MANETs has some other features and characteristics those are together make it a difficult environment to be secured. The bandwidth of MANET is another challenge because it is unlikely to consume the bandwidth in security mechanisms rather than data traffic. This paper proposes a security scheme based on Public Key infrastructure (PKI) for distributing session keys between nodes. The length of those keys is decided using intuitionistic fuzzy logic manipulation. The proposed algorithm of Security-model is an adaptive intuitionistic fuzzy logic based algorithm that can adapt itself according to the dynamic conditions of mobile hosts. Finally the Experimental results shows that the using of intuitionistic fuzzy based security can enhance the security of (MANETs).
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[820] viXra:1403.0956 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-28 09:16:01

Neutrosophic Relations Database

Authors: A. A. Salama
Comments: 13 Pages.

The fundamental concepts of neutrosophic set, introduced by Smarandache in [9, 10] and Salama et al. in [4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. In this paper we introduce and study new types of neutrosophic concepts "  cut levels , normal neutrosophic set, convex neutrosophic set". Added to we will begin with a definition of neutrosophic relation and then define the various operations and will study its main properties. Some types of neutrosophic relations and neutrosophic database are gevine. Finaly we introduce and study neutrosophic database (NDB for short). Some neutrosophic queries are gevine to a neutrosophic database .
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[819] viXra:1403.0955 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-28 09:21:32

Subject Recommendation Using Ontology for Computer Science ACM Curricula

Authors: A. A. Salama
Comments: 7 Pages.

Recommender systems are needed to find subject items of one’s interest. We review recommender systems and recommendation methods. We propose a subject personalization framework based on adaptive hypermedia for Computer Science ACM Curricula. We extend Hermes framework with subject recommendation functionality. We combine TF-IDF term extraction method with cosine similarity measure. Specialization and standard subject database are incorporated into the knowledgebase. Based on the performed evaluation, we conclude that semantic recommender systems in general outperform traditional recommenders systems with respect to accuracy, precision, and recall, and that the proposed recommender has a better F-measure than existing semantic recommenders.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[818] viXra:1403.0953 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-27 19:22:55

The Theological Basis of Big Bang Cosmology and the Failure of General Relativity

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 11 Pages. This paper appeared in WSPC - Proceedings THE PHYSICS OF REALITY: SPACE, TIME, MATTER, COSMOS, VIGIER VIII - BCS 2012

It is shown in this paper that the Big Bang Cosmology has its basis in theology, not in science, that it pertains to a Universe entirely filled by a single spherically symmetric continuous indivisible homogeneous body and therefore models nothing, that it violates the physical principles of General Relativity, that it violates the conservation of energy, and that General Relativity itself violates the usual conservation of energy and momentum and is therefore in conflict with experiment on a deep level, rendering Einstein’s conception of the physical Universe and the gravitational field invalid.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[817] viXra:1403.0952 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-27 10:23:57

The Fallacy of the Attenuating Quantum Eraser

Authors: Thomas Alexander Meyer
Comments: 6 Pages.

I present an analysis of the quantum erasing effect which categorizes the effect into attenuating and non-attenuating phenomena. It is shown that the attenuating quantum eraser is typically explained in a spurious fashion, and insight is given concerning the real phenomenon of interference between distinguishable states that would properly explain the attenuating eraser.
Category: Quantum Physics

[816] viXra:1403.0951 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-27 10:50:26

Recent Results on Modular Convergence Theorems, Rates of Approximation and Korovkin Theorems for Filter Convergence

Authors: Antonio Boccuto, Xenofon Dimitriou
Comments: 9 Pages.

We give a survey on recent results about the problem of approximating a real-valued function by means of suitable families of sampling type operators, which include both discrete and integral ones, and about the order of approximation, and abstract Korovkin-type theorems with respect to different types of test functions, in the context of filter convergence. We give a unified approach, by means of which it is possible to consider several kinds of classical operators, for instance Urysohn integral operators, in particular Mellin-type convolution integrals, and generalized sampling series. We obtain proper extensions of classical results.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[815] viXra:1403.0950 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-27 12:09:57

Simplified Path Integral Approach to the Aharonov-Bohm Effect

Authors: William O. Straub
Comments: 6 Pages.

In classical electrodynamics the vacuum is defined as a region where there are no electric or magnetic fields. In such a region, a charged particle (such as an electron) will feel no effect — the Lorentz force is zero. The space external to a perfect (i.e., infinite) solenoid can be considered an electromagnetic vacuum, since E and B vanish there. While a non-zero vector potential A does exist outside the solenoid, it can exert no influence on the particle, and thus cannot be directly detected or quantified classically. However, in 1959 Aharonov and Bohm predicted that a vector field would exert a purely quantum-mechanical effect on the phase of the particle’s wave function, which in principle should be detectable. The predicted phase shift was not observed experimentally until 1986, when Tonomura brilliantly verified the effect using a microscopic solenoid. This paper provides a simplified explanation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect using a path-integral approach that is suitable for the advanced undergraduate.
Category: Quantum Physics

[814] viXra:1403.0949 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-27 12:34:23

Cosmos 2.0 - An Innovative Description of the Universe

Authors: Helmut Söllinger
Comments: 12 Pages.

The author's starting point is the axiom that the product of particle masses and the gravitational constant is constant and that the masses of the proton and the electron would increase while the gravitational constant would reduce over time. With this assumption, the author manages to explain the cosmic redshift without presupposing an expansion of the cosmos. He presents an underlying relation between the fundamental natural constants, the Hubble constant and the two particle masses, which would describe in quantitative terms not just the beginning, but also – and this is what is momentously new about this model – the end of the universe as we know it. Via a mathematical link, the temporal change in the gravitational constant and the particle masses is described in relation to the Hubble constant. In this context, attention must also be paid to the way in which the change of the electron mass affects the definition of the SI units for length and time. In addition, the author uses an analogy between magnetism and electricity in which the electron and the proton are considered as the two ends of an electrical dipole string. He develops a model for the elementary unit of the so-called dark matter through which the rotation characteristics of galaxies can be explained. On the basis of this assumed fundamental relation, the author quantifies the mass and length of the supposed elementary electrets, thus estimating the number of elementary electrets that should cross a typical galaxy. With his model, the author is the first to design a concrete and compact proposal for solving the greatest mysteries of cosmology.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[813] viXra:1403.0948 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-27 12:42:36

Why the Dimensionless Mathematical Ratio pi Occurs in the Gauss Distribution Law

Authors: Nigel B. Cook
Comments: 1 Page.

The occurrence of pi in formulae apparently unrelated to geometry was used by Eugene Wigner in his 1960 paper The unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in the natural sciences. Wigner's example is the Gaussian/normal distribution law, which is an example of obfuscation. Laplace (1782), Gauss (1809), Maxwell (1860) and Fisher (1915) wrote the normal exponential distribution with the square root of pi in the normalization outside the integral. But Stigler in 1982 rewrote the equation with pi in the exponent, making the formula look less mysterious because the exponent is then the area of a circle (in other words, Poisson's exponential distribution, adapted to circular areas, with areas expressed in dimensionless form); if you think of the use of the normal distribution to model CEP error probabilities for missiles landing around a target point. (Please see paper for equations.)
Category: Statistics

[812] viXra:1403.0947 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-27 08:07:08

Complete Explanation for the Double-Slit Interference-Experiments

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Seven-page-letter

The particle-interference-experiments, with the photons and electrons have clearly shown that they are always detected as localized ‘particles’; and the density of their detections exhibit a pattern similar to the interference of waves. This experimental-observation is now explained here, making the current, ‘probabilistic interpretation’, a past history. The ‘particle’ is first mathematically characterized as an ‘impulse function’ in space; and then Fourier-transformed into the wave-number-domain, as a wide band of constituent-waves as shown in the fig. 1&2. The ‘particle’ is explained as an ‘event’ of constructive-superimposition of a wide band of ‘pre-quantum-waves’. This ‘event’ occurs in space at regular distances; and at regular instances in time. We know that even the purest monochromatic laser source has a ‘line-width’ of a few Giga-Hertz, or at least a few kilo-Hertz. So in the particle-interference-experiments, they are these wide bands of waves which pass through both the slits, even in the case of single photon states, and interfere physically. This physical interference of the wide bands of pre-quantum-waves determines the position and time of emergence of the ‘particle’. Thus, form the theoretical view-point, there are only the waves, and waves alone; and the ‘particle’ is a specific situation of constructive-superimposition of all the spectral-components of pre-quantum-waves; so there is no wave-particle-duality.
Category: Quantum Physics

[811] viXra:1403.0946 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-26 09:34:12

Do Triatomic Molecules Echo Atomic Periodicity?

Authors: Ray Hefferlin, Joshua Barrow
Comments: 20 Pages.

The objective of this work is to test whether vibration frequencies ν1 of free, ground-state, main-group triatomic molecules manifest a periodicity similar to those of atomic spectroscopic constants. This test and an earlier test on energies of atomization underscore the role of the periodic law as a foundation of chemistry. Using data from four data bases and from computation, we have collected and have mapped ν1 data in mathematical spaces of fixed-period molecules. These spaces are 8×8×8 atom cubes with rare-gas molecules on each face. The ν1 collected from various sources might be of use in searches for cold triatomics in interstellar space.
Category: Chemistry

[810] viXra:1403.0945 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-27 09:46:20

The Relationship and Mechanism of Action Between “Zeeman Effect”, “Stark Effect” with “fine Even Hyperfine Structure”

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

If there exists relationship between the “Zeeman effect” and “Stark effect” with to “fine structure” and “hyperfine structure”.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[809] viXra:1403.0943 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-20 14:17:09

Do Triatomic Molecules Echo Atomic Periodicity?

Authors: Ray Hefferlin, Joshua Barrow
Comments: 20 Pages.

The objective of this work is to test whether vibration frequencies ν1 of free, ground-state, main-group triatomic molecules manifest a periodicity similar to those of atomic spectroscopic constants. This test and an earlier test on energies of atomization underscore the role of the periodic law as a foundation of chemistry. Using data from four data bases and from computation, we have collected and have mapped ν1 data in mathematical spaces of fixed-period molecules. These spaces are 8×8×8 atom cubes with rare-gas molecules on each face. The ν1 collected from various sources might be of use in optical or near-optical searches for cold triatomics in interstellar space.
Category: Chemistry

[808] viXra:1403.0942 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-26 15:36:59

On Legendre’s Conjecture

Authors: A.Garcés Doz
Comments: 7 Pages.

Legendre’s conjecture, stated by Adrien-Marie Legendre ( 1752-1833 ), says there is always a prime between n2 and (n+1)2 . This conjecture is part of Landau’s problems. In this paper a proof of this conjecture is presented, using the method of generating prime numbers between consecutive squares, and proving that for every pair of consecutive squares with n >= 3 may be generated at least one prime number that belongs to the interval [n,(n+1)^2]
Category: Number Theory

[807] viXra:1403.0941 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-30 09:16:38

Ceas de Taifas

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 96 Pages.

Dialoguri literare si stiintifice ale lui Florentin Smarandache cu Adrian Botez, Cora-Eliana Teodoru, Crenguţa Vişinescu, Eugen Evu, Alex Cetăţeanu, si Flavia Drăgan. *** Literary and scientific dialogues of Florentin Smarandache with Adrian Botez, Cora-Eliana Teodoru, Crenguţa Vişinescu, Eugen Evu, Alex Cetăţeanu, and Flavia Drăgan.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[806] viXra:1403.0940 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-26 11:19:44

Critical Considerations for Developing MIS for NGOs

Authors: Kailash Ch. Dash, Umakant Mishra
Comments: 13 Pages.

Although Information Systems and Information Technology (IS & IT) has become a major driving force for many of the current day organizations, the NGOs have not been able to utilize the benefits up to a satisfactory level. Most organizations use standard office tools to manage huge amount for field data and never feel the need for a central repository of data. While many people argue that an NGO should not spend too much money on information management, it is a fact that organizing the information requires more of a mindset and an organized behavior than a huge financial investment.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[805] viXra:1403.0939 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-26 07:30:09

A Proof to Beal’s Conjecture

Authors: Raj C Thiagarajan
Comments: 5 Pages. An engineering proof to Beals Conjecture; This paper shows proof and highlights that finding a counter example is not possible due to the intrinsic nature of the equation which will have gcd greater than 1

In this paper, we provide computational results and a proof for Beal’s conjecture. We demonstrate that the common prime factor is intrinsic to this conjecture using the laws of powers. We show that the greatest common divisor is greater than 1 for the Beal’s conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[804] viXra:1403.0938 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-26 05:11:46

Space,time.light, and Grand Unified Theories(guts)

Authors: Wan-Chung Hu
Comments: 43 Pages.

This study is to describe the defintion of space, time, light, and development of grand unified theories. Space has its smallest unit. Time is actually the inverse of unit space oscillation. Light is electromagnetic wave as well as gravitational wave. Light frequency can decicide unit space oscillation. By linking Stefan's law to Larmor formula, we can get a grand unified theory including electric field, magnetic field, gravity field(acceleration), momentity field(spinity/impelity filed)(angular momentum/linear momentum) and heat/temperature field. This equation is also the equation for heat-light transformation. Yukawa field can replace the electromagnetic fields to explain strong and weak force. Thus, all force fields are united!
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[803] viXra:1403.0937 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-26 07:13:03

Potential Vortex Transient Analysis and Experiment

Authors: John R. Cipolla
Comments: 22 Pages.

A series of experiments and hydrodynamic analyses has been conducted to resolve the paradox that a viscous-flow distribution between concentric cylinders can be identical to a potential vortex (inviscid-flow) distribution at steady state. Where a potential vortex or tornado can be described as the flow around and through a drain hole at the bottom of a large container. As an approximation to this phenomenon, an experimental device to simulate a three dimensional potential vortex was fabricated that used a rapidly rotating central cylinder or rotating core located on the axis of a cylindrical basin filled with water. The fluid surface shape and velocity profile of an artificially generated potential vortex or free vortex was experimentally measured and compared with hydrodynamic models to define the viscid and inviscid nature of the potential vortex flow. A new program called VORTEX based on a finite difference solution of the Navier-Stokes equations was developed to determine the transient velocity profile and transient free surface shape of the potential vortex for comparison with experiment. From these experiments it is proposed the paradox is resolved because energy-momentum is conserved in a potential vortex under steady state conditions. This work can be applied to the measurement of the potential vortex flow generated by aircraft wing tips, interior flow of aircraft jet engines, rocket motor propellant tanks and natural phenomena like tornadoes, hurricanes and General Relativity.
Category: Classical Physics

[802] viXra:1403.0936 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-25 21:57:34

Further Insight Relative to Cavity Radiation II: Gedanken Experiments and Kirchhoff’s Law

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 5 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2014, v. 10(1), 116-120.

Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission states that cavity radiation must always be black, or normal, irrespective of the nature of the walls. Arbitrary cavity radiation must be solely dependent upon the equilibrium temperature and the frequency of observation. Despite such theoretical claims, it is well established that laboratory blackbodies are not constructed from arbitrary materials, but rather from nearly perfect absorbers of radiation over the frequency of interest. In the laboratory, arbitrary cavities do not contain black radiation. This experimental fact stands in direct conflict with Kirchhoff’s formulation. Nonetheless, Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission endures, in part, due to Gedanken experiments whose errors in logic are difficult to ascertain. In this work, thought experiments are discussed in order to expose some logical shortcomings. It will be demonstrated that Kirchhoff’s law cannot be supported in this context.
Category: Condensed Matter

[801] viXra:1403.0935 [pdf] replaced on 2014-12-26 16:34:37

On the Equation which Governs Cavity Radiation

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 2 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2014, v.2(10), 126-127 (revised December 26, 2014).

In this work, the equation which properly governs cavity radiation is presented. Given thermal equilibrium, the radiation contained within an arbitrary cavity depends upon the nature of its walls, in addition to its temperature and its frequency of observation. With this realization, the universality of cavity radiation collapses. The constants of Planck and Boltzmann can no longer be viewed as universal.
Category: Condensed Matter

[800] viXra:1403.0934 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-29 04:15:12

Origin of the Electron Bubbles, Twisters and Unidentified Electron Objects in Liquid Helium

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated sizes and described mechanism of production of the electron bubbles and the quantized vortices/twisters in liquid helium. Calculated size of the electron bubbles is 2.1 nm whereas of the twisters is of the order of an angstrom (0.1 nm). The mechanism of trapping the electron bubbles by the tangles-bundles composed of the quantized twisters (they are the cores of the electron bubbles) is described also. SST leads as well to electron bubbles with smaller core (4 times smaller) which exist at very low temperatures and explode at larger pressure. Such objects are referred to as the unidentified electron objects. Obtained results are consistent or very close to experimental data.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[799] viXra:1403.0932 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-25 12:17:13

Factorial Multiplying

Authors: Barar Stelian Liviu
Comments: 9 Pages.

the method of determining if a number is prime up to a given number .
Category: Number Theory

[798] viXra:1403.0931 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 16:51:30

Addendum to `Critical Truths About Power Laws'

Authors: Mason A. Porter
Comments: 1 Page.

This note is my brief addendum to the opinion piece `Critical Truths About Power Laws' that Michael Stumpf and I published in 2012.
Category: General Mathematics

[797] viXra:1403.0930 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-08 00:29:52

The Great Center

Authors: Klinkerman R.V.
Comments: 3 Pages.

Annotation. An author considers that in DNA there can not be all information, necessary for the construction of organism. It is suggested to consider a variant, when complete information is contained in zero vibrations of birth-elimination of microparticless, circumferential to organisms. On the gravity canals information is passed to the center of Earth, where detailed pictures and classes of organisms are formed. Center is provided by author with a capacity for creation, for participating in the evolution of life. Informative connection of Center with organisms it is possible to check experimentally. Keywords: zero vibrations, microparticless, gravitation, information, Center, creation, organisms, evolution.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[796] viXra:1403.0929 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-25 02:08:02

Unification of the Two Different Formulae for Relativistic-Increase of Energy of Matter-Particles and Photons: and the Wave-Theoretical Insight Emerging from the Attempt

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Five-page-letter

While the experiments have shown similar wave-nature of matter-particles and photons, there are two different formulae for finding Relativistic-increase of energy of massive-particles and photons. This paper presents a unification of the two different formulae, in terms of Doppler-shifts of waves; leading to an insight that the ‘particles-of-matter’ seem to be the ‘standing-waves’; and de-Broglie’s ‘matter-waves’, and ‘quantum-mechanical-waves’ are ‘envelop-variations’ of the actual, more-fundamental waves.
Category: Quantum Physics

[795] viXra:1403.0928 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 14:32:35

Femtotechnology. AB-matter. Properties, Stability, Possibility Production and Applications

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 20 Pages.

Designs of new forms of matter composed of nucleons (neutrons, protons), electrons, and other nuclear particles are detailed. This matter is measured in the femtometer (10-15 m) scale (“femtotechnology”), which is millions of times smaller than material on the nanometer (10-9 m) scale (“nanotechnology”). These new femto-needles, femto-tubes have extraordinary properties such as tensile strength, stiffness, hardness, critical temperature, superconductivity, super-transparency and zero friction. All of these properties are magnified millions of times in comparison to those of conventional molecular matter. Applications include concepts of design for aircraft, ships, transportation, thermonuclear reactors, constructions, and so on from nuclear matter. These vehicles will have unbelievable possibilities such as invisibility, ghost-like penetration through any walls and armor, protection from nuclear bomb explosions and any radiation flux. But many readers asked about stability of the nuclear matter. It is well-known that the conventional nuclear matter having more than 92 protons or more than 238 nucleons became instable. In given work the author shows the special artificial forms of nuclear AB-matter which make its stability and give the fantastic properties. For example, by the offered AB-needle you can pierce any body without any damage, support motionless satellite, reach the other planet, and research Earth’s interior. These forms of nuclear matter are not in nature now, and nanotubes are also not in nature. That artificial matter is made by men. The AB-matter is also not natural now, but researching and investigating their possibility, stability and properties are necessary for creating them.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[794] viXra:1403.0927 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-14 00:19:16

The Dichotomous Cosmology with a Static Material World and Expanding Luminous World

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 9 Pages.

The dichotomous cosmology is an alternative to the expanding Universe theory, and consists of a static matter Universe, where cosmological redshifts are explained by a tired-light model with an expanding luminous world. In this model the Hubble constant is also the photon energy decay rate, and the luminous world is expanding at a constant rate as in de Sitter cosmology for an empty Universe. The present model explains both the luminosity distance versus redshift relationship of supernovae Ia, and ageing of spectra observed with the stretching of supernovae light curves. Furthermore, it is consistent with a radiation energy density factor (1 + z)^4 inferred from the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation.
Category: Astrophysics

[793] viXra:1403.0926 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-22 10:34:14

Discovery of Flat Gravity Based on Hubble's Law Added to Newtonian Gravity

Authors: Shinsuke Hamaji
Comments: 11 Pages.

We know space expanding from the Hubble's law which Edwin Hubble and Milton Humason formulated first in 1929, and nearly 100 years passed, but Flat gravity caused by the expanding universe was covered in a short distance by Newtonian gravity according to inverse square law. It caused gravity anomalies such as the pioneer anomaly that a cause of the blue-shift indicating the slowdown to the sun direction is unclear as planetary probe pioneer 10-11 leaves the sun and the issue of galactic rotation curve which forms flat velocity distribution without rotational speed decreasing in galactic considerable penumbra known as physical unsolved problem. If expanding universe is premised, clause of the expansion that divided recession rate v=H0D in strain constant V0 is added, and Newtonian potential -GM/r(1) premising steady state cosmology be changes to -GM/r(1+v/V0). The clause of this expansion becomes constant G0=GH0/V0 which distance D and 1/r canceled and total gravitational mass of the universe M0=c3/(2GH0) which can be observed affects specific potential constant which multiplied gravitational mass for the observation and becomes -(G/r+G0)M. Flat gravity based on Hubble's law added to Newtonian gravity accords with the value of the gravity anomaly without assuming dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[792] viXra:1403.0925 [pdf] replaced on 2015-08-25 09:09:31

Do the Two Operations Addition and Multiplication Commute with Each Other?

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: 4 Pages. Open Access Library Journal, Volume 2 (2015), e1803/1--4, http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1101803

We study about the metamathematics of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory with the axiom of choice. We use the validity of Addition and Multiplication. We provide an example that the two operations Addition and Multiplication do not commute with each other. All analyses are performed in a finite set of natural numbers.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[791] viXra:1403.0924 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 08:59:31

Stern-Gerlach Experiment, Quantum Phase Factor, and Hidden-Variables Theories

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: 4 pages

We discuss whether the Stern-Gerlach experiment accepts hidden-variables theories. We discuss that the existence of two spin-1/2 pure states $|\uparrow\rangle$ and $|\downarrow\rangle$ rules out the existence of probability space of specific quantum measurement. If we detect $|\uparrow\rangle$, then measurement outcome is $+1$. If we detect $|\downarrow\rangle$, then measurement outcome is $-1$. This hidden-variables theory does not accept the transition probability $|\langle\uparrow|\downarrow\rangle|^2=0$. Therefore we have to give up the hidden-variables theory. This implies the Stern-Gerlach experiment cannot accept the specific hidden-variables theory. And we study whether quantum phase factor accepts hidden-variables theories. We use the transition probability for two spin-1/2 pure states $(|\uparrow\rangle+|\downarrow\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$ and $(|\uparrow\rangle+e^{i \theta}|\downarrow\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$. It is $\cos^2(\theta/2)$. We discuss that the phase factor does not accept another specific hidden-variables theory. We explore the phase factor is indeed a quantum effect, not classical. Our research gives a new insight to the quantum information processing which relies on quantum phase factor, such as Deutsch's algorithm.
Category: Quantum Physics

[790] viXra:1403.0923 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 09:55:20

Stellar Metamorphosis: Replacing the Big Bang's Model for Determining the Age of Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Since the Big Bang Model is a philosophically unsound construct violating cause and effect and laws of thermodynamics any deduction of the ages of stars based on it is also philosophically unsound. A seminal understanding is offered via stellar metamorphosis to replace it.
Category: Astrophysics

[789] viXra:1403.0922 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:41:42

Some Results About Four Smarandache U-Product Sequences

Authors: Felice Russo
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper four Smarandache product sequences have been studied: Smarandache Square product sequence, Smarandache Cubic product sequence, Smarandache Factorial product sequence and Smarandache Palprime product sequence. In particular the number of primes, the convergence value for Smarandache Series, Smarandache Continued Fractions, Smarandache Infinite product of the mentioned sequences has been calculated utilizing the Ubasic software package. Moreover for the first time the notion of Smarandache Continued Radicals has been introduced. One conjecture about the number of primes contained in these sequences and new questions are posed too.
Category: General Mathematics

[788] viXra:1403.0921 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:42:52

On Values of Arithmetical Functions at Factorials I

Authors: Jozsef Sandor
Comments: 8 Pages.

The Smarandache function is a characterization of factorials...
Category: General Mathematics

[787] viXra:1403.0920 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:45:12

Engineering a Visual Field

Authors: Clifford Singer
Comments: 3 Pages.

Of the branches of mathematics, geometry has, from the earliest Hellenic period, been given a curious position that straddles empirical and exact science. Its standing Os an empirical and approximate science stems from the practical pursuits of artistic drafting, land surveying and measuring in general.
Category: General Mathematics

[786] viXra:1403.0919 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 07:18:57

Unified Geometrodynamics: a Complementarity of Newton’s and Einstein’s Gravity

Authors: Richard L. Amoroso
Comments: 12 Pages. From 8th Vigier Symposium proceedings, "The Physics of Reality: Space, Time, Matter, Cosmos"

Newton claimed the influence of gravity is instantaneous; Einstein insisted no influence could propagate faster than the speed of light. Recent experiments to test the speed of gravity have been controversial and inconclusive on technical grounds. Considerable effort is currently expended in the search for a Quantum Gravity; but there is no a priori reason there should be one. We propose that is not the regime of integration which instead occurs in the arena of the Unified Field, UF; further that a completed model of Geometrodynamics inherently includes a Newton/Einstein duality which introduces shock effects in certain arenas. The unified theory predicts that there is no graviton of the usual phenomenal form (an artifact of the incompleteness of Gauge Theory, i.e. gauge theory is only an approximation suggesting new physics). A new Large Scale Additional Dimensional (LSXD) M-Theoretic topological charge alternative is presented. We also attempt to show how the Titius-Bode Law for solar and exoplanetary configurations appears to provide indicia of this multiverse gravitational model. Applications of the dual geometrodynamics formulation include an interpretation of quasar luminosity as the result of gravitational shock waves in a manner countering explanations of large redshift, Z in Big Bang cosmology putatively based on Doppler recession. Instead redshift occurs as the result of a periodic minute photon mass anisotropy caused by periodic coupling to a covariant polarized Dirac vacuum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[785] viXra:1403.0918 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-29 22:11:31

Pi-Theory of the Fundamental Physical Constants: Metrological Aspects

Authors: V.B. Smolenskii
Comments: 6 Pages.

Abstract: in may of this year will be published values of the fundamental physical constants (FPC), which CODATA recommended for international use. The article presents the predictive results of original theoretical research of the author in determining the numerical values of FPC, obtained using the analytical method of the PI-theory of the fundamental physical constants. Given a finite formulas and precise analytical results. Presents a table comparing the results of calculations with the data CODATA 2010.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[784] viXra:1403.0917 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 02:38:22

The_essence_of_life

Authors: Klinkerman R.V.
Comments: 6 Pages.

Abstract. An author considers that basic property of all living creatures is a capacity for creation, that supposes the presence of consciousness, free will, centralized structure. Drawn conclusion, that the indicated properties are inherent not only biological objects but also microparticless, to the atoms. A man before birth existed as an atom and will become such post mortem. Key words: creation, consciousness, free will, centralization, electron, wave function, atom, hypothalamus, information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[783] viXra:1403.0915 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:08:10

Solution of Two Questions Concerning the Divisor Function and the Pseudo Smarandache Function

Authors: Zhong Li
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we completely solve two questions concerning the divisor function and the pseudo - Smarandache function.
Category: General Mathematics

[782] viXra:1403.0914 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:10:25

Some Elementary Algebraic Considerations Inspired by Smarandache Type Functions (II)

Authors: E. Radescu
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Smarandache function and its principal properties are already known in the literature of speciality. Other functions were built analogously, among which the following ones.
Category: General Mathematics

[781] viXra:1403.0913 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:11:34

Sorne Elernentary Algebraic Considerations Inspired by Srnarandache Type Functions

Authors: E.Radescu, N.Radescu
Comments: 5 Pages.

The basic idee a of this paper is the algebraic construction of some functions representing prolongations of the Smarandache type functions to more complete sets already known and having specified properties.
Category: General Mathematics

[780] viXra:1403.0912 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:13:12

Some More Conjectures on Primes and Divisors

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 2 Pages.

There are an innumerable numbers of conjctures and WlSOlved problems in number theory predominantly on primes which have been giving sleepless nights to the mathematicians allover the world for centuries. Here are a few more to trouble them.
Category: General Mathematics

[779] viXra:1403.0911 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:14:35

Some Notions on Least Common Multiples

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 2 Pages.

We have the well known result that n! divides the product of any set of consecutive numbers. Using this idea we define Smarandache LCM Ratio Sequence...
Category: General Mathematics

[778] viXra:1403.0910 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:16:10

On Some Numerical Functions

Authors: Marcela Popescu, Paul Popescu, Vasile Seleacu
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this pa.per we prove that the following numerical functions...
Category: General Mathematics

[777] viXra:1403.0909 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:18:04

Some Remarks on the Smarandache Function

Authors: M. Andrei, I. BaIaIcenoiu, C.Dumitrescu, V.Seleacu, L. Tutescu, St. Zanfir
Comments: 5 Pages.

On the method of ca1culus proposed by Florentin Smarandacbe...
Category: General Mathematics

[776] viXra:1403.0907 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:20:39

On Some Series Involving Smarandache Function

Authors: Emil Burton
Comments: 3 Pages.

The study of infinite series involving Smarandache function is one of the most interesting aspects of analysis.
Category: General Mathematics

[775] viXra:1403.0906 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:21:50

Some Smarandache-Type Multipucative Functions

Authors: Henry Bottomley
Comments: 6 Pages.

This note considers eleven particular fimrilies of interrelated multiplicative functions, many of which are listed in Smarandache's problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[774] viXra:1403.0905 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:24:21

Smarandache Paradoxist Geometry

Authors: Sandy P. Chimienti, Mihaly Bencze
Comments: 2 Pages.

This new geometry is important because it generalizes and unites in the same time all together: Euclid, Lobachevsky/Bolyai/Gauss, and Riemann geometries. And separates them as well!
Category: General Mathematics

[773] viXra:1403.0904 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:25:21

Smarandache Partition Type and Other Sequences

Authors: Fanel IACOBESCU
Comments: 4 Pages.

Thanks to C. Dumitrescu and Dr. V. Seleacu of the University of Craiova, Department of Mathematics, I became familiar with some of the Smarandache Sequences. I list some of them, as well as questions related to them. Now I'm working in a few conjectures involving these sequences.
Category: General Mathematics

[772] viXra:1403.0903 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:26:33

The Smarandache Periodical Sequences

Authors: M.R. Popov
Comments: 3 Pages.

Let N be a positive integer with not all digits the same, and N' its digital reverse.
Category: General Mathematics

[771] viXra:1403.0902 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:27:39

On Smarandache's Podaire Theorem

Authors: Jozsef Sandor
Comments: 3 Pages.

First we need the following auxiliary proposition...
Category: General Mathematics

[770] viXra:1403.0901 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:29:26

On a Smarandache Partial Perfect Additive Sequence

Authors: Henry Ibstedt
Comments: 5 Pages.

It is shown that the sequence has an amusing oscillating behavior and that there are terms ...
Category: General Mathematics

[769] viXra:1403.0900 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:31:04

S-Primality Degree of a Number and S-Prime Numbers

Authors: Emil Burton
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper we define the S-Primality Degree of a Number, the S-Prime Numbers, and make some considerations on them.
Category: General Mathematics

[768] viXra:1403.0899 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:40:35

On a Smarandache Problem Concerning the Prime Gaps

Authors: Felice Russo
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, a problem posed in [1] by Smarandache concerning the prime gaps is analysed.
Category: General Mathematics

[767] viXra:1403.0898 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:41:37

On Smarandache Pseudo Powers of Third Kind

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

Let m be a positive integer with m > 1.
Category: General Mathematics

[766] viXra:1403.0897 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:42:51

The Squares in the Smarandache Factorial Product Sequence of the Second Kind

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we Smarandache factorial product sequence square 1.
Category: General Mathematics

[765] viXra:1403.0896 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:44:23

.The Squart-S in the Smarandache Higher Power Product Sequences

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we prove that the Smarandache higeher power product sequences of the first kind and the second kind do not contain squares
Category: General Mathematics

[764] viXra:1403.0895 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:45:34

Smarandache Reciprocal Function and an Elementary Inequality

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Smarandache Function is defined as Sen) = k . Where k is the smallest integer such that n divides k!
Category: General Mathematics

[763] viXra:1403.0894 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:46:41

Smarandache Reciprocal Partition of Unity Sets and Sequences

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 9 Pages.

Expression of unity as the sum of the reciprocals of natural numbers is explored. And in this connection Smarandache Reciprocal partition of unity sets and sequences are defined. Some results and Inequalities are derived and a few open problems are proposed.
Category: General Mathematics

[762] viXra:1403.0893 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:47:50

Smarandache Relationships and Subsequences

Authors: Mihaly Bencze
Comments: 7 Pages.

Some Smarandache relationships between the terms of a given sequence are studied in the fIrst paragraph. In the second paragraph, are studied Smarandache subsequences (whose terms have the same property as the initial sequence) . In the third paragraph are studied the Smarandache magic squares and cubes of order n and some conjectures in number theory.
Category: General Mathematics

[761] viXra:1403.0892 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:49:58

Smarandache Reverse Auto Correlated Sequences and Some Fibonacci Derived Smarandache Sequences

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

Let a1, a2 ,a3 ,... be a base sequence. We define a Smarandache Reverse Autocorrelated Sequence (SRACS) b1, b2 ,b3 ,... as follow...
Category: General Mathematics

[760] viXra:1403.0891 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:50:53

Smarandache Route Sequences

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 3 Pages.

Consider a rectangular city with a mesh of tracks which are of equal length and which are either horizontal or vertical and meeting at nodes.
Category: General Mathematics

[759] viXra:1403.0889 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:53:30

On Smarandache Simple Functions

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

Absatract. Let p be a prime, and let k be a positive integer. In this paper we prove that the Smarandache simple functions ...
Category: General Mathematics

[758] viXra:1403.0888 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:55:32

On Smarandache Simple Continued Fractions

Authors: Charles Ashbacher
Comments: 2 Pages.

Let A be a Smarandache type sequence. In this paper we show that if A is a positive integer sequence, then the simple continued fraction ... is convergent.
Category: General Mathematics

[757] viXra:1403.0886 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 03:59:10

About the Smarandache Squarets Complementary Function

Authors: I. Balacenoiu, Marcela Popescu, V. Seleacu
Comments: 7 Pages.

...is called the Smarandache square's complementary function.
Category: General Mathematics

[756] viXra:1403.0885 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:00:49

Smarandache Star (Stirling) Derived Sequences

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Significance of the above transfonnation will be clear when we consider the inverse transfonnation. It is evident that the star triangle is nothing but the Stirling Numbers ofthe Second kind ( Ref. [2] ).
Category: General Mathematics

[755] viXra:1403.0884 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:02:19

A Generalization of a Problem of Stuparu

Authors: L. Seagull
Comments: 1 Page.

T. Yau proved that Smarandache function has the following property...
Category: General Mathematics

[754] viXra:1403.0883 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:03:31

Other Smarandache Type Functions

Authors: J. Castillo
Comments: 3 Pages.

Inferior Smarandache Prime Part: For any positive real number n one defines ISp(n) as the largest prime number less than or equal to n.
Category: General Mathematics

[753] viXra:1403.0882 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:05:19

On the Sumatory Function Associated to the Smarandache Function

Authors: E. Radescu, N. Radescu, C. Dumitrescu
Comments: 5 Pages.

It is sald that for every numerical function f it can be attashed the sumatory function.
Category: General Mathematics

[752] viXra:1403.0881 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:06:24

Some Considerations Concerning the Sumatory Function Associated to Generalised Smarandache Function

Authors: E.Radescu, N.Radescu
Comments: 3 Pages.

The sequence (1) is said to be a multiplicatively convergent to zero sequence (mcz) if:
Category: General Mathematics

[751] viXra:1403.0880 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:08:18

Some Considerations Concerning the Sumatory Function Associated to Smarandache Function

Authors: M. Andrei, C.Dumitrescu, E. RaIdescu, N. RaIdescu, V.Seleacu
Comments: 7 Pages.

From the definition it results that if...
Category: General Mathematics

[750] viXra:1403.0879 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:10:13

A Sum Concerning Sequences

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we prove that if the trailing digit of a(n) is not zero for any n, then sum of a(n)/Rev a(n)) is divergent.
Category: General Mathematics

[749] viXra:1403.0878 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:11:16

An Integer as a Sum of Consecutive Integers

Authors: Henry Ibstedt
Comments: 6 Pages.

This is a simple study of expressions of positive integers as sums of consecutive integers.
Category: General Mathematics

[748] viXra:1403.0877 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:12:16

On a Problem Concerning the Smarandache Unary Sequence

Authors: Felice Russo
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper a problem posed in [1J and concerning the number of primes in the Smarandache Unary sequence is analysed.
Category: General Mathematics

[747] viXra:1403.0876 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:13:43

On the Smarandache Uniform Sequences

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

Let t be a positive integer with t> 1. In this paper we give a necessary and sufficient condition for t to have the Smarandache uniform sequence.
Category: General Mathematics

[746] viXra:1403.0875 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:14:51

Superluminals and the Speed of Light

Authors: Jason WRIGHT
Comments: 5 Pages.

This brief paper was submitted as partial requirement for a Chemistry course. The topic was recommended to Dr. Kamala Sharrna.
Category: General Mathematics

[745] viXra:1403.0874 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:16:08

Survey on the Research of Smarandache Notions

Authors: M. L. Perez
Comments: 2 Pages.

The American CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, published, in December 1998, a 2000 pages "CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics" , by Eric W. Weisstein.
Category: General Mathematics

[744] viXra:1403.0873 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:17:38

The System Graphical Analysis of Some Numerical Smaral~dache Sequences

Authors: S.a. Yasinskiy, V.v. Shmagin, Y.v. Chebrakov
Comments: 13 Pages.

The system - graphical analysis results of some numerical Smarandache sequences are adduced. It is demonstrated that they possess of the big aesthetic. cognitive and applied significance.
Category: General Mathematics

[743] viXra:1403.0872 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:19:08

The Average Smarandache Function

Authors: Florian Luca
Comments: 9 Pages.

For every positive integer n let S(n) be the minimal positive integer m such that n I m !
Category: General Mathematics

[742] viXra:1403.0871 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:23:39

On the Calculus of Smarandache Function

Authors: C. Dumitrescu, C. Rocsoreanu
Comments: 8 Pages.

From these properties we deduce that in fact on must consider....
Category: General Mathematics

[741] viXra:1403.0870 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:24:39

On the Divisor Product Sequences

Authors: Zhu Weiyi
Comments: 3 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to study the asymptotic property of the divisor product sequences, and obtain two interesting asymptotic formulas.
Category: General Mathematics

[740] viXra:1403.0869 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:25:58

The Equation S(l.2)+S(2.3)+···+S(I1(n+l))=S(n(n+l)(n+2)/3)

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

For any positive integer a, let S(a) be the Srnarandache function of a. In this paper we prove that the title equation has only the solution n= 1.
Category: General Mathematics

[739] viXra:1403.0868 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:27:09

The Module Periodicity of Smarandache Concatenated Odd Sequence

Authors: Xigeng Chen
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we prove that the residue sequence of Smarandache concatenated odd sequence mod 3 is periodical.
Category: General Mathematics

[738] viXra:1403.0866 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:30:36

The Primes P with Ig(p) =1

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

The number of distinct digits of n is called the length of Smarandache generalized period of n and denoted by Ig(n).
Category: General Mathematics

[737] viXra:1403.0865 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:31:44

On the THlRD Smarandache Conjecture About Primes

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we basically verify the third Smarandache conjecture on prime.
Category: General Mathematics

[736] viXra:1403.0864 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:33:03

The Third and Fourth Constants of Smarandacbe

Authors: Ion Cojocaru, Sorin Cojocaru
Comments: 6 Pages.

In the present note we prove the divergence of some series involving the Smarandache function, using an unitary method, and then we prove that the series...
Category: General Mathematics

[735] viXra:1403.0863 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:33:57

Unsolved Problems

Authors: Charles Ashbacher
Comments: 5 Pages.

Welcome to the first installment of what is to be a regular feature in Smarandache Notions!
Category: General Mathematics

[734] viXra:1403.0862 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:35:45

On an Unsolved Question About the Smarandache Square-Partial-Digital Subsequence

Authors: Felice Russo
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this not we report the solution of an unsolved question on Smarandache Square-Partial-Digital Subsequence. We have found it by extesive computer search.
Category: General Mathematics

[733] viXra:1403.0861 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 04:40:08

Two Functions in Number Theory and Some Upper Bounds for the Smrandache's Function

Authors: Sabin Tabirca, Tatiana Tabirca
Comments: 10 Pages.

The aim of this article is to introduce two functions and to give some simple properties for one of them. The function's properties are studied in connection v.ith the prime numbers. Finally, these functions are applied to obtain some inequalities concerning the Smarandache's function.
Category: General Mathematics

[732] viXra:1403.0859 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:25:11

On a Series Involving S(1) ·S(2) ... ·S(n)

Authors: Florian Luca
Comments: 2 Pages.

For any positive integer n let 5(n) be the minimal positive integer m.
Category: General Mathematics

[731] viXra:1403.0857 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:27:30

Smarandache Factor Partitions of a Typical Canonical Form.

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 5 Pages.

In [1] we define SMARANDACHE FACTOR PARTITION FUNCTION, as follows:
Category: General Mathematics

[730] viXra:1403.0856 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:29:14

Smarandache Functions of the Second Kind

Authors: Ion Balacenoiu, Constantin Dumitrescu
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Smarandache functions of the second kind are defined in [1] thus:
Category: General Mathematics

[729] viXra:1403.0855 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:30:30

Smarandache Geometrical Partitions and Sequences

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 4 Pages.

Consider a chain having identical links (sticks) which can be bent at the hinges to give it different shapes.
Category: General Mathematics

[728] viXra:1403.0854 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:32:08

Smarandache Hypothesis: Evidences, Implications and Aplications

Authors: Leonardo F. D. da Motta
Comments: 5 Pages.

In 1972 Smarandache proposed that there is not a limit speed on the Illlture, based on the EPR-Bell (Einstein, PodoLsky, Rosen, BeII) paradox. Although it appears that this paradox was solved recently, there are many other evidences that guide us to believe that Smarandache Hypothesis is right on quanrum mechanics and even on the new unification theories.
Category: General Mathematics

[727] viXra:1403.0853 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:33:05

A few Smarandache Integer Sequences Henry Ibstedt

Authors: Henry Ibstedt
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper deals with the analysis of a few Smarandache Integer Sequences which first appeared in Properties or the Numbers, F. Smarandache, University or Craiova Archives, 1975. The first four sequences are recurrence generated sequences while the last three are concatenation sequences.
Category: General Mathematics

[726] viXra:1403.0852 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:34:25

On the Srnarandache Irrationality Conjecture

Authors: Florian Luca
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Smarandache Irratioality Conjecture (see [lD claims:
Category: General Mathematics

[725] viXra:1403.0851 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:35:29

Introducing the Smarandache-Kurepa and Smarandache-Wagstaff Functions

Authors: M.R. Mudge
Comments: 2 Pages.

The left-factorial function is defmed by D.Kurepa thus:
Category: General Mathematics

[724] viXra:1403.0850 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:36:19

On Three Problems Concerning the Smarandache LCM Sequence

Authors: Felice Russo
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper three problems posed in [1J and concerning the Smarandache LeM sequence have been analysed.
Category: General Mathematics

[723] viXra:1403.0848 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:38:56

Smarandache Magic Squares

Authors: Sabin Tabirca
Comments: 5 Pages.

The objective of this article is to investigate the existence of magic squares made with Smarandache's numbers [Tabirca, 1998]. Magic squares have been studied intensively and many aspects concerning them have been found.
Category: General Mathematics

[722] viXra:1403.0847 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:40:26

Smarandache Algebraic Structures

Authors: Raul Padilla
Comments: 3 Pages.

few notions are introduced in algebra in order to better study the congruences. Especially the Smarandache semigroups are very important for the study of congruences.
Category: General Mathematics

[721] viXra:1403.0846 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:43:11

Smarandache Concatenated Magic Squares

Authors: Muneer Jebreel Karama
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this article, I present the results of investigation of Smarandache Concatenate Magic Squares formed from the magic squares, and report some conjectures.
Category: General Mathematics

[720] viXra:1403.0845 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:43:59

Smarandache Friendly Numbers and a Few More Sequences

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 4 Pages.

If the sum of any set of consecutive terms of a sequence = the product of the first and the last number of the set then this pair is called a Smamdache Friendly Pair with respect to the sequence.
Category: General Mathematics

[719] viXra:1403.0843 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:45:48

Smarandache - Fibonacci Triplets

Authors: Henry Ibstedt
Comments: 4 Pages.

We recall the definition of the Smarandache Function S(n): S(n) = the smallest positive integer such that S(n)! is divisible by n.
Category: General Mathematics

[718] viXra:1403.0842 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:47:02

Smarandache K-K Additive Relationships

Authors: Henry Ibstedt
Comments: 11 Pages.

An empirical study of Smarandache k-k additive relationships and related data is tabulated and analyzed. It leads to the conclusion that the number of Smarandache 2-2 additive relations is infinite. It is also shown that Smarandache k-k relations exist for large values ofk.
Category: General Mathematics

[717] viXra:1403.0841 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:48:08

On the Smarandache Lucas Base and Related Counting Functionl

Authors: Zhang Wenpeng
Comments: 6 Pages.

These sequences playa very important role in the studies of the theory and application of mathematics.
Category: General Mathematics

[716] viXra:1403.0840 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:49:03

Smarandache Maximum Reciprocal Representation Function

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 3 Pages.

Smarandache Maximum Reciprocal Representation (SMRR) Function fsMRR(n) is defined as follows.
Category: General Mathematics

[715] viXra:1403.0839 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:50:25

Smaranidache Non-Geonfetr Y

Authors: Sandy P. Chimienti, Mihaly Bencze
Comments: 2 Pages.

All Euclid's five postulates are denied in this new geometry.
Category: General Mathematics

[714] viXra:1403.0838 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:51:25

Smarandache Pascal Derived Sequences

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 4 Pages.

Given a sequence say Sb . We call it the base sequence.
Category: General Mathematics

[713] viXra:1403.0837 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:52:20

On Smarandache Algebraic Strucures. Ii:the Smarandache Semigroup

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we prove that A(a,n) is a Smarandache semigroup.
Category: General Mathematics

[712] viXra:1403.0836 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:54:11

Smarandache-Rodrigues-Maiorino (SRM) Theory

Authors: Leonardo F. D. da Motta
Comments: 2 Pages.

Studying solutions of Maxwell and Dirac-Weyl equations, Waldyr Rodrigues Jr. and Jose Maiorino were able to propose a full-unified theory for constructing of arbitrary speeds in nature...
Category: General Mathematics

[711] viXra:1403.0835 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:55:18

On Smarandache Algebraic Structures.i :the Commutative Multiplicative Semigroup A(a,n)

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, under the Smarandache algorithm ,we construct a class of commutative multiplicative semigroups.
Category: General Mathematics

[710] viXra:1403.0834 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:56:27

On the Smarandache N-Ary Sieve

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

Let n be a positive integer with n > 1 . In this paper we prove that the remaining sequence of Smarandache n-ary sieve contains infinitely many composite numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[709] viXra:1403.0833 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:57:44

'sn_distr

Authors: Henry Ibstedt
Comments: 2 Pages.

The values of S(n) for n < 32000 are input from the file SN.DA T and the number of values falling into each square of a 40 x 40 matrix are counted and displayed in a graph. An interresting pattern is formed by large primes while the bottom layer mainly resulting form composite numbers requires two lines in the graph.
Category: General Mathematics

[708] viXra:1403.0832 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:58:57

The Smarandache Near-to-Primorial (S.N. T. P.) Function

Authors: M. R. Mudge
Comments: 1 Page.

A number, q, is said to be near to prime if and only if either q+ I or q-l are primes it is said to be themean-of-a-prime-pair if and only if both q+ I and q-l are prime.
Category: General Mathematics

[707] viXra:1403.0831 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 14:01:59

The Solution of Some Diophantine Equations Related to Smarandache Function

Authors: Ion Cojocaru, Sorin Cojocaru
Comments: 1 Page.

In the present note wesolve two diophantine eqations concerning the Smarandache function.
Category: General Mathematics

[706] viXra:1403.0830 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 14:04:07

The Solution of the Diophantine Equation

Authors: Pal Gronas
Comments: 3 Pages.

This problem is closely connected to Problem 29916 in the first issue of the "Smarandache Function Journal".
Category: General Mathematics

[705] viXra:1403.0829 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 10:14:21

Smarandache Factors and Reverse Factors

Authors: Micha Fleuren
Comments: 35 Pages.

This document will describe the current status on the search for factors of Smarandache consecutive numbers and their reverse.
Category: General Mathematics

[704] viXra:1403.0828 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 10:15:37

On Russo's Conjecture About Primes

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

Russo's conjecture, prime, gap, Smarandache constant.
Category: General Mathematics

[703] viXra:1403.0827 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 10:16:38

On the Smarandache Prime Additive Complement Sequence

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract. Let k be an arbitrary large positive integer.
Category: General Mathematics

[702] viXra:1403.0826 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 10:17:42

Solutions To Some Sastry Problems On Smarandache Number Related Triangles

Authors: Charles Ashbacher
Comments: 6 Pages.

The function S is known as the Smarandache function and is defmed in the following way.
Category: General Mathematics

[701] viXra:1403.0825 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 10:18:42

Smarandache Ceil Function

Authors: Anthony Begay
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper some defmitions, examples and conjectures are exposed related to the Smarandache type functions, found in the Archives of the Arizona State University, Tempe, USA Special Collections.
Category: General Mathematics

[700] viXra:1403.0824 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 10:19:57

The Other Relativity Hidden in BOHR’S Atom!

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 22 Pages.

The cosmological constant as the biggest blunder of Einstein? I don’t think so. As I already said many times, his biggest blunder was that of taking into consideration a real fourth dimension. The Universe is three dimensional and will go on being so. All fourth components of relativity are those of the (three dimensional) falling towards the center of mass of the Universe. Below you can find the overwhelming proof from the well established atomic physics! Moreover, they go on supporting their full of holes Universe, with fourth dimensions, dark matter and energy, multidimensionality, multiple Universes (??), expansion contradicted by observations etc… My harmonic and oscillating Universe leads to a harmonic and oscillation based deduction of the Special Theory of Relativity and also of its extension (“Other Relativity”). Well, here below the overwhelming proof from the well established atomic physics!
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[699] viXra:1403.0823 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 10:21:30

About the Smarandache Complementary Prime Function

Authors: Marcela Popescu, Vasile Seleacu
Comments: 11 Pages.

The function defined by the condition that n + c ( n ) = P, ...
Category: General Mathematics

[698] viXra:1403.0821 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 12:49:21

Smarandache Concatenate Type Sequences

Authors: Helen Marirnutha
Comments: 2 Pages.

Professor Anthony Begay of Navajo Community College influenced me in writing this paper. I enjoyed the Smarandache concatenation. The sequences shown here have been extracted from the Arizona State University(Tempe) Archives. They are defmed as follows:
Category: General Mathematics

[697] viXra:1403.0820 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 12:52:45

On Smf.r~~dache Concateneted Sequences I: Factorial Sequence

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

For any positive integer a, let d(a) denote the figure number of a in the decimal system.
Category: General Mathematics

[696] viXra:1403.0819 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 12:55:37

On Smarandache Concatenate Sequence I: Prime Power Sequences

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

Then sequence C (A) ={ c} is called the Smarandache concatenated sequence of A.
Category: General Mathematics

[695] viXra:1403.0818 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 12:56:37

On Some Smarandache Conjectures and Unsolved Problems

Authors: Felice Russo
Comments: 22 Pages.

In this paper some Smarandache conjectures and open questions will be analysed. The first three conjectures are related to prime numbers and formulated by F.
Category: General Mathematics

[694] viXra:1403.0817 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 12:57:53

On Smarandache General Continued Fractions

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

Then the continued fraction is called a Smarandache general continued fraction associated with A and B (see [1]).
Category: General Mathematics

[693] viXra:1403.0816 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 12:59:02

Smarandache Continued Fractions

Authors: Henry Ibstedt
Comments: 11 Pages.

The theory of general continued fractions is developed to the extent required in order to calculate Smarandache continued fractions to a given number of decimal places. Proof is given for the fact that Smarandache general continued fractions built with positive integer Smarandache sequences baving only a finite number of terms equal to 1 is convergent. A few numerical results are given.
Category: General Mathematics

[692] viXra:1403.0815 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:00:06

Siv1arandache Continued Fractions

Authors: Jose Castillo
Comments: 3 Pages.

Open problems are studied using Smarandache type sequences in the composition of simple and general continued fractions.
Category: General Mathematics

[691] viXra:1403.0814 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:01:56

Smarandache Counter-Projective Geometry

Authors: Sandy P. Chimienti, Mihaly Bencze
Comments: 2 Pages.

All three axiom of the projective geometry are denied in this new geometry.
Category: General Mathematics

[690] viXra:1403.0813 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:02:54

Smarandache Determinant Sequences

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this note two types of Smarandache type determinant sequences are defined and studied.
Category: General Mathematics

[689] viXra:1403.0812 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:04:03

On Smarandache Divisor Products

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we give a formula for Smarandache divisor products.
Category: General Mathematics

[688] viXra:1403.0811 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:05:03

Smarandache Dual Symmetric Functions and Corresponding Numbers of the Type of Stirling Numbers of the First Kind

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the rising factorial (x+ 1) (x+2)(x+3) ... (x+n) , the coefficients of different powers ofx are the absolute values of the Stirling numbers of the first kind. REF[1].
Category: General Mathematics

[687] viXra:1403.0810 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:06:05

The Second Constant of Smarandacbe

Authors: Ion Cojocaru, Sorin Cojocaru
Comments: 2 Pages.

Smarandache function is an irrational number (second constant of Smarandache).
Category: General Mathematics

[686] viXra:1403.0809 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:08:30

On Smarandache Sequences and Subsequences

Authors: Tl3Ilg Zhengping, Xu Kanghua
Comments: 7 Pages.

A Smarandache sequence is studied completely in the first paragraph both Smarandache square-digital and partial-digital subsequence are studied.
Category: General Mathematics

[685] viXra:1403.0808 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:10:09

The Semila Ttice with Consistent Return

Authors: Ion Balacenoiu
Comments: 8 Pages.

Let p be a prime number.
Category: General Mathematics

[684] viXra:1403.0806 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:21:16

Smarandache Sequence of Happy Numbers

Authors: Shyam Sunder Gupta
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this article, we present the resuhs of investigation of Smarandache Concatenate Sequence formed from the sequence of Happy Numbers and report some primes and other results fOlmd from the sequence.
Category: General Mathematics

[683] viXra:1403.0805 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:22:15

The Smarandache Sequence Inventory

Authors: Henry Ibstedt
Comments: 8 Pages.

A large number of sequences which originate from F. Smarandache or are of similar nature appear scattered in various notes and papers.
Category: General Mathematics

[682] viXra:1403.0804 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 13:23:05

The Sequence of Prime Numbers

Authors: Sebastian Martin Ruiz
Comments: 4 Pages.

This article lets out a law of recurrence in order to obtain the sequence of prime numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[681] viXra:1403.0803 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 07:29:29

Moments of the Smarandache Function

Authors: Steven R Finch
Comments: 2 Pages.

Given a positive integer n, let P(n) denote the largest prime factor of nand S(n) denote the smallest integer m such that n divides m!
Category: General Mathematics

[680] viXra:1403.0802 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 07:31:13

-Coloring of the Monohedral Tiling

Authors: M. E. Basher
Comments: 7 Pages.

A Smarandache k-tiling of the plane is a family of sets called k-tiles covering each point in the plane exactly k times.
Category: General Mathematics

[679] viXra:1403.0801 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 07:32:23

The Monotony of Smarandache Functions of First Kind

Authors: Ion Balacenoiu
Comments: 7 Pages.

Smarandache functions offirst kind are defined in (1) thus:
Category: General Mathematics

[678] viXra:1403.0800 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 07:33:21

Some More Ideas on Smarandache Factor Partitions

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 4 Pages.

In [1] we define SMARANDACHE FACTOR PARTITION FUNCTION (SFP), as follows:
Category: General Mathematics

[677] viXra:1403.0799 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 07:34:24

On Them-Power Complement Numbers

Authors: Zhang Xiaobeng
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the asymptotic properties of the m-power complement numbers, and give an interesting asymptotic formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[676] viXra:1403.0796 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 07:38:15

Smarandache Multiplicative Function

Authors: Liu Yanni
Comments: 5 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the mean value properties of the Smarandache multiplicative function, and give an interesting asymptotic formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[675] viXra:1403.0794 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 07:40:12

The Mean Value of a New Arithmetical Function

Authors: Jin Zhang, Pei Zhang
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary and the analytic methods to study the mean value properties of a Smarandache multiplicative function, and give two sharper asymptotic formulae for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[674] viXra:1403.0793 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 07:41:22

On the Mean Value of the Pseudo-Smarandache Function

Authors: Lin Cheng
Comments: 4 Pages.

For any positive integer n, the Pseudo-Smarandache function Z(n) is defined as the smallest positive integer k ...
Category: General Mathematics

[673] viXra:1403.0792 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 07:42:35

On the Mean Value of the Pseudo-Smarandache-Squarefree Function

Authors: Xuhui Fan, Chengliang Tian
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary methods to study the mean value properties of the function Zw(Z(n)), and give a sharper mean value formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[672] viXra:1403.0790 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 07:45:06

Near Pseudo Smarandache Function

Authors: A. W. Vyawahare, K. M. Purohit
Comments: 20 Pages.

Near Pseudo Smarandache Function ( NPSF) K is defined as follows...
Category: General Mathematics

[671] viXra:1403.0789 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 07:47:21

On Certain New Inequalities and Limits for the Smarandache Function

Authors: Jozsef Sandor
Comments: 8 Pages.

Al and A3, A3 lies between A2 and A1, etc. and the segments AAI, AIA2, A2A3, A3A4, ... are congruent to one another. Then, among this series of points, not always there exists a certain point An such that B lies between A and An.
Category: General Mathematics

[670] viXra:1403.0788 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 07:48:43

A Generalized Net for Machine Learning of the Process of Mathematical Problems Solving

Authors: Krassimir Atanassov, Hristo Aladjov
Comments: 6 Pages.

On an Example with a Smarandache Problem
Category: General Mathematics

[669] viXra:1403.0787 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 07:50:29

Smarandache:s New Geometries a Provocation for an Ammelioration of Human Condition

Authors: Angela Vasiu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Are remarked the new Geometries of Smarandache and it is given a relationship and an application of Smarandache Paradoxist Geometry to the ammejioration of human condition by a better understanding of ourselves and of others.
Category: General Mathematics

[668] viXra:1403.0786 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 07:51:44

A New Inequality for the Smarandache Function

Authors: Mihaly Bencze
Comments: 1 Page.

Let S be the Smarandache Function...
Category: General Mathematics

[667] viXra:1403.0785 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 07:53:25

New Smarandache Algebraic Structures

Authors: G.l Waghmare, S.v. More
Comments: 3 Pages.

The aoditive identity of this linear space has nonzero components.
Category: General Mathematics

[666] viXra:1403.0784 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 07:56:01

A New Sequence Related Smarandache Sequences and Its Mean Value Formula

Authors: Zhang Wenpeng
Comments: 4 Pages.

Let n be any positive integer, a(n) denotes the product of all non-zero digits in base 10.
Category: General Mathematics

[665] viXra:1403.0783 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 07:57:29

The Normal Behavior of the Smarandache Function

Authors: Kevin Ford
Comments: 6 Pages.

Let S(n) be the smallest integer k so that nIk!. This is known as the Smarandache function and has been studied by many authors.
Category: General Mathematics

[664] viXra:1403.0782 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 07:59:15

Note on the Diophantine Equation...

Authors: Mladen V. Vassilev - Missaha, Krassimir T. Atanassov
Comments: 5 Pages.

The solving of the Diophantine equation...
Category: General Mathematics

[663] viXra:1403.0781 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 08:00:24

A Note on the Smarandache Near-To-Primorial Function

Authors: Charles Ashbacher
Comments: 4 Pages.

In a brief paper passed on to the author[I], Michael R. Mudge used the definition of the Primorial function.
Category: General Mathematics

[662] viXra:1403.0780 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 08:01:38

A Note on the Smarandache Divisor Sequences

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 2 Pages.

In [1] we define SMARANDACHE FACTOR PARTITION FUNCTION@@ (SFP) , as follows...
Category: General Mathematics

[661] viXra:1403.0779 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 08:02:54

A Note on the Smarandache Prime Product Seqtjence

Authors: A.A.K. Majumdar
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper gives some properties of the Smarandache prime product sequence,(Pn ) , definded by...
Category: General Mathematics

[660] viXra:1403.0778 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 08:05:17

Notes on Primes Smarandache Progressions

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this note we discuss the primes in Smarandache progressIons.
Category: General Mathematics

[659] viXra:1403.0777 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 08:06:19

The Notions of the Smarandache Group and the Smarandache Boolean Ring

Authors: Dviraj Talukdar
Comments: 8 Pages.

The notions of the Snmarandache group and the Smarandache Boolean ring are introduced here with the help of group action and ring action i.e. module respectively. The centre of the Smarandache groupoid is determined. These are very important for the study of Algebraic structures.
Category: General Mathematics

[658] viXra:1403.0776 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 08:08:50

On Numbers Where the Values of the Pseudo-Smarandache Function Of It and The Reversal Are Identical

Authors: Charles Ashbacher
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Pseudo-Smarandache function was introduced by Kenichiro Kashihara in a book that is highly recommended.
Category: General Mathematics

[657] viXra:1403.0775 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 08:09:59

Smarandache Number Related Triangles

Authors: K. R. S. Sastry
Comments: 3 Pages.

Given a triangle in Euclidean geometry it is well known that there exist an infinity of triangles each of which is similar to the given one.
Category: General Mathematics

[656] viXra:1403.0773 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 08:47:56

A Number Theoretic Function and Its Mean Value Property

Authors: Lru HONGYAN, Zhang Wenpeng
Comments: 5 Pages.

Let p be a prime, n be any positive integer, a(n,p) denotes the power of p in the factorization of n!.
Category: General Mathematics

[655] viXra:1403.0772 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 08:50:31

Numeros Felizes e Sucessoes de Smarandache: Digressoes com 0 Maple

Authors: Delfim F. M. Torres
Comments: 5 Pages.

Dando jus a matematica experimental, mostrarnos como 0 Maple pode ser usado na investigagao matematica de alg-wnas quest5es actualmente sern resposta na Teoria dos Nlimeros. A tese defendida e que os alunos de urn curso de Matematica podem facilrnente usar a computador como urn lugar ende Be excita e exercita a imaginacao.
Category: General Mathematics

[654] viXra:1403.0770 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 08:51:45

Numerical Functions and Triplets

Authors: I. Balacenoiu, D. Bordea, V. Seleacu
Comments: 6 Pages.

This functions have the next properties...
Category: General Mathematics

[653] viXra:1403.0768 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 08:54:40

On the K-Power Complement and K-Power Free Number Sequence

Authors: Zhu Weiyi
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to study the distribution properties of k~power free numbers and k~power complement numbers, and give an interesting asymptotic formula.
Category: General Mathematics

[652] viXra:1403.0767 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 08:56:35

On Primality of the Smarandache Symmetric Sequences

Authors: Sabin TABIRCA, Tatiana TABIRCA
Comments: 8 Pages.

The study of primality for the Smarandache sequences represents a recent research direction on the Smarandache type notions. A few articles that were published recently deal with the primality of the direct and reverse Smarandache sequences. The primality of Smarandache symmetric sequences has not been studied yet. This article proposes some results concerning the non-primality of these symmetric sequences and presents some interesting conclusions on a large computational test on these.
Category: General Mathematics

[651] viXra:1403.0766 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 08:58:07

On the Smarandache Paradox

Authors: Leonardo F. D. da Motta
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Smarandache Paradox is a very interesting paradox of logic because it has a background common sense. However, at the same time, it gets in a contradiction with itself. Although it may appear well cohesive, a careful look on the science definition and some logic can break down this paradox showing that it exist only when we are trying to mix two different universes, where in one we have two possibilities and in the other we have only one. When we try to understand the second possibility in the universe which has only one possibility, we end in the Smarandache Paradox.
Category: General Mathematics

[650] viXra:1403.0765 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 08:59:18

On the Symmetric Sequence and Its Some Properties

Authors: Zhang Wenpeng
Comments: 3 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to prove that there is only one prime among the symmetric sequence.
Category: General Mathematics

[649] viXra:1403.0764 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:00:24

Open Problems and Conjectures on the Factor Ireciprocal Partition Theory

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 4 Pages.

In general, in how many ways a number can be expressed as the product of its divisors?
Category: General Mathematics

[648] viXra:1403.0763 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:01:25

Open Questions For The Smarandache Function

Authors: Mihaly Bencze
Comments: 3 Pages.

Let Sen) be the Smarandache function. I propose the following open questions...
Category: General Mathematics

[647] viXra:1403.0762 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:02:53

Palindrome Studies (Part 1)

Authors: Henry Ibstedt
Comments: 13 Pages.

This article ongmates from a proposal by M. L. Perez of American Research Press to carry out a study on Smarandache generalized palindromes [1]. The prime numbers were chosen as a fIrst )set of numbers to apply the development of ideas and computer programs on. The study begins by exploring regular pritlle number palindromes. To continue the study it proved useful to introduce a new concept, that of extended palindromes with the property that the union of regular palindromes and extended palindromes form the set of Smarandache generalized palindromes. An interesting observation is proved in the article, namely that the only regular prime number palindrome with an even number of digits is 11.
Category: General Mathematics

[646] viXra:1403.0761 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:03:58

Palindromic Numbers And Iterations of the Pseudo-Smarandache Function

Authors: Charles Ashbacher
Comments: 2 Pages.

A number is said to be a palindrome if it reads the same forwards and backwards.
Category: General Mathematics

[645] viXra:1403.0760 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:07:38

Paradoxes Review

Authors: Feng Liu
Comments: 4 Pages.

I came across one of the Smarandache divine paradoxes and felt very strongly that it is really our Buddhist's obligation to help understand the underlying truth. There seem a lot of toughest points in the cultural difference and it will be the most dificult job to reach the mutual point as neutrality. What I can do is to try our best and find cooperation. Limited to the time, I just put a few as my first review.
Category: General Mathematics

[644] viXra:1403.0759 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:10:04

A Paradoxical Mathematician: His Function, Paradoxist Geometry, and Class of Paradoxes

Authors: M. R. Mudge
Comments: 3 Pages.

Described by Charles T. Le as "The most paradoxist mathematician oF the world"
Category: General Mathematics

[643] viXra:1403.0758 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:11:14

PartiaDy Paradoxist Smarandache Geometries

Authors: Howard Iseri
Comments: 8 Pages.

paradoxist Smarandache geometry combines Euclidean, hyperbolic, and elliptic geometry into one space along with other non-Euclidean behaviors oflines that would seem to require a discrete space. A class of continuous spaces is presented here together with specific examples that emibit almost all of these phenomena and suggest the prospect of a continuous paradoxist geometry.
Category: General Mathematics

[642] viXra:1403.0757 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:12:29

A Parallel Loop Scheduling Algorithm Based on the Smarandachef-Inferior Part Function

Authors: Sabin Tabirca, Tatiana Tabirca
Comments: 8 Pages.

This article presents an application of the inferior Smarandache f-part function to a particular parallel loop-scheduling problem. The product between an upper diagonal matrix and a vector is analysed from parallel computation point of view. An efficient solution for this problem is given by using the inferior Smarandache I-part function. Finally, the efficiency of our solution is proved experimentally by presenting some computational results.
Category: General Mathematics

[641] viXra:1403.0756 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:13:24

Smarandache's Function Applied to Perfect Numbers

Authors: Sebastian Martin Ruiz
Comments: 3 Pages.

Smarandache's function may be defined as follows...
Category: General Mathematics

[640] viXra:1403.0755 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:14:59

Perfect Powers in Smarandache Type Expressions

Authors: Florian Luca
Comments: 18 Pages.

The proof of Theorem 1 is based on an idea of Lang
Category: General Mathematics

[639] viXra:1403.0754 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:16:01

On the Perfect Squares in Smaratxffiache Concatenated Square Sequence

Authors: Kejian Wu, Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

Let n be positive integer, and let sen) denote the n-th Smarandache concatenated squre number.
Category: General Mathematics

[638] viXra:1403.0752 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:18:16

On Smarandache's Periodic Sequences

Authors: Henry Ibstedt
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper is based on an article in Mathematical Spectru.m, VoL 29, No 1. It concerns what happens when an operation applied to an n-digit integer results in an n digit integer. Since the number of ndigit integers is finite a repetition must occur after applying the operation a finite number of times. It was assumed in the above article that this would lead to a periodic sequence which is not always true because the process may lead to an invariant. The second problem with the initial article is that, say, 7 is considered as 07 or 007 as the case may be in order make its reverse to be 70 or 700. However, the reverse of 7 is 7. In order not to loose the beauty of these sequences the author has introduced stringent definitions to prevent the sequences from collapse when the reversal process is carried out.
Category: General Mathematics

[637] viXra:1403.0751 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:19:37

On the Permutation Sequence and Its Some Properties

Authors: Zhang Wenpeng
Comments: 2 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to prove that there is no any perfect power among the permutation sequence...
Category: General Mathematics

[636] viXra:1403.0750 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:20:33

The Powers in the Smarandache Cubic Product Sequences

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 3 Pages.

Let P and Q denote the Smarandache cubic product sequences of the first kind and the second kind respectively. In this paper we prove that P contains only one power 9 and Q does not contain any power.
Category: General Mathematics

[635] viXra:1403.0749 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:21:33

On Two Problems Concerning Two Smarandache P-Partial Digital Subsequences

Authors: Felice Russo
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper the solution of two problems posed in [IJ and concerning the Smarandache Lucas-partial subsequence and the Smarandache Fibonacci-partial subsequence is reported.
Category: General Mathematics

[634] viXra:1403.0748 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:22:28

The General Term of the Prime Number Sequence and the Smarandache Prime Function.

Authors: Sebastian Martin Ruiz
Comments: 3 Pages.

Let I s consider the function d(i) = number of divisors of the positive integer number i. We have found the following expression for this function:
Category: General Mathematics

[633] viXra:1403.0747 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:23:45

The Primes in the Smarandache Power Product Sequences of the First Kind

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

Smarandache power product sequence, fIrst kind, prime.
Category: General Mathematics

[632] viXra:1403.0745 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:25:50

The Primes in Smarandache Po\ver Product Sequences

Authors: Maohua Le, Kejian Wu
Comments: 2 Pages.

For any positive integer k, let Ak be the Smarandache k -power product sequence.
Category: General Mathematics

[631] viXra:1403.0744 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:26:50

The Primes in the Smarandache Power Product Sequences of the Second Kind

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we completely determine the primes in the Smarandache power product sequences of the second kind.
Category: General Mathematics

[630] viXra:1403.0743 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:28:03

The Primes in the Smarandache Symmetric Sequence

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

Smarandache symmetric sequence. In this paper we prove that if n is an even integer...
Category: General Mathematics

[629] viXra:1403.0742 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:31:47

The Problem of Lipschitz Condition

Authors: Marcela Popescu, Paul Popescu
Comments: 5 Pages.

In our paper we prove that the 5marandache function S does not verify the Lipschitz condition, giving an answer to a problem proposed in (2] and we investigate also tbe possibility that some other functions, which involve the function S, verify the Lipschitz condition.
Category: General Mathematics

[628] viXra:1403.0741 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-21 10:58:36

Von Neumann's Theory, Projective Measurement, and Quantum Computation

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Volume 3, No.7 (2015), Page 874--897.

We discuss the fact that there is a crucial contradiction within Von Neumann's theory. We derive a proposition concerning a quantum expected value under an assumption of the existence of the orientation of reference frames in $N$ spin-1/2 systems ($1 \leq N < +\infty$). This assumption intuitively depictures our physical world. However, the quantum predictions within the formalism of Von Neumann's projective measurement violate the proposition with a magnitude that grows exponentially with the number of particles. We have to give up either the existence of the directions or the formalism of Von Neumann's projective measurement. Therefore, Von Neumann's theory cannot depicture our physical world with a violation factor that grows exponentially with the number of particles. The theoretical formalism of the implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm relies on Von Neumann's theory. We investigate whether Von Neumann's theory meets the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm. We discuss the fact that the crucial contradiction makes the quantum-theoretical formulation of Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm questionable. Further, we discuss the fact that projective measurement theory does not meet an easy detector model for a single Pauli observable. Especially, we systematically describe our assertion based on more mathematical analysis using raw data. We propose a solution of the problem. Our solution is equivalent to changing Planck's constant ($\hbar$) to a new constant ($\hbar/\sqrt{2}$). It may be said that a new type of the quantum theory early approaches Newton's theory in the macroscopic scale than the old quantum theory does. We discuss how our solution is used in an implementation of Deutsch's algorithm.
Category: Quantum Physics

[627] viXra:1403.0740 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:32:49

Problems

Authors: Charles Ashbacher
Comments: 3 Pages.

Welcome to the inaugural version of what is to be a regular feature in Smarandache Notions!
Category: General Mathematics

[626] viXra:1403.0739 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:34:12

Products of Factorials in Smarandache Type Expressions

Authors: Florian Luca
Comments: 13 Pages.

Jose Castillo (see [2]) asks how many primes are of the Smarandache form...
Category: General Mathematics

[625] viXra:1403.0738 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:35:03

Program for Finding Out Number of Smarandache Distinct Reciprocal Partition of Unity of a Given Length

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 3 Pages.

Smarandache Distinct Reciprocal partition of unity for a given length '0' is defined as the number of ways in which unity can be expressed as the sum of the reciprocals of '0' distinct numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[624] viXra:1403.0737 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:36:07

Proof of the Depascalisation Theorem

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 2 Pages.

In [1] we have defined Pascalisation as follows:
Category: General Mathematics

[623] viXra:1403.0736 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:37:53

A Proof of the Non-Existence of "Samma" .

Authors: Pal Gronas
Comments: 2 Pages.

From this formula we see that it is essensial to determine S(pr), where p is a prime and r is a natural number.
Category: General Mathematics

[622] viXra:1403.0735 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:38:52

Proof of Functional Smarandache Iterations

Authors: Zheng Jianfeng
Comments: 4 Pages.

The paper makes use of method of Mathematics Analytic to prove Functional Smarandache Iterations of three kinds.
Category: General Mathematics

[621] viXra:1403.0734 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:41:34

Properties of the Numerical Function

Authors: I. Balacenoiu, V. Seleacu, N. Varlan
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper are studied some properties of the numerical function.
Category: General Mathematics

[620] viXra:1403.0733 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:43:00

Proposed Problems

Authors: Mihaly Bencze
Comments: 3 Pages.

Solve the following equations, where S is the Smarandache function.
Category: General Mathematics

[619] viXra:1403.0732 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:45:28

Some Properti es of Smarandache Funct! Ons of the Type

Authors: I. Balacenoiu, V. Seleacu
Comments: 5 Pages.

We consider the construction of Smarandache functions of the type...
Category: General Mathematics

[618] viXra:1403.0731 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:46:55

Properties of Smarandache Star Triangle

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 7 Pages.

In [1] we defme SMARANDACHE FACTOR PARTITION FUNCTION, as follows...
Category: General Mathematics

[617] viXra:1403.0730 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:47:57

On Numbers That Are Pseudo ... Smarandache And Smarandache Perfect

Authors: Charles Ashbacher
Comments: 2 Pages.

In a paper that is scheduled to be published in volume 31 (3) of Journal of Recreational Mathematics,entitled "'On A Generalization of Perfect Nurnbers"[ll, Joseph L. Pe deflnes a generalization of the definition of perfect numbers. The standard definition is that a number n is pexfect if it is the sum of its proper divisors.
Category: General Mathematics

[616] viXra:1403.0729 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:50:51

The Pseudo-Sma rand ache Function and the Classical Functions of Number Theory

Authors: Charles Ashbacher
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Pseudo-Smarandache function has the definition...
Category: General Mathematics

[615] viXra:1403.0727 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:53:04

The Pseudo-Smarandache Function

Authors: David Gorski
Comments: 10 Pages.

The Pseudo-Smarandache Function is part of number theory.
Category: General Mathematics

[614] viXra:1403.0724 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:55:56

On the Pseudo-Smarandache Function and Iteration Problems

Authors: Henry Ibstedt
Comments: 8 Pages.

This study originates from questions posed on alternating iterations involving the pseudo-Smarandache function Z(n) and the Euler function.
Category: General Mathematics

[613] viXra:1403.0722 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:58:33

On Radu' S Problem

Authors: Henry Ibstedt
Comments: 3 Pages.

For a positive integer n. the Smarandache function S(n) is defined as the smallest positive integer such that S(n)! is divisible by n.
Category: General Mathematics

[612] viXra:1403.0721 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 09:59:38

A Conjecture Concerning the Reciprocal Partition Theory

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper we prove that there exist infInitelv many disjoint sets of posItIve integers which the sum of whose reciprocals is equal to unity.
Category: General Mathematics

[611] viXra:1403.0720 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 10:01:26

Smarandache Recurrence Type Sequences

Authors: Mihaly Bencze
Comments: 4 Pages.

Eight particular, Smarandache Recurrence Sequences and a Smarandache General-Recurrence Sequence are defined below and exemplified...
Category: General Mathematics

[610] viXra:1403.0719 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 10:02:25

On Some Recurrence Type Smarandache Sequences

Authors: A.a.k. Majumdar, H. Gunarto
Comments: 21 Pages.

In this paper, we study some properties of ten recurrence type Smarandache sequences, namely, the Smarandache odd, even, prime product, square product, higher-power product, permutation, consecutive, reverse, symmetric, and pierced chain sequences.
Category: General Mathematics

[609] viXra:1403.0718 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 10:04:09

A Recurrence Formula for Prime Numbers Using the Smarandache or Totient Functions

Authors: Felice Russo
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we report a recurrence formula to obtain the n-th prime in terms of (n-l)th prime and as a function of Smarandache or Totient function.
Category: General Mathematics

[608] viXra:1403.0716 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 10:07:18

The Reduced Smarandache Square-Digital Subsequence is Infinite

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

THE REDUCED SMARANDACHE SQUARE-DIGITAL SuBSEQUENCE IS INFINITE.
Category: General Mathematics

[607] viXra:1403.0715 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 10:09:05

Some Remarks Concerning the Distribution of the Smarandache Function

Authors: Tomita Tiberiu Florin
Comments: 6 Pages.

The Smarandache function is a numerical function...
Category: General Mathematics

[606] viXra:1403.0714 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 10:10:13

Remarks on Some of the Smarandache's Problems

Authors: Krassimir T. Atanassov
Comments: 17 Pages.

In 1996 the author of this remarks wrote reviews for "Zentralblatt fur Mathematik" for books [1) and [2) and this was his first contact with the Smarandache's problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[605] viXra:1403.0713 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 10:12:03

A Result Obtained Using Smarandache Function

Authors: Sebastian Martin Ruiz
Comments: 2 Pages.

Smarandache Function is defined as followed:
Category: General Mathematics

[604] viXra:1403.0712 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 10:13:13

More Results and Applications of the Generalized Smarandache Star Function

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 10 Pages.

we define SMARANDACHE FACTOR PARTITION FUNCTION, as follows:
Category: General Mathematics

[603] viXra:1403.0711 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 02:41:23

On the K-Power Part Residue Function

Authors: Hai Yang, Ruiqin Fu
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary and analytic methods to study the asymptotic properties of the k-power part residue, and give an interesting asymptotic formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[602] viXra:1403.0710 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 02:45:08

Labeling, Covering and Decomposing of Graphs — Smarandache’s Notion in Graph Theory

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 17 Pages.

This paper surveys the applications of Smarandache’s notion to graph theory appeared in International J.Math.Combin. from Vol.1,2008 to Vol.3,2009.
Category: General Mathematics

[601] viXra:1403.0709 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 02:46:44

Lattices of Smarandache Groupoid

Authors: Dviraj Talukdar
Comments: 7 Pages.

Smarandache groupoid is not partly ordered under Smarandache inclusion relation but it contains some partly ordered sets, which are lattices under Smarandache union and intersection. We propose to establish the complemented and distributive lattices of Smarandache groupoid. Some properties of these lattices are discussed here.
Category: General Mathematics

[600] viXra:1403.0708 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 02:48:16

On the Smarandache LCM Dual Function

Authors: Chengliang Tian, Na Yuan
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the calculating problem of a Dirichlet series involving the Smarandache LCM dual function SL¤(n) and the mean value distribution property of SL(n), obtain an exact calculating formula and a sharper asymptotic formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[599] viXra:1403.0706 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 02:50:29

On the F.smarandache LCM Function and Its Mean Value

Authors: Zhongtian Lv
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to use the elementary methods to study the mean value of the F.Smarandache LCM function SL(n), and give a sharper asymptotic formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[598] viXra:1403.0705 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 02:52:25

Length/ Extent of Smarandache Factor Partitions

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the present note we define two interesting parameters the length and extent of an SFP and study the interesting properties they exhibit for square free numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[597] viXra:1403.0704 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 02:53:44

A Limit Problem of the Smarandache Dual Function S¤¤(n)1

Authors: Qiuhong Zhao, Yang Wang
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary methods to study the convergent properties of an in¯nity series involving S¤¤(n), and give an interesting limit formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[596] viXra:1403.0703 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 02:54:57

On a Limit of a Sequence of the Numerical Function

Authors: Vasile Seleacu, Narcisa VarIan
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper is studied the limit of the following sequence...
Category: General Mathematics

[595] viXra:1403.0702 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:04:39

The Limit of the Smarandache Divisor Sequences

Authors: Maohua Li
Comments: Pages.

In this paper we prove that the limit T(n) of the Smarandache divisor sequence exists if and only if n is odd.
Category: General Mathematics

[594] viXra:1403.0701 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:06:50

A Linear Combination Wim Smarandache Function to Obtain the Identity

Authors: M. Andrei, I. BaIaIcenoiu, C.Dumitrescu, E. RaIdescu, N. RaIdescu, V.Seleacu
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we consider a numerical function associated with a particular Smarandache Function S.
Category: General Mathematics

[593] viXra:1403.0700 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:08:14

Linear Isometries on Pseudo-Euclidean Space

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 12 Pages.

We characterize curvature of s-line, particularly, Smarandachely embedded graphs and determine linear isometries on...
Category: General Mathematics

[592] viXra:1403.0699 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:09:20

A Note On Line Graphs

Authors: P. Siva Kota Reddy, Kavita. S. Permi, B. Prashanth
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this note we define two generalizations of the line graph and obtain some results. Also, we mark some open problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[591] viXra:1403.0698 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:11:53

The Line N-Sigraph of a Symmetric N-Sigraph-IV

Authors: P. Siva Kota Reddy, K. M. Nagaraja, M. C. Geetha
Comments: 7 Pages.

Smarandachely symmetric n-marked graph.
Category: General Mathematics

[590] viXra:1403.0696 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:16:09

Long Dominating Cycles in Graphs

Authors: Yongga A., Zhiren Sun
Comments: 16 Pages.

Proves a conjecture of R. Shen and F. Tian, also related with the cyclic structures of algebraically Smarandache multi-spaces.
Category: General Mathematics

[589] viXra:1403.0695 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:18:24

Smarandache Lucky Math

Authors: Charles Ashbacher
Comments: 1 Page.

The Smarandache Lucky Method/Algorithm/Operationietc. is said to be any incorrect method or algorithm or operation etc. wr.ich Leads to a correct result. The wrong calculation should be fun, somehow similarly to the students' common mistakes, or to produce confusions or paradoxes. Can someone give an example of a Smarandache Lucky Derivation, or Integration, or Solution to a Differential Equation?
Category: General Mathematics

[588] viXra:1403.0694 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:20:13

Examples of Smarandache Magic Squares

Authors: M. R. Mudge
Comments: 3 Pages.

Can you find a such magic square of order at least 3 or 4, when A is a set of prime numbers and 1 the addition?
Category: General Mathematics

[587] viXra:1403.0693 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:21:29

A Note on the Maximum Genus of Graphs with Diameter 4

Authors: Xiang Ren, WeiLi He, Lin Zhao
Comments: 7 Pages.

Let G be a simple graph with diameter four,if G does not contain complete subgraph K3 of order three.
Category: General Mathematics

[586] viXra:1403.0692 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:22:52

On Mean Graphs

Authors: R.Vasuki, S.Arockiaraj
Comments: 13 Pages.

Throughout this paper, by a graph we mean a finite, undirected, simple graph. Let G(V,E) be a graph with p vertices and q edges. For notations and terminology we follow [1].
Category: General Mathematics

[585] viXra:1403.0690 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:25:20

Meanvalue of Anewarithmetic Function

Authors: Liu Yanni, Gao Peng
Comments: 3 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using elementary method to study a new arithmetic function, and give an interesting asymptotic formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[584] viXra:1403.0689 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:26:31

On the Mean Value of the Smarandache Double Factorial Function

Authors: Zhu Minhui
Comments: 5 Pages.

For any positive integer n, the Smarandache double factorial function Sdf(n)is defined as the least positive integer m such that m!! is divisible by n. In this paper, we study the mean value properties of Sdf(n), and give an interesting mean value formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[583] viXra:1403.0688 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:27:29

On the Mean Value of the Smarandache LCM Function SL(n)

Authors: Xiaoying Du
Comments: 6 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to study the properties of the Smarandache LCM function SL(n), and give an asymptotic formula for its mean value.
Category: General Mathematics

[582] viXra:1403.0687 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:28:38

On the mean value of the Near Pseudo Smarandache Function

Authors: Hai Yang, Ruiqin Fu
Comments: 5 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the analytic method to study the asymptotic properties of the Near Pseudo Smarandache Function, and give two interesting asymptotic formulae for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[581] viXra:1403.0686 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:29:45

Mean value of a Smarandache-Type Function

Authors: Jia Wang
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we use analytic method to study the mean value properties of Smarandache-Type Multiplicative Functions Km(n), and give its asymptotic formula . Finally, the convolution method is used to improve the error term.
Category: General Mathematics

[580] viXra:1403.0685 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:31:00

Mean Value of the Additive Analogue of Smarandache Function

Authors: Yi Yuan, Zhang Wenpeng
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, we study the mean value properties of the additive analogue of S(n), and give an interesting mean value formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[579] viXra:1403.0684 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:32:27

Mean Value of F. Smarandache LCM Function

Authors: Jian Ge
Comments: 4 Pages.

For any positive integer n, the famous F.Smarandache function S(n) de¯ned as the smallest positive integer m such that n / m!.
Category: General Mathematics

[578] viXra:1403.0683 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:34:12

On the Mean Value of the Smarandache LCM Function

Authors: Xiaoyan Li
Comments: 5 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary methods to study the mean value properties of P(n)SL(n) and p(n)SL(n), and give two sharper asymptotic formulas for them.
Category: General Mathematics

[577] viXra:1403.0682 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:35:53

On the Mean Value of the Smarandache Ceil Function

Authors: Wang Xiaoying
Comments: 3 Pages.

For any ¯fixed positive integer n, the Smarandache ceil function of order k is denoted by...
Category: General Mathematics

[576] viXra:1403.0681 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:36:53

Mediate Dominating Graph of a Graph

Authors: B.Basavanagoud, Sunilkumar M. Hosamani
Comments: 8 Pages.

One related open problem is explored. Finally, some bounds on domination number of Dm(G) are obtained in terms of vertices and edges of G.
Category: General Mathematics

[575] viXra:1403.0680 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:37:50

Menelaus's Theorem for Hyperbolic Quadrilaterals in the Einstein Relativistic Velocity Model of Hyperbolic Geometry

Authors: Catalin Barbu
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this study, we present (i) a proof of the Menelaus theorem for quadrilaterals in hyperbolic geometry, (ii) and a proof for the transversal theorem for triangles, and (iii) the Menelaus's theorem for n-gons.
Category: General Mathematics

[574] viXra:1403.0679 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:39:05

Minimal Retraction of Space-time and Their Foldings

Authors: A. E. El-Ahmady, H. Rafat
Comments: 7 Pages.

The concept of retraction and folding of zero dimension space-time will be obtained.The relation between limit of folding and retraction presented.
Category: General Mathematics

[573] viXra:1403.0678 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:40:20

Minimum Cycle Base of Graphs Identified by Two Planar Graphs

Authors: Dengju Ma, Han Ren
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, we study the minimum cycle base of the planar graphs obtained from two 2-connected planar graphs by identifying an edge (or a cycle) of one graph with the corresponding edge (or cycle) of another, related with map geometries, i.e., Smarandache 2-dimensional manifolds.
Category: General Mathematics

[572] viXra:1403.0677 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:41:17

The Smarandache Minimum and Maximum Functions

Authors: Jozsef Sandor
Comments: 5 Pages.

This papers deals with the introduction and preliminary study of the Smarandache minimum and maximum functions.
Category: General Mathematics

[571] viXra:1403.0676 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:42:26

Min-Max Dom-Saturation Number of a Tree

Authors: S. Arumugam, S. Sudha
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we present a dynamic programming algorithm for determining the min-max dom- saturation number of a tree.
Category: General Mathematics

[570] viXra:1403.0675 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:43:35

Miscellaneous Results and Theorems on Smarandache Terms and Factor Partitions

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 8 Pages.

In [1] we define SMARANDACHE FACTOR PARTITION FUNCTION (SFP).
Category: General Mathematics

[569] viXra:1403.0674 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:45:29

On Smarandacbe Mitxed Non-Euclidean Geometries

Authors: Anghel N. Rugina
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this short paper I compare the Smarandache's Non-Euclidean Geometries with my Orientation Table For Any Science.
Category: General Mathematics

[568] viXra:1403.0673 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:47:36

A model for Smarandache's Anti-Geometry

Authors: Roberto Torretti
Comments: 14 Pages.

David Hilbert's Foundations of Geometry (1899) contain nineteen statements, labelled axioms, from which every theorem in Euclid's Elements can be derived by deductive inference, according to the classical rules of logic.
Category: General Mathematics

[567] viXra:1403.0672 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-23 03:47:33

Rad(abc) < C Infinite

Authors: Th. Guyer
Comments: 1 Page.

A + B = C Rad(ABC) infinite < C Number Example: 2*12p2 + 1 = 17p2
Category: Number Theory

[566] viXra:1403.0671 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-23 16:34:50

To be a Jew (The Motivating Contrast, the Psychological Incompatibility, the Intellectual Nonconformity, and the Fighting Sentimentalism)

Authors: Emanuel Gluskin
Comments: 18 Pages. This is an important in its topic and unique in its treatment sociological work. In this version, Appendix 4, extending the topic of human thinking conformity, is added.

The basic role of Jews is defined as creating a motivating contrast between the mass of the people who often get into trouble, and the subsequently arising leader (prophet) who calls for conscience in order to help the people to survive the trouble. The words of the Old Testament: "You will bring the light to other nations" are understood as a reflection of the fact that such a prophet is important for the whole of humanity. The main reason for anti-Semitism is seen as some psychological incompatibility (perhaps, of some weak autistic nature) of Jews in their contacts with other people. This incompatibility, however, defends Jews against acquiring the feature of conformity of human society (psychology), -- the conformity that has caused serious moral problems over the world. Jews are thus presented as irritating, but positively thinking and contributing people. It is dangerous but interesting to be a Jew.
Category: Mind Science

[565] viXra:1403.0670 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 14:03:46

New Methods of Removing Space Debris

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 22 Pages.

In 1957 the new era of studying outer Space by space apparatus was ushered in. During this past half century, thousands of satellites, space ships and space stations were launched. The tens of thousands of slivers from old rockets remaining in Space represent a serious danger for new satellites, space craft, space stations and space travelers. Currently, about 19,000 pieces of debris larger than 5 cm (2.0 in) are tracked. Any of them can damage a space apparatus. This work delineates the problems of the space debris (amount, distribution, growth, danger and so on), reviews the old and contemporary methods of cleaning up the debris, and evaluates the relative efficiency of the current and new methods. This paper offers new methods and installations for cleaning outer space from space debris and specific protection of important space ships and stations from large space debris (SD). Advantages of the offered method and apparatus are the following: 1. Smaller size and weight by 2 -3 times than conventional SD Collector. 2. Greater efficiency by 2 -3 times. 3. Saves fuel by some times. 4. No limits in size for SD. 5. Can easily protect a space ship and station (for example, International Space Station) from SD.
Category: Classical Physics

[564] viXra:1403.0669 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 14:14:37

Method and Installation for Cleaning the Outer Space from Space Debris

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 22 Pages.

Currently (2011), about 19,000 pieces of space debris larger than 5 cm (2.0 in) are tracked (for example: old non-working satellites, last stages of rockets and so on). Any of them can catastrophic damage the working space apparatus, space stations and space ship. The field of invention is a method and installation (space apparatus) for cleaning the outer Space from Space debris, protection current and future space station, ships, space apparatus from space debris, meteroids and enemy attack. Offered devices also can be installed on new space apparatus for returning them into the planet atmosphere after lifetime or in dangerous situation. Author offers new method and installation for cleaning the outer space from space debris and individual protection the important space ship and stations from big space debris (SD). Advantages of the offered method and apparatus are following: 1. Less size and weight in 2 -3 times than conventional SD Collector. 2. More efficiency in 2 -10 times. 3. Save fuel in some times. 4. No limits in size for SD. 5. Can easy protect selected space ship and station (for example, International Space Station) from SD.
Category: Classical Physics

[563] viXra:1403.0668 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 07:32:55

On the K-Power Free Number Sequence

Authors: Qing Tian
Comments: 5 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to study the distribution properties of the k-power free numbers, and give an interesting asymptotic formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[562] viXra:1403.0667 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:03:07

On the Smarandache Function and the Fixed Point Theory of Numbers

Authors: Albert A. Mullin
Comments: 1 Page.

This brief note points out several basic connections between the Smarandache function, fixed-point theory [1] and prime-number theory.
Category: General Mathematics

[561] viXra:1403.0666 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:04:10

On a Function in the Nulvibers Theory

Authors: Ion Cojocaru, Sorin Cojocaru
Comments: 6 Pages.

In the present paper we study some series concerning the following function of the Numbers Theory.
Category: General Mathematics

[560] viXra:1403.0665 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:08:40

On Some Implications of Formalized Theories in Our Life

Authors: Adrian Vasiu, Angela Vasiu
Comments: 6 Pages.

The formalized theories in which are considered different types of logics give us an easier way of understanding of our own interpretations of the concepts and of the events of life.
Category: General Mathematics

[559] viXra:1403.0664 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:10:03

A Formula of the Smarandache Function

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we give a formula expressing the Smarandache function S(n) by means of n without using the factorization of n.
Category: General Mathematics

[558] viXra:1403.0663 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:11:06

On Four Pr.ime and Coprime Functions

Authors: Krassimir T. Atanassov
Comments: 4 Pages.

F. Smarandache discussed the following particular cases of the well-know characteristic functions.
Category: General Mathematics

[557] viXra:1403.0660 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:17:17

Fr,om Bolyai's Geomletry to Smarandache Anti-Geoiv1etry

Authors: Angela Vasiu, Nicolae Oprea
Comments: 5 Pages.

It is considered the notion of absolute Geometry in its evolution, from the first Non-euclidpan Geometry of Lobacewski, Bolyai and Gauss till that of Smaranclache Anti-Geometry,
Category: General Mathematics

[556] viXra:1403.0659 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:18:43

The Florentin Smarandache Function S(n)

Authors: Henry Ibstedt
Comments: 4 Pages.

Let us assume that m is a given prime p.
Category: General Mathematics

[555] viXra:1403.0657 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:20:51

A Functional Recurrence to Obtain the Prime Numbers Using the Smarandache Prime Function

Authors: Sebastian Martin Ruiz
Comments: 4 Pages.

Observe that this is a functional recurrence strictly closed too.
Category: General Mathematics

[554] viXra:1403.0656 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:22:02

Some Fdm'ii' Examples of Smarandache Lucky Methods in Algebra, Trigonometry, Aa1j> Calculus

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 4 Pages.

A number is said to be a Smarandache Lucky Number if an incorrect calculation leads to a correct result.
Category: General Mathematics

[553] viXra:1403.0655 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:22:56

Some Remarks on Fuzzy N-Normed Spaces

Authors: Sayed Elagan
Comments: 7 Pages.

It is shown that every fuzzy n-normed space naturally induces a locally convex topology, and that every finite dimensional fuzzy n-normed space is complete.
Category: General Mathematics

[552] viXra:1403.0654 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:24:02

Generalization of the Divisor Products and Proper Divisor Products Sequences

Authors: Liang Fangchi
Comments: 4 Pages.

Let n be a positive integer...
Category: General Mathematics

[551] viXra:1403.0653 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:25:28

On the Generalization of the Floor of the Square Root Sequence

Authors: Yao Weili
Comments: 4 Pages.

The floor of the square root sequence is the natural sequence, where each number is repeated 2n+1 times. In this paper, we use analytic method to study the mean value properties of its generalization, and give an interesting asymptotic formula.
Category: General Mathematics

[550] viXra:1403.0652 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:26:52

A Generalization of the Smarandache Function

Authors: Hailong Li
Comments: 4 Pages.

For any positive integer n, we define the function P(n) as the smallest prime p.
Category: General Mathematics

[549] viXra:1403.0651 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:29:15

On the Generalized Constructive Set

Authors: Qianli Yang
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we use the elementary methods to study the properties of the constructive set S, and obtain some interesting properties for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[548] viXra:1403.0650 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:40:20

On a Generalized Equation of Smarandache and Its Integer Solutions

Authors: Chuan Lv
Comments: 3 Pages.

Let Q denotes the set of all rational numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[547] viXra:1403.0649 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:41:45

Generalized Smarandache Palindrome

Authors: George Gregory
Comments: 1 Page.

A generalized Smarandache Palindrome is a nnmber of the form.
Category: General Mathematics

[546] viXra:1403.0648 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:42:38

A Generalisation of Euler's Function

Authors: Sabin Tabirca, Tatiana Tabirca
Comments: 4 Pages.

The aim of this article is to propose a generalisation for Euler's function.
Category: General Mathematics

[545] viXra:1403.0647 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:43:39

Generalization of Partition Function, Introducing Smarandache Factor Partition

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 13 Pages.

Partition function P(n) is defined as the number of ways that a positive integer can be expressed as the sum of positive integers.
Category: General Mathematics

[544] viXra:1403.0646 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:44:45

A General Result on the Smarandache Star Function

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper ,the result ( theorem-2.6) Derived in REF. [2], the paper "Generalization Of Partition Function.
Category: General Mathematics

[543] viXra:1403.0645 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:45:59

Genus Distribution for a Graph

Authors: Liangxia Wan, Hong-Jian Lai, Yanpei Liu
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper we develop the technique of a distribution decomposition for a graph. A formula is given to determine genus distribution of a cubic graph. Given any connected graph, it is proved that its genus distribution is the sum of those for some cubic graphs by using the technique.
Category: General Mathematics

[542] viXra:1403.0644 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:47:00

Geometria Interioara

Authors: Adrian Vasiu, Angela Vasiu
Comments: 4 Pages.

TRANSGRESAREA FRONTIERELOR DINTRE DISCIPLINE
Category: General Mathematics

[541] viXra:1403.0643 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:48:15

Global Stability of Non-Solvable Ordinary Differential Equations With Applications

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 37 Pages.

Different from the system in classical mathematics, a Smarandache system is a contradictory system in which an axiom behaves in at least two different ways within the same system, i.e., validated and invalided, or only invalided but in multiple distinct ways. Such systems exist extensively in the world, particularly, in our daily life. In this paper, we discuss such a kind of Smarandache system, i.e., non-solvable ordinary differential equation systems by a combinatorial approach, classify these systems and characterize their behaviors, particularly, the global stability, such as those of sum-stability and prod-stability of such linear and non-linear differential equations.
Category: General Mathematics

[540] viXra:1403.0642 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:49:47

Lucas Graceful Labeling for Some Graphs

Authors: M.A.Perumal, S.Navaneethakrishnan, A.Nagarajan
Comments: 19 Pages.

Smarandache-Fibonacci triple is a sequence S(n).
Category: General Mathematics

[539] viXra:1403.0641 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:52:28

Graphoidal Tree d - Cover

Authors: S.somasundaram, A.nagarajan, G.mahadevan
Comments: 13 Pages.

[1] Acharya and Sampathkumar defined a graphoidal cover as a partition of edges into internally disjoint (not necessarily open) paths.
Category: General Mathematics

[538] viXra:1403.0638 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:56:04

On Smarandachely Harmonic Graphs

Authors: D.D.Somashekara, C.R.Veena
Comments: 9 Pages.

A graph G is said to be Smarandachely harmonic graph with property P if its vertices can be labeled 1, 2, · · ·
Category: General Mathematics

[537] viXra:1403.0637 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:57:37

Absolutely Harmonious Labeling of Graphs

Authors: M.Seenivasan, A.Lourdusamy
Comments: 12 Pages.

Absolutely harmonious labeling f is an injection from the vertex set of a graph G...
Category: General Mathematics

[536] viXra:1403.0636 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 05:59:16

Hipotese DE Smarandache Evidencias, Implicacoes e Aplicacoesi

Authors: Leonardo F. D. da Motta
Comments: 4 Pages.

Em 1993, Smarandache propos que DaO hA uma velocidade limite na natureza, baseado no paradoxo EPR-Bell (Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen, Bell).
Category: General Mathematics

[535] viXra:1403.0635 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:01:45

History of the Sma Randache Function

Authors: I. Balacenoiu, V. Seleacu
Comments: 10 Pages.

This function is originated from the Romanian professor Florentin Smarandache.It is defined as follows...
Category: General Mathematics

[534] viXra:1403.0634 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:03:09

The H-Line Signed Graph of a Signed Graph

Authors: R.Rangarajan, M. S. Subramanya, P. Siva Kota Reddy
Comments: 8 Pages.

Smarandachely k-signed graph (Smarandachely k-marked graph) is an ordered pair S...
Category: General Mathematics

[533] viXra:1403.0633 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:04:45

An Holomorphic Study of the Smarandache Concept in Loops

Authors: Temitope Gbolahan Jaiyeola
Comments: 8 Pages.

If two loops are isomorphic, then it is shown that their holomorphs are also isomorphic. Conversely, it is shown that if their holomorphs are isomorphic, then the loops are isotopic. It is shown that a loop is a Smarandache loop if and only if its holomorph is a Smarandache loop.
Category: General Mathematics

[532] viXra:1403.0632 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:06:46

An Holomorphic Study of Smarandache Automorphic and Cross Inverse Property Loops

Authors: Temitope Gbolahan Jaiyeola
Comments: 7 Pages.

By studying the holomorphic structure of automorphic inverse property quasigroups and loops...
Category: General Mathematics

[531] viXra:1403.0631 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:07:43

On the Hybrid Mean Value of the Smarandache kn-Digital Sequence and Smarandache Function

Authors: Chan Shi
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the hybrid mean value properties of the Smarandache kn-digital sequence and Smarandache function, and give an interesting asymptotic formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[530] viXra:1403.0630 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:08:42

Hybridmeanvalue on Some Smarandachetype Multiplicative Functions and the Mangoldt Function

Authors: Liu Huaning, Gao Jing
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, we study the hybrid mean value of some Smarandache-type multiplicative functions and the Mangoldt function, and give two asymptotic formulae.
Category: General Mathematics

[529] viXra:1403.0629 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:09:57

The Hybrid Mean Value of the Smarandache Function and the Mangoldt Function

Authors: Baohuai Shi
Comments: 3 Pages.

For any positive integer n, the famous F.Smarandache function S(n) is defined as the smallest positive integer m such that n m!.
Category: General Mathematics

[528] viXra:1403.0628 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:10:56

On the Hybrid Mean Value of the Smarandache kn Digital Sequence with SL(n) Function and Divisor Function D(n)1

Authors: Le Huan
Comments: 6 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the hybrid mean value properties of the Smarandache kn digital sequence with SL(n) function and divisor function d(n), then give two interesting asymptotic formulae for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[527] viXra:1403.0627 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:12:13

Ideal Graph of a Graph

Authors: R.Manoharan, R.Vasuki, R.Manisekaran
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce ideal graph of a graph and study some of its properties. We characterize connectedness, isomorphism of graphs and coloring property of a graph using ideal graph. Also, we give an upper bound for chromatic number of a graph.
Category: General Mathematics

[526] viXra:1403.0626 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:13:43

Smarandache Idempotents Infinite Ring Zn and in Group Ring ZnG

Authors: W.B.Vasantha, Moon K.Chetry
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper we analyze and study the Smarandache idempotents (S-idempotents).
Category: General Mathematics

[525] viXra:1403.0625 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:15:13

Smarandache Idempotents in Loop Rings

Authors: W.B.Vasantha, Moon K.Chetry
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we establish the existence of S-idempotents in case of loop rings...
Category: General Mathematics

[524] viXra:1403.0624 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:17:00

Some Identities Involving the Near Pseudo Smarandache Function

Authors: Yu Wang
Comments: 8 Pages.

function. The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the properties and obtain some interesting identities involving function...
Category: General Mathematics

[523] viXra:1403.0623 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:18:20

An Identity Involving the Function Ep(n)

Authors: Xiaowei Pan, Pei Zhang
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between the Riemann zeta-function and an infinite series involving the Smarandache function.
Category: General Mathematics

[522] viXra:1403.0622 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:19:59

An Illustration of the Distribution of the Smarandache Function

Authors: Henry Ibstedt
Comments: 2 Pages.

The cover illustration is a representation of the values of the Smarandache function.
Category: General Mathematics

[521] viXra:1403.0621 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:20:57

An Improved Algorithm for Calculating the Sum-of-Factorials Function

Authors: Jon Perry
Comments: 3 Pages.

The sum of factorials function, also known as the left factorial function, is defined as...
Category: General Mathematics

[520] viXra:1403.0620 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:23:05

Independent Complementary Distance Pattern Uniform Graphs

Authors: Germina K.A., Beena Koshy
Comments: 12 Pages.

A Smarandachely uniform 1-graph is abbreviated to a complementary distance pattern uniform graph, i.e., CDPU graphs. This paper studies independent CDPU graphs.
Category: General Mathematics

[519] viXra:1403.0619 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:24:39

An Inequality Between Prime Powers Dividing n!

Authors: Florian Luca
Comments: 5 Pages.

Inequality (1) was suggested by Balacenoiu at the First International Conference on Smarandache Notions in Number Theory.
Category: General Mathematics

[518] viXra:1403.0618 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:25:37

On an Inequality for the Smarandache Function

Authors: Jozsef Sandor
Comments: 3 Pages.

Our aim is to shmv that certain results from om recent paper [3] can be obtained in a simpler way from a generalization of relation (1).
Category: General Mathematics

[517] viXra:1403.0617 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:27:03

Some Inequalities Concerning Smarandache's Function

Authors: Sabin Tabirca, Tatiana Tabirca
Comments: 9 Pages.

The object that is researched is Smarandache's function.
Category: General Mathematics

[516] viXra:1403.0616 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:28:33

On an Inequality Concerning the Smarandche Funcfion

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

For any positive integer a, let S(a) be the Smarandache function. Bencze proposed the following problem.
Category: General Mathematics

[515] viXra:1403.0615 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:30:32

On an Inequality Concerning the Smarandche Function

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

For any positive integer n, let S(n) denote the Smarandache function of n.
Category: General Mathematics

[514] viXra:1403.0614 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:31:26

Inequalities for the Polygamma Functions with Application

Authors: Chaoping Chen
Comments: 5 Pages.

We present some inequalities for the polygamma funtions.
Category: General Mathematics

[513] viXra:1403.0613 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:32:38

An Inequality of the Smarandache Function

Authors: Weiyi Zhu
Comments: 4 Pages.

For any positive integer n, the famous Smarandache function S(n) is defined as the smallest positive integer m such that njm!.
Category: General Mathematics

[512] viXra:1403.0612 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:33:27

On the Inferior and Superior K-TH Power Part of a Positive Integer and Divisor Function

Authors: Zheng Jianfeng
Comments: 4 Pages.

For any positive integer n, let a{n) and b{n) denote the inferior and superior k-th power part of n respectively.
Category: General Mathematics

[511] viXra:1403.0611 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:34:50

There Are Infinitely Many Smarandache Derivations, Integrations and Lucky Numbers

Authors: Pantelimon Stanica, Gabriela Stanica
Comments: 5 Pages.

A number is said to be a Smarandache Lucky Number (see [3, 1, 2]) if an incorrect calculation leads to a correct result. In general, a Smarandache Lucky Method or Algorithm is said to be any incorrect method or algorithm, which leads to a correct result. In this note we find an infinite sequence of distinct lucky fractions.
Category: General Mathematics

[510] viXra:1403.0609 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:37:35

The Equations M·S(m) = N·S(n) and M·S(n) = N·S(m) Have Infinitily Many Solutions

Authors: Vasile Seleacu, Constantin A. Dumitrescu
Comments: 7 Pages.

Next we will study two diophantine equations which contain the Smarandache function. Reminding of two of the features of Smarandache' s function which we will need further...
Category: General Mathematics

[509] viXra:1403.0608 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:38:45

An Infinity Series Involving the Smarandache-Type Function

Authors: Jing Li
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we using the elementary method to study the convergent property of one class Dirichlet series involving a special sequences, and give several interesting identities for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[508] viXra:1403.0607 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:40:06

The Intangible Absolute Truth

Authors: Gheorghe Dinulescu-Campina
Comments: 2 Pages.

In my own work "The Modelling of the Rationality" under the basis of the MESER licence, I have enlightened a new spiritual doctrine sustained by scientific and logical hypotheses.
Category: General Mathematics

[507] viXra:1403.0606 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:41:16

On the Integer Part of the K-TH Root of a Positive Integer

Authors: Zhang Tianping
Comments: 4 Pages.

For any positive integer m, let a(m) denotes the integer part of the k-th root of m.
Category: General Mathematics

[506] viXra:1403.0605 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:42:17

On the Integer Part of the M-th Root and the Largest M-th Power not Exceeding N

Authors: Xiaoying Du
Comments: 7 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary methods to study the properties of the integer part of the m-th root and the largest m-th power not exceeding n,and give some interesting identities involving these numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[505] viXra:1403.0604 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:43:44

On the Integer Part of a Positive INTEGER’S K-TH Root

Authors: Hai Yang, Ruiqin Fu
Comments: 6 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method and analytic method to study the asymptotic properties of the integer part of the k-th root positive integer, and give two interesting asymptotic formulae.
Category: General Mathematics

[504] viXra:1403.0603 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:44:48

The Integral Values oflog S(n)

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

Let k, n be distinct positive integers
Category: General Mathematics

[503] viXra:1403.0602 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:45:35

Some Interesting Properties of the Smarandache Function

Authors: Kang Xiaoyu
Comments: 3 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the property of the Smarandache function, and give an interesting result.
Category: General Mathematics

[502] viXra:1403.0601 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:47:02

The First International Conference on Smarandache Multispace and Multistructure Was Held in China

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: Pages.

In recent decades, Smarandache’s notions of multispace and multistructure were widely spread and have shown much importance in sciences around the world. Organized by Prof.Linfan Mao, a professional conference on multispaces and multistructures, named the First International Conference on Smarandache Multispace and Multistructure was held in Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture of P. R. China on June 28-30, 2013, which was announced by American Mathematical Society in advance.
Category: General Mathematics

[501] viXra:1403.0599 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 06:54:50

An Introduction to Smarandache Multi-Spaces and Mathematical Combinatorics

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 27 Pages.

These Smarandache spaces are right theories for objectives by logic. However,the mathematical combinatorics is a combinatorial theory for branches in classical mathematics motivated by a combinatorial speculation.
Category: General Mathematics

[500] viXra:1403.0598 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 07:05:39

An Introduction to the Smarandache Double Factorial Function

Authors: Felice Russo
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper we will study this function and several examples, theorems,conjectures and problems will be presented. The behaviour of this function is similar to the other Srnarandache functions introduced in the chapter I.
Category: General Mathematics

[499] viXra:1403.0597 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 07:07:21

A Note on the Smarandache Inversion Sequence

Authors: A.A.K. Majumdar
Comments: 6 Pages.

In a recent paper, Muneer [1] introduced the Smarandache inversion sequence. In this paper, we study some properties of the Smarandache inversion sequence.
Category: General Mathematics

[498] viXra:1403.0596 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 07:08:38

Invfstigating Connections Between Some Smarandache Sequences, PRIlME· Numbers and Magic Squares

Authors: Y.v. Chebrakov, V.v. Shmagin
Comments: 20 Pages.

In this paper we investigate some properties of Smarandache sequences of the 2nd kind and demonstrate that these numbers are near prime numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[497] viXra:1403.0595 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 07:11:09

An Equation Involving the F.smarandache Multiplicative Function

Authors: Jianbin Chen
Comments: 6 Pages.

F.Smarandache multiplicative function.
Category: General Mathematics

[496] viXra:1403.0594 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 07:12:59

On the Irrationality of Certain Constants Related to the Smarandache Function

Authors: Jozsef Sandor
Comments: 3 Pages.

Let S(n) be the Smarandache function.
Category: General Mathematics

[495] viXra:1403.0593 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 07:14:26

A Pair of Smarandachely Isotopic Quasigroups and Loops of the Same Variety

Authors: Temitope Gbolahan Jaiyeola
Comments: 9 Pages.

The isotopic invariance or universality of types and varieties of quasigroups and loops described by one or more equivalent identities has been of interest to researchers in loop theory in the recent past.
Category: General Mathematics

[494] viXra:1403.0592 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 07:16:33

Smarandache Isotopy of Second Smarandache Bol Loops

Authors: Temitope Gbolahan Jaiyeola
Comments: 12 Pages.

The pair is called a special loop if is a loop with an arbitrary subloop called its special subloop. A special loop is called a second Smarandache Bol loop.
Category: General Mathematics

[493] viXra:1403.0591 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 07:17:35

On Iterations That Alternate the Pseudo-Smarandache and Classic Functions of Number Theory

Authors: Charles Ashbacher
Comments: 6 Pages.

The Pseudo-Smarandache function was recently defined in a book by Kashihara.
Category: General Mathematics

[492] viXra:1403.0590 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 07:18:57

Javaconcurentprogramforthesamarandacbe Function

Authors: Sabin Tabirca, Tatiana Tabirca
Comments: 13 Pages.

The aim of this article is to propose a Java concurrent program for the Smarandache fimction based on the equation...
Category: General Mathematics

[491] viXra:1403.0589 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 07:20:39

Joint-Tree Model and the Maximum Genus of Graphs

Authors: Guanghua Dong, Ning Wang, Yuanqiu Huang, Yanpei Liu
Comments: 12 Pages.

The vertex v of a graph G is called a 1-critical-vertex for the maximum genus of the graph, or for simplicity called 1-critical-vertex.
Category: General Mathematics

[490] viXra:1403.0588 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 07:22:36

A Note on Jump Symmetric N-Sigraph

Authors: H. A.Malathi, H. C.Savithri
Comments: 3 Pages.

The notion of jump symmetric n-sigraphs was introduced by E. Sampathkumar, P. Siva Kota Reddy and M. S. Subramanya [Proceedings of the Jangjeon Math. Soc., 11(1) (2008), 89-95].
Category: General Mathematics

[489] viXra:1403.0587 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 19:45:41

The Web Audio Visual Education in India

Authors: U.V.S. Seshavatharam
Comments: 2 Pages. Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology Volume XIII Issue VII Version I Year 2013

To promote advanced low fees high quality education among the people of India within their reach and to promote continuous research program in all areas of Science & Technology
Category: Education and Didactics

[488] viXra:1403.0586 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-04 20:07:04

Does the Sun's Core Consist of Iron Instead of Hydrogen? and What is Its Implication to Solar Energy Sources?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 12 Pages. This article has not been submitted to any journal. This file is written in order to stimulate further observation/experiment. Comments are welcome.

For years, scientists have assumed that the sun is an enormous mass of hydrogen. Galileo was the first to propose that the sun is filled with gas. But Dr. Oliver Manuel says iron, not hydrogen, is the sun's most abundant element. IF his suggestion is true then it may imply that the source of solar energy is different of the presently held theory of hydrogen fusion.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[487] viXra:1403.0585 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 22:39:07

The Nature of Gravitation

Authors: Klinkerman R.V.
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the given work attempt to understand the nature of gravitation on the basis of quantum concepts is done. It supposed, that in a basis of gravitation lay zero fluctuations of quantum fields which are identified with the chaos "surrounding" the Universe. The gravitational field is result of transformation by a physical body of distant chaos in near chaos. Key words: gravitation, particles, zero fluctuations, « phantoms of particles », chaos, transformation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[486] viXra:1403.0584 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 01:34:24

On Additive Analogues of Certain Arithmetic Functions

Authors: Jozsef Sandor
Comments: 5 Pages.

Considerations about the Smarandache, Pseudo-Smarandache, resp. Smarandache-simple functions.
Category: Number Theory

[485] viXra:1403.0583 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 01:35:30

On an Additive Analogue of the Function S

Authors: Jozsef Sandor
Comments: 5 Pages.

We now define the following" additive analogue" , which is defined on a subset of real numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[484] viXra:1403.0582 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 01:38:49

Some Elementary Algebraic Considerations Inspired by the Smarandache Function

Authors: E.Radescu, N.Radescu, C.Dumitrescu
Comments: 5 Pages.

Of course the algebraic usual operations "+" and "." play also an important role in the description of the properties of S.
Category: General Mathematics

[483] viXra:1403.0581 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 01:40:01

Algorithm for Listing of Smarandache Factor Partitions

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 4 Pages.

we define SMARANDACHE FACTOR PARTITION FUNCTION (SFP) , as follows:
Category: General Mathematics

[482] viXra:1403.0580 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:07:30

Direct Processing of Run-Length Compressed Document Image for Segmentation and Characterization of a Specified Block

Authors: Mohammed Javed, P. Nagabhushan, B.B. Chaudhuri
Comments: 6 Pages. Direct processing of compressed data, compressed document, TIFF Document Processing

Extracting a block of interest referred to as segmenting a specified block in an image and studying its characteristics is of general research interest, and could be a challenging if such a segmentation task has to be carried out directly in a compressed image. This is the objective of the present research work. The proposal is to evolve a method which would segment and extract a specified block, and carry out its characterization without decompressing a compressed image, for two major reasons that most of the image archives contain images in compressed format and 'decompressing' an image indents additional computing time and space. Specifically in this research work, the proposal is to work on run-length compressed document images.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[481] viXra:1403.0579 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:06:48

All Solutions of the Equation S(n) + d(n) = n

Authors: Charles Ashbacher
Comments: 6 Pages.

The number of divisors function den), is a classic function of number theory, having been defined centuries ago. In contrast, the Smarandache function Sen), was defined only a few decades ago. The purpose of this paper is to tind all solutions to a simple equation involving both functions.
Category: General Mathematics

[480] viXra:1403.0578 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:08:29

The Almost Presumable Maximality of Some Topological Lemma

Authors: Florian Munteanu, Octavian Mustafa
Comments: 4 Pages.

Some splitting lemma of topological nature provides fundamental information when dealing with dynamics (see [1], pg.79).
Category: General Mathematics

[479] viXra:1403.0577 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:09:43

Automatic Detection of Font Size Straight from Run Length Compressed Text Documents

Authors: Mohammed Javed, P. Nagabhushan, B.B. Chaudhuri
Comments: 8 Pages. Automatic font size detection, compressed document processing, compressed domain

Automatic detection of font size finds many applications in the area of intelligent OCRing and document image analysis, which has been traditionally practiced over uncompressed documents, although in real life the documents exist in compressed form for efficient storage and transmission. It would be novel and intelligent if the task of font size detection could be carried out directly from the compressed data of these documents without decompressing, which would result in saving of considerable amount of processing time and space. Therefore, in this paper we present a novel idea of learning and detecting font size directly from run-length compressed text documents at line level using simple line height features, which paves the way for intelligent OCRing and document analysis directly from compressed documents. In the proposed model, the given mixed-case text documents of different font size are segmented into compressed text lines and the features extracted such as line height and ascender height are used to capture the pattern of font size in the form of a regression line, using which the automatic detection of font size is done during the recognition stage. The method is experimented with a dataset of 50 compressed documents consisting of 780 text lines of single font size and 375 text lines of mixed font size resulting in an overall accuracy of 99.67%.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[478] viXra:1403.0576 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:10:21

On The Irrationality Of Certain Alternative Smarandache Series

Authors: Jozsef Sandor
Comments: 2 Pages.

Let S(n) be @@the Smarandache function.
Category: General Mathematics

[477] viXra:1403.0575 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:11:33

The Al'l'alytical Forl\1ulae Yielding Some Smarandache Numbers and Applications in Magic Squares Theory

Authors: Y.v. Chebrakov. V.v. Shmagin
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper we study the properties of some six numerical Smarandache sequences. As result we present a set of analytical formulae for the computation of numbers in these Smarandache series and for constructing Magic squares.
Category: General Mathematics

[476] viXra:1403.0574 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:12:55

Analytical Approach to Description of Some C011binatorial and Number-Theoretic Computative Algorithms

Authors: Y.v. Chebrakov. V.v. Shmagin
Comments: 9 Pages.

We discuss the theme on translating different descriptions of computative algorithms into high-level programming languages, enumerate some advantages of analytical descriptions and demonstrate that logical functions may be used effectively to create analytical formulae available for describing a set of combinatorial and number-theoretic computative algorithms.
Category: General Mathematics

[475] viXra:1403.0573 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:14:03

Analytical Forlviulae Ai'll) Algorithms for Constructing Lviagic Squares from an Arbitrary Set of 16 Numbers

Authors: Y.v. Chebrakov
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this paper we seek for an answer on Smarandache type question: may one create the theory of Magic squares 4x4 in size without using properties of some concrete numerical sequences? As a main result of this theoretical investigation we adduce the solution of the problem on decomposing the general algebraic formula of Magic squares 4x4 into two complete sets of structured and fourcomponent analytical formulae.
Category: General Mathematics

[474] viXra:1403.0572 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:15:03

On A New Smarandache Type Function

Authors: Jozsef Sandor
Comments: 2 Pages.

Let us define the following arithmetic function...
Category: General Mathematics

[473] viXra:1403.0570 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:18:17

Smarandache Anti-Geometry

Authors: Sandy P. Chimienti, Mihaly Bencze
Comments: 15 Pages.

This is an experimental geometry. All Hilbert's 20 axioms of the Euclidean GGeometry are denied in this vanguardist geometry of the real chaos: What is even more intriguing? F.Smarandache[5] has even found in 1969 a model of it.
Category: General Mathematics

[472] viXra:1403.0569 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:20:09

Advance of Smarandache Approach to Solving Systems of Diophantlne Equations

Authors: Y.v. Chebrakov
Comments: 12 Pages.

By developing F. Smarandache (algebraic) approach to solving systems of Diophantine equations we elaborate a set of new computative algorithms and analytical formulae, which may be used for finding numerical solutions of some combinatorial and number-theoretic problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[471] viXra:1403.0568 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:21:25

The a Verage of the Erdos Function

Authors: Sabin Tabirca, Tatiana Tabirca
Comments: 3 Pages.

The aim of this article is to establish the complexity order of the Erdos function average. This will be studied based on some recent results about the Smarandache function.
Category: General Mathematics

[470] viXra:1403.0567 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:22:30

The a Verage Value of the Smarandache Function

Authors: Steven R. Finch
Comments: 2 Pages.

Given a positive integer n, let P(n) denote the largest@@ prime factor of n and S(n) denote the smallest integer m such that n divides m!
Category: General Mathematics

[469] viXra:1403.0566 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:23:24

On the Balu Numbers

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we prove that there are only fmitely many Balu numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[468] viXra:1403.0565 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:24:20

Base Solution

Authors: Henry Ibstedt
Comments: 4 Pages.

Definition of the Smarandache function S(n).
Category: General Mathematics

[467] viXra:1403.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:25:12

On a Generalized Bisector Theorem

Authors: Jozsef Sandor
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the book [1] by Smarandache (see also [2]) appears the following generalization of the well-known bisector theorem.
Category: General Mathematics

[466] viXra:1403.0563 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:26:20

Bounding the Smarandache Function

Authors: Mark Farris, Patrick Mitchell
Comments: 6 Pages.

This observation illustrates the importance of being able to calculate the Smarandache function for prime powers. This paper will be considering that process.
Category: General Mathematics

[465] viXra:1403.0562 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:27:22

A Brief Account on Smarandache 2-2 Subtractive Relationships

Authors: Henry Ibstedt
Comments: 4 Pages.

This briefnote on Smarandache 2-2 subtractive relationships should be seen in relation to the article on Smarandache k-k additive relationships in this issue of SNJ [1].
Category: General Mathematics

[464] viXra:1403.0560 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:30:50

A Brief History of the "SMARANDACHE FUNCTION"

Authors: C. Dumitrescu
Comments: 4 Pages.

New References concerninig this function.
Category: General Mathematics

[463] viXra:1403.0559 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:32:06

Calculating the Smaranoache Function Without Factorising

Authors: J.R. Sutton
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper presents an alternative algorithm for use when S is to be calculated for all integers up to n. The integers are synthesised by combining all the prime powers in the range up to n.
Category: General Mathematics

[462] viXra:1403.0558 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:33:01

Calculating the Smarandache Function for Powers of a Prime

Authors: J.R. Sutton
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Smarandache function is an integer function.
Category: General Mathematics

[461] viXra:1403.0557 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:42:06

Calculating the Smarandache Numbers

Authors: Jon Perry
Comments: 4 Pages.

The process involved is fairly simple, and we need to know the factorisation of n.From this factorisation, it is possible to exactly calculate by which m each prime is satisfied, i.e. the correct number of exponents appears for the first time. The largest of these values gives a(n).
Category: General Mathematics

[460] viXra:1403.0556 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:43:28

On Certain Arithmetic Functions

Authors: Jozsef Sandor
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the recent book [1] there appf'ar certain arithmetic functions which are similar to the Smarandache function. In a rf'("ent paper [2} we have considered certain generalization or duals of the Smarandache fnnct:ion 8(11).
Category: General Mathematics

[459] viXra:1403.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:44:44

On Certain Generalizations of the Smarandache Function

Authors: J. Sandor
Comments: 11 Pages.

This arithmetical function is connected to the number of divisors of n, and other important number theoretic functions.
Category: General Mathematics

[458] viXra:1403.0554 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:45:42

On Certain Inequalities Involving the Smarandache Function

Authors: Jozsef Sandor
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Smarandache function satisfies certain elementary inequalities which have importance in the deduction of properties of this (or related) functions. We quote here the following relations which have appeared in the Smarandache Function Journal.
Category: General Mathematics

[457] viXra:1403.0552 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:49:05

On Smarandache Algebraic Structures III: the Commutative Ring

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we construat a class of commutaive rings tmder the Smarandache algorithm.
Category: General Mathematics

[456] viXra:1403.0551 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 02:50:40

Computative Paradoxes in Modern Data Analysis

Authors: Y. v. CHEBRAKOV, V. V. Shmagin
Comments: 20 Pages.

By developing F. Smarandache thema on paradoxes in mathematics it is stated, firstly, ifin measurement (natural science) experiments the best solutions are found by using methods of modem data analysis theory, then some difficulties with the interpretation of the computation results are liable to occur; secondly, one is not capable to overcome these difficulties without a data analysis theory modification, consisted in the translation of this theory from Aristotelian "binary logic" into more progressive "fuzzy logic".
Category: General Mathematics

[455] viXra:1403.0550 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:02:35

Computational Aspect of Smarandache's Function

Authors: Sabin Tabirca, Tatiana Tabirca
Comments: 5 Pages.

The note presents an algorithm for the Smarandache's function computation. The complexity of algorithm is studied using the main properties of function. An interesting inequality is found giving the complexity of thefunction on the set {1.2 •...• n}.
Category: General Mathematics

[454] viXra:1403.0549 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:04:43

Smarandache Concatenated Power Decimals and Their Irrationality

Authors: Y ongdong Guo, Maohua Le
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper we prove that all Smarandache concatenated k-power decimals are irrational numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[453] viXra:1403.0548 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:07:23

On Concanation Problem

Authors: Henry Ibstedt
Comments: 11 Pages.

This article has been inspired by questions asked by C11ar1es Ashbacbcr in the Journal of Rereational Mathemdics, vol. 29.2.
Category: General Mathematics

[452] viXra:1403.0547 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:08:18

A Congruence with Smarandache's Function

Authors: Sebastian Martin Ruiz
Comments: 3 Pages.

Smarandache's function is defined thus:
Category: General Mathematics

[451] viXra:1403.0546 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:09:12

On A Conjecture By Russo

Authors: Charles Ashbacher
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Smarandache Square-Partial-Digital Subsequence(SSPDS) is the sequence of square integers which can be partitioned so that each element of the partition is a perfect square[l][2][3].
Category: General Mathematics

[450] viXra:1403.0545 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:10:31

On a Conjecture Concerning the Smarandache Function

Authors: I. Prodanescu, L. Tutescu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Then the following Diophantine equation has no solution.
Category: General Mathematics

[449] viXra:1403.0544 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:11:28

On a Conjecture of F. Smarandache

Authors: Wang Yang, Zhang Hong Li
Comments: 1 Page.

The main purpose of this paper is to solve a problem generated by Professor F.Smarandache.
Category: General Mathematics

[448] viXra:1403.0543 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:12:40

Some Connections Between the Smarandache Function and the Fibonacci Sequence

Authors: Constantin Dunutrescu, Cannen Rocsoreanu
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper is aimed to provide generalizations of the Smarandache function. They will be constructed by means of sequences more general than the sequence of the factorials.
Category: General Mathematics

[447] viXra:1403.0542 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:13:42

On the Convergence of the Euler Harmonic Series

Authors: Sabin Tabirca, Tatiana Tabirca
Comments: 5 Pages.

The aim oj this article is to study the convergence oj the Euler harmonic series. Firstly, the results concerning the convergence oj the Smaralldache and Erdos harmonic junctions are reviewed Secondly, the Euler harmonic series is proved to be convergent jor a> I, and divergent otherwise. Finally, the slims of the Euler harmonic series are given.
Category: General Mathematics

[446] viXra:1403.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:16:18

Some Convergence Problems Involving the Smarandache Function

Authors: E. Burton, I. Cojocaru, S. Cojocaru, C. Dwnittcscu
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we consider same series attached to Smarandache function.
Category: General Mathematics

[445] viXra:1403.0540 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:17:41

On Some Convergent Series

Authors: Emil Burton
Comments: 3 Pages.

S(n) is the smallest integer m with the property that m! is divisible by n R set of real numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[444] viXra:1403.0539 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:18:39

The Convergence of Smarandache Harmonic Series

Authors: Sabin Tabirca, Tatiana Tabirca
Comments: 9 Pages.

The studies concerning the series with Smarandache numbers have been done recently and represents an important research direction on Smarandache' s notions.
Category: General Mathematics

[443] viXra:1403.0538 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:19:46

The Convergence Value and the Simple Continued Fractions of Some Smarandache Sequences

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we consider the convergence value and the simple continued fraction of some Smarandache sequeces.
Category: General Mathematics

[442] viXra:1403.0537 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:20:57

The Reduced Smarandache Cube-Partialdigital Subsequence is Infinite

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we prove Smarandache cube-partial-digital subsequence is infinite.
Category: General Mathematics

[441] viXra:1403.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:22:11

About the Smarandache Ccnplementary Cubic Function

Authors: Marcela Popescu, Mariana Nicolescu
Comments: 9 Pages.

If we take into account of the above definition of the function g, it is easy to prove the above properties.
Category: General Mathematics

[440] viXra:1403.0535 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:23:35

On the Cubic Residues Numbers and K~power Complement Numbers

Authors: Zhang Tianping
Comments: 6 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to study the asymptotic property of the the cubic residues and k-power complement numbers and obtain some interesting asymptotic formulas.
Category: General Mathematics

[439] viXra:1403.0534 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:25:02

On a Deconcatenation Problem

Authors: Henry Ibstedt
Comments: 8 Pages.

In a recent study of the PrimaIity oj the Smarandache Symmetric Sequences Sabin and Tatiana Tabirca [1] observed a very high frequency of the prime factor 333667 in the factorization of the terms of the second order sequence. The question if this prime factor occurs peridically was raised. The odd behaviour of this and a few other primefadors of this sequence will be explained and details of the periodic occurence of this and of several other prime factors will be given.
Category: General Mathematics

[438] viXra:1403.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:26:04

Some Problems Concerning The Smarandache Deconstructive Sequence

Authors: Charles Ashbacher
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Smarandache Deconstructive Sequence (SDS(n)) of integers is constructed by sequentially repeating the digits 1-9 in the following way:
Category: General Mathematics

[437] viXra:1403.0532 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:27:49

Depascalisation of Smarandache Pascal Derived Sequences and Backward Extended Fibonacci Sequence

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 3 Pages.

We call the process of extracting the base sequence from the Pascal derived sequence as Depascalisation.
Category: General Mathematics

[436] viXra:1403.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:29:22

D Form of Smarandache Groupoid

Authors: Dviraj Talukdar
Comments: 11 Pages.

Let m be a positive integer greater than one...
Category: General Mathematics

[435] viXra:1403.0530 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:30:45

On the Difference S(Z(n)) Z(S(n))

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper, we prove that there exist infmitely many positive integers n satisfying...
Category: General Mathematics

[434] viXra:1403.0529 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:32:29

Construction of Elements of the Smarandache Square-Partial-Digital Subsequence

Authors: Lamarr Widmer
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Smarandache Square-Partial-Digital Subsequence (SPDS) is the sequence of square integers which admit a partition for which each segment is a square integer.
Category: General Mathematics

[433] viXra:1403.0528 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:34:21

On Some Diophantine Equations

Authors: Lucian Tulescu, Emil Burton
Comments: 2 Pages.

Let S(n) be defined as the smallest integer such that (S(n))! is divisible by n (Smarandache Function).
Category: General Mathematics

[432] viXra:1403.0527 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:35:12

On the Diophantine Equation Sen) = N

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

Let S( n) denote the Smarandache function of n. In this paper we prove that Sen) = n if and only if n = 1, 4 or p, where p is a prime.
Category: General Mathematics

[431] viXra:1403.0526 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:36:44

A Discrete Model for Histogram Shaping

Authors: S.M.Tabirca, I.Pitt, D.Murphy
Comments: 7 Pages.

The aim of this article is to present a discrete model for histogram shaping. This is an important image transformation with several practical applications. The model that is proposed is based on a generalization of the inferior part function. Finally, an algorithm based on this model is developed.
Category: General Mathematics

[430] viXra:1403.0525 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:38:05

On the Divergence of the Smarandache Harmonic Series

Authors: Florian Luca
Comments: 3 Pages.

For any positive integer n let S(n) be the minimal positive integer m such that n m!.
Category: General Mathematics

[429] viXra:1403.0524 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:39:07

On the Divisors of Smarandache Unary Sequence

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 2 Pages.

Are there an infinite number of primes in this sequence?
Category: General Mathematics

[428] viXra:1403.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:40:51

On the Divisor Products and Proper Divisor Products Sequences

Authors: Liu HONGYAN, Zhang Wenpeng
Comments: 6 Pages.

Let n be a positive integer, Pd(n) denotes the product of all positive divisors of n...
Category: General Mathematics

[427] viXra:1403.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:42:05

On a Dual of the Pseudo-Smarandache Function

Authors: Jozsef Sandor
Comments: 6 Pages.

In paper [3] we have defined certain generalizations and extensions of the Smarandache function.
Category: General Mathematics

[426] viXra:1403.0521 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:43:17

Some Elementary Algebraic Considerations Inspired by Smarandache's Function (Ii)

Authors: E. R.a.descu, N. R.a.descu, C. Dumitrescu
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we continue the algebraic consideration begun in [2]. As it was sun, two of the proprieties of Smarandache's function are hold.
Category: General Mathematics

[425] viXra:1403.0520 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:44:23

To Enjoi is a Permanent Component of Mathematics

Authors: C. Dumitrescu, R. Muller
Comments: 16 Pages.

Studying the properties of the proportions the peoples of the antiquity could build using the ruler and the compasses. For example if instead of a square of side a it was required the construction of another square. of side x determined by the condition that the new square has a double area.
Category: General Mathematics

[424] viXra:1403.0519 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:45:25

On a Equation of Smarandache and Its Integer Solutions

Authors: Zhang Wenpeng
Comments: 3 Pages.

Let Q denotes the set of @@all rational numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[423] viXra:1403.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:46:46

Erdos Conjecture I.

Authors: F. Saidak
Comments: 7 Pages.

An old conjecture of Paul Erdos [6] states that there exist only 7 integers.
Category: General Mathematics

[422] viXra:1403.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:49:18

On the Convergence of the Erdos Harmonic Series

Authors: Tatiana Sabirca, Sabin Tabirca
Comments: 4 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to study the convergence of a few series with the Erdos function. The work is based on results concerning the convergence of some series with the Smarandache function.
Category: General Mathematics

[421] viXra:1403.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:50:36

Erdos-Smarandache Moments Numbers

Authors: Sabin Tabirca
Comments: 5 Pages.

The starting point of this article is represented by a recent work of Finch [2000]. Based on two asymptotic results concerning the Erdos function, he proposed some interesting equation concerning the moments of the Smarandache function. The aim of this note is give a bit modified proof and to show some computation results for one of the Finch equation.
Category: General Mathematics

[420] viXra:1403.0515 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:51:43

Erdos-Smarandache Numbers

Authors: Sabin Tabirca, Tatiana Tabirca
Comments: 5 Pages.

The starting point of this article is represented by a recent work of Finch [2000]. Based on two asymptotic results concerning the Erdos function, he proposed some interesting equations concerning the moments of the· Smarandache function. The aim of this note is give a bit modified proof and to show some computation results for one of the Finch equation.
Category: General Mathematics

[419] viXra:1403.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:56:03

Expansion of xn in Smarandache Terms of Permutations

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 7 Pages.

DEFINITION of SMARANDACHE TERM
Category: General Mathematics

[418] viXra:1403.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:57:02

Expressions of the Smarandache Coprime Function

Authors: Sebastian Martin Ruiz
Comments: 2 Pages.

Smarandache Coprime Function is defined this way:
Category: General Mathematics

[417] viXra:1403.0510 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:58:00

An Experimental Evidence on the Validity of Third Smarandache Conjecture on Primes

Authors: Felice Russo
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this note v.e report the results regarding ,he check of the third Smarandache conjecture on primes.
Category: General Mathematics

[416] viXra:1403.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 03:59:07

Exploring Some New Ideas on Smarandache Type Sets, Functions and Sequences

Authors: Amarnath Murthy
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this article I have defined a number of SMARANDACHE type sets ,sequences which I found very interesting. The problems and conjectures proposed would give food for thought and would pave ways for more work in this field.
Category: General Mathematics

[415] viXra:1403.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 04:00:04

Two Conjectures Concerning Extents of Smarandache Facfor Partitions

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper we verify two conjectures concerning extents of Smarandache factor partitions.
Category: General Mathematics

[414] viXra:1403.0507 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 04:19:55

New Smarandache Sequences: the Family of Metallic Means

Authors: Vera W. de Spinadel
Comments: 36 Pages.

The family of Metallic Means comprises every quadratic irrational number that is the positive solution of algebraic equations of the types.
Category: General Mathematics

[413] viXra:1403.0505 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 04:23:52

On Smarandache's Form of the Individual Fermat-Euler Theorem

Authors: Stefan Porubsky
Comments: 16 Pages.

In the paper it is shown how a form of the classical FERMAT-EULER Theorem discovered by F • SMARANDACHE fits into the generalizations found by S.SCHWARZ, M.LASSAK and the author. Then we show how SMARANDACHE'S algorithm can be used to effective computations of the so called group membership.
Category: General Mathematics

[412] viXra:1403.0504 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 04:25:20

The First Constant of Smarandacbe

Authors: Ion Cojocaru, Sorin Cojocaru
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this note we prove that the series ... is convergent to a real number.
Category: General Mathematics

[411] viXra:1403.0503 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-22 04:29:52

The First Digit and the Trailing Digit of Elements of the Smarandache Deconstructtve Sequence

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we completely determine the first digit and the trailing digit of every term in the Smarandache deconstructive sequence.
Category: General Mathematics

[410] viXra:1403.0502 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-12 11:52:46

The Aether Found, Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 13 Pages.

This paper shows that the force of charge and gravity can be modeled from a sphere, Planck Spinning Spheres, (Planck) packed in a cuboctahedron structure, where many spheres are combined to produce the fabric of space. The Planck would be made of smaller Spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres (Kaluza). See image below for an example of a sphere made of spheres. The calculations, herein, imply space to be discrete. Virtual Angular Momentum is transferred to the Continuous Discrete Space that is activated by the appropriate environment. This discrete Virtual Angular Momentum is modeled by equations developed herein. The modeling equations between charge and gravity use the same spherical model. This model: proposes a new definition of the fine structure constant in section IV; proposes a proton charge radius in section V; gives meaning to some Planck dimensions in section VI; predictions can be made about approximate values for the age of the universe and or the size of the Hubble Sphere Universe (Hubble) in section VII; Proposes ideas that may be used to help prove the idea of “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck and Kaluza and a cuboctahedron, vector equilibrium, sub-structure of the universe and relate to wrapped up dimensions in section VIII; The equations will explore the mystery of the constants of nature as did
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[409] viXra:1403.0501 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-29 04:10:36

The E- and B-Modes in the CMB

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here, on base of the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we described the production of the E- and B-modes in the CMB. The obtained result 0.22 for the ratio of amplitudes of the B-modes to E-modes (i.e. the tensor-to-scalar ratio) for the beginning of expansion of the very early Universe, for multipole moment equal to 384, is close to the central value in the BICEP2 data. The tensor-to-scalar ratio depends on density of the Einstein-spacetime and is higher for higher densities. The calculated energies carried by the Einstein-spacetime components the spreading condensates were built of (such condensates produced the B-modes in the CMB), were in approximation the sixteen powers of ten of GeV.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[408] viXra:1403.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 12:00:09

Scientific Journal 15 March 2014

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: 40 Pages

Dr. Diederik Aerts joins us this issue with a serious challenge to Quantum Physics as understood by the mainstream, as we call them. Also Jim Marsen, MSME, with his TRON theory as developed with his dad. The Institute has formally accepted a proposed alliance with the NPA, the Natural Philosophy Alliance. NPA, in turn is working toward an alliance with The Electric Universe organization. The ramifications of this would be huge. See www.k1man.com/Springer130319A.pdf
Category: Quantum Physics

[407] viXra:1403.0499 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:24:19

Vertex Graceful Labeling-Some Path Related Graphs

Authors: P.Selvaraju, P.Balaganesan, J.Renuka
Comments: 6 Pages.

Vertex graceful graphs.
Category: General Mathematics

[406] viXra:1403.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:25:59

Vertex-Mean Graphs

Authors: A.Lourdusamy, M.Seenivasan
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, we obtain necessary conditions for a graph to be V-mean and study V-mean behaviour of certain classes of graphs.
Category: General Mathematics

[405] viXra:1403.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:27:38

Weak and Strong Reinforcement Number For a Graph

Authors: Pinar DUNDAR, Tufan TURACI, Derya DOGAN
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the weak reinforcement number which is the minimum number of added edges to reduce the weak dominating number. We give some boundary of this new parameter and trees.
Category: General Mathematics

[404] viXra:1403.0496 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:28:51

Smarandache-Zagreb Index on Three Graph Operators

Authors: Ranjini P.S., V.Lokesha
Comments: 10 Pages.

Many researchers have studied several operators on a connected graph in which one make an attempt on subdivision of its edges. In this paper, we show how the Zagreb indices, a particular case of Smarandache-Zagreb index of a graph changes with these operators and extended these results to obtain a relation connecting the Zagreb index on operators.
Category: General Mathematics

[403] viXra:1403.0495 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:30:02

On the Number of Smarandache Zero-Divisors and Smarandache Weak Zero-Divisors in Loop Rings

Authors: W.B.Vasantha, Moon K.Chetry
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper we ¯nd the number of smarandache zero divisors.
Category: General Mathematics

[402] viXra:1403.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:34:15

Two Smarandache Series

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we consider the convergence for two Smarandache senes.
Category: General Mathematics

[401] viXra:1403.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:35:42

On Three Numerical Functions

Authors: I. Balacenoiu, V. Seleacu
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we define the numerical functions and we prove some propenies of these functions.
Category: General Mathematics

[400] viXra:1403.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:37:36

About Smarandache-Multiplicative Functions

Authors: Sabin Tabirca
Comments: 2 Pages.

The main objective of this note is to introduce the notion of the S-multiplicative function and to give some simple properties concerning it. The name ofS-multiplicative is short for Smarandache-multiplicative and reflects the main equation of the Smarandache function.
Category: General Mathematics

[399] viXra:1403.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:39:23

The Other Relativity

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 14 Pages.

Nothing is still in this Universe ant there is also another alternative relativity, for those objects which look not moving.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[398] viXra:1403.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:38:37

About a New Smarandache-Type Sequence

Authors: Csaba Biro
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper we will discuss about a problem that I asked about 8 years ago, when I was interested mainly in computer science.
Category: General Mathematics

[397] viXra:1403.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:40:30

About the S(n) = S(n S(n)) Equation

Authors: Mihaly Bencze
Comments: 1 Page.

There exists infinitely many n e N such that S(n) = S(n - S)), where S is the Smarandache function.
Category: General Mathematics

[396] viXra:1403.0487 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 04:59:23

Shortest Co-cycle Bases of Graphs

Authors: Han Ren, Jing Ren
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper we investigate the structure of the shortest co-cycle base(or SCB in short) of connected graphs, which are related with map geometries, i.e., Smarandache 2-dimensional manifolds.
Category: General Mathematics

[395] viXra:1403.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:00:24

Smarandache Directionally N-Signed Graphs — a Survey

Authors: P.Siva Kota Reddy
Comments: 10 Pages.

Several variations and characterizations of directionally n-signed graphs have been proposed and studied. These include the various notions of balance and others.
Category: General Mathematics

[394] viXra:1403.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:02:05

Signed Graph Equation LK(S) ∼ S

Authors: P. Siva Kota Reddy, M. S. Subramany
Comments: 5 Pages.

A Smarandachely k-signed graph...
Category: General Mathematics

[393] viXra:1403.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:03:33

On the Mean Value of the F.smarandache Simple Divisor Function

Authors: Yang Qianli
Comments: 3 Pages.

A positive integer n is called simple number if the product of its all proper divisors is less than or equal to n.
Category: General Mathematics

[392] viXra:1403.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:04:58

Simple Path Covers in Graphs

Authors: S. Arumugam, I. Sahul Hamid
Comments: 11 Pages.

A simple path cover of a graph G is a collection of paths in G such that every edge of G is in exactly one path in and any two paths in have at most one vertex in common.
Category: General Mathematics

[391] viXra:1403.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:06:30

Singed Total Domatic Number of a Graph

Authors: H.B. Walikar, Shailaja S. Shirkol, Kishori P.Narayankar
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, some properties related signed total domatic number and signed total domination number of a graph are studied and found the sign total domatic number of certain class of graphs such as fans, wheels and generalized Petersen graph.
Category: General Mathematics

[390] viXra:1403.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:07:30

Smarandache Inversion Sequence

Authors: Muneer Jebreel Karama
Comments: 14 Pages.

We study the Smarandache inversion sequence which is a new concept, related sequences, conjectures, properties, and problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[389] viXra:1403.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:08:37

Smarandache Isotopy Theory of Smarandache: Quasigroups and Loops

Authors: Jaiyeola Temitope Gbolahan
Comments: 10 Pages.

The concept of Smarandache isotopy is introduced and its study is explored for Smarandache: groupoids, quasigroups and loops just like the study of isotopy theory was carried out for groupoids, quasigroups and loops.
Category: General Mathematics

[388] viXra:1403.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:09:46

The Smarandache Adjacent Number Sequences and Its Asymptotic Property

Authors: Jiao Chen
Comments: 3 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the Smarandache adjacent number sequences, and give several interesting asymptotic formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[387] viXra:1403.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:10:47

Some Identities Involving the Smarandache Ceil Function

Authors: Wang Yongxing
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, we use the elementary methods to study the arithmetical properties of Sk(n), and give some identities involving the Smarandache ceil function.
Category: General Mathematics

[386] viXra:1403.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:11:53

Smarandache “CHOPPED”

Authors: Jason Earls
Comments: 3 Pages.

Florentin Smarandache has posed many problems that deal with perfect powers.
Category: General Mathematics

[385] viXra:1403.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:13:37

Smarandache V−Connected Spaces

Authors: S. Balasubramanian, C. Sandhya, P. Aruna Swathi Vyjayanthi
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper Smarandache V−connectedness and Smarandache locally−connectedness in topological space are introduced, obtained some of its basic properties and interrelations are verified with other types of connectedness.
Category: General Mathematics

[384] viXra:1403.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:14:37

Smarandache Curves in Minkowski Space-time

Authors: Melih Turgut, Suha Yilmaz
Comments: 5 Pages.

A regular curve in Minkowski space-time, whose position vector is composed by Frenet frame vectors on another regular curve, is called a Smarandache Curve.
Category: General Mathematics

[383] viXra:1403.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:15:38

Smarandache Cyclic Geometric Determinant Sequences

Authors: A. C. F. Bueno
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, the concept of Smarandache cyclic geometric determinant sequence was introduced and a formula for its nth term was obtained using the concept of right and left circulant matrices.
Category: General Mathematics

[382] viXra:1403.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:17:41

On the Smarandache kn-Digital Subsequence

Authors: Cuncao Zhang, Yanyan Liu
Comments: 3 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the convergent properties of the infinite series involving the Smarandache kn-digital subsequence f Sk(n)g , and obtain some interesting conclusions.
Category: General Mathematics

[381] viXra:1403.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:19:09

Smarandache Friendly Numbers-Another Approach

Authors: S. M. Khairnar, Anant W. Vyawahare, J. N. Salunke
Comments: 8 Pages.

One approach to Smarandache friendly numbers is given by A.Murthy, who defined them Ref [1]. Another approach is presented here.
Category: General Mathematics

[380] viXra:1403.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:20:16

On Smarandache Friendly Numbers

Authors: A. A. K. Majumdar
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Smarandache friendly numbers have been de¯ned by Murthy [1]. This paper ¯nds the Smarandache friendly numbers by solving the associated Pell's equation.
Category: General Mathematics

[379] viXra:1403.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:23:34

On the F.smarandache LCM Function

Authors: Guoping Feng
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary methods to study the value distribution properties of the function SL(n), and give an interesting asymptotic formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[378] viXra:1403.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:24:54

On Smarandache Bryant Schneider Group of A Smarandache Loop

Authors: Jaiyeola Temitope Gbolahan
Comments: 13 Pages.

The concept of Smarandache Bryant Schneider Group of a Smarandache loop is introduced.
Category: General Mathematics

[377] viXra:1403.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:26:24

Smarandachely Antipodal Signed Digraphs

Authors: P. Siva Kota Reddy, B. Prashanth, M. Ruby Salestina
Comments: 5 Pages.

A Smarandachely k-signed digraph (Smarandachely k-marked digraph) is an ordered pair...
Category: General Mathematics

[376] viXra:1403.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:28:02

Smarandachely K-Constrained Number of Paths and Cycles

Authors: P. Devadas Rao, B. Sooryanarayana, M. Jayalakshmi
Comments: 13 Pages.

A Smarandachely k-constrained labeling of a graph.
Category: General Mathematics

[375] viXra:1403.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:29:28

Smarandache Magic Square

Authors: S. M. Khairnar, Anant W. Vyawahare, J. N. Salunke
Comments: 2 Pages.

This paper contains a magic square. A square array of natural numbers in which the sum of each row and each column is same is a magic square. Smarandache magic square has been defined by Sabin Tabirca [1].
Category: General Mathematics

[374] viXra:1403.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:30:49

The Smarandache Multiplicative Function

Authors: Ma Jinping
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we study the mean value properties of f(n), and give an interesting mean value formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[373] viXra:1403.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:31:52

Smarandache Partitions

Authors: Muneer Jebreel Karama
Comments: 4 Pages.

I study Smarandache numbers partitions, and the partitions set of these numbers. This study conducted by Computer Algebra System namely, Maple 8.
Category: General Mathematics

[372] viXra:1403.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:33:05

The 57-TH SMARANDACHE’S Problem II

Authors: Liu Huaning
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper, we use the elementary methods to give a sharp lower bound estimate for r.
Category: General Mathematics

[371] viXra:1403.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:35:36

On the Property of the Smarandache-Riemann Zeta Sequence

Authors: Yanrong Xue
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, some elementary methods are used to study the property of the Smarandache-Riemann zeta sequence and obtain a general result.
Category: General Mathematics

[370] viXra:1403.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:47:08

On the Value Distribution of the Smarandache Multiplicative Function

Authors: Yuan Yi
Comments: 5 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the value distribution property of the Smarandache multiplicative function, and give an interesting asymptotic formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[369] viXra:1403.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:48:21

On a Smarandache Multiplicative Function and Its Parity

Authors: Wenjing Xiong
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary and analytic methods to study the parity of U(n), and give an interesting asymptotic formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[368] viXra:1403.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:50:15

Solution of a Conjecture on Skolem Mean Graph of Stars

Authors: V.Balaji
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, we prove a conjecture that the three stars,a skolem mean graph.
Category: General Mathematics

[367] viXra:1403.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:51:30

On the Solutions of an Equation Involving the Smarandache Function

Authors: Lu Yaming
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we discussed the solutions of the following equation involving the Smarandache function.
Category: General Mathematics

[366] viXra:1403.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:52:46

On the Solvability of an Equation Involving the Smarandache Function and Euler Function

Authors: Weiguo Duan, Yanrong Xue
Comments: 10 Pages.

For any positive integer n, the famous F.Smarandache function S(n) is defined as the smallest positive integer m such that n divides m!.
Category: General Mathematics

[365] viXra:1403.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:53:53

Some Arithmetical Properties of Primitive Numbers of Power p1

Authors: Xu Zhefeng
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to study the arithmetical properties of the primitive numbers of power p by using the elementary method, and give some interesting identities and asymptotic formulae.
Category: General Mathematics

[364] viXra:1403.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:54:53

Some Expressions of the Smarandache Prime Function

Authors: Sebastian Martin Ruiz
Comments: 3 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using elementary arithmetical functions to give some expressions of the Smarandache Prime Function P(n).
Category: General Mathematics

[363] viXra:1403.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:55:53

Some Fixed Point Theorems in Fuzzy N-Normed Spaces

Authors: Sayed Khalil Elagan
Comments: 12 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to study the existence of a fixed points in fuzzy n-normed spaces. we proved our main results, a fixed point theorem for a self mapping and a common fixed point theorem for a pair of weakly compatible mappings on fuzzy n-normed spaces. Also we gave some remarks on fuzzy n-normed spaces.
Category: General Mathematics

[362] viXra:1403.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 05:59:06

Some Smarandache Identities

Authors: Muneer Jebreel Karama
Comments: 2 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to presents 23 Smarandache Identities (SI) (or Facts) with second, three, four, and five degrees. These SI have been obtained by the help of Maple 8(Programming language, see [1]).
Category: General Mathematics

[361] viXra:1403.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:00:36

Some Identities Involving Function Ut(n)

Authors: Caijuan Li
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we use the elementary method to study the properties of pseudo Smarandache function.
Category: General Mathematics

[360] viXra:1403.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:01:41

Some Identities Involving the K-th Power Complements

Authors: Yanni Liu, Jinping Ma
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the calculating problem of one kind infinite series involving the k-th power complements, and obtain several interesting identities.
Category: General Mathematics

[359] viXra:1403.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:03:13

Some Identities on K-Power Complement

Authors: Pei Zhang
Comments: 4 Pages.

Professor F.Smarandache asked us to study the properties of the k-power complement number sequence.
Category: General Mathematics

[358] viXra:1403.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:05:28

On Some Smarandache Problems

Authors: M. Perez
Comments: 6 Pages.

Remarks on some problems regarding Inferior Smarandache Prime Part, Smarandache Prime Base, triple Smarandache function etc.
Category: Number Theory

[357] viXra:1403.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:07:32

Some Results on Super Mean Graphs

Authors: R. Vasuki, A. Nagaraj
Comments: 16 Pages.

Such a labeling is usually called a super mean labeling. A graph that admits a Smarandachely super mean m-labeling is called Smarandachely super m-mean graph.
Category: General Mathematics

[356] viXra:1403.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:10:33

The Number of Spanning Trees in Generalized Complete Multipartite Graphs of Fan-Type

Authors: Junliang Cai, Xiaoli Liu
Comments: 13 Pages.

Connected simple graph, k-partite graph, complete graph...
Category: General Mathematics

[355] viXra:1403.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:11:48

Special Smarandache Curves in the Euclidean Space

Authors: Ahmad T. Ali
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this work, we introduce some special Smarandache curves in the Euclidean space. We study Frenet-Serret invariants of a special case. Besides, we illustrate examples of our main results.
Category: General Mathematics

[354] viXra:1403.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:13:23

Characterizations of Some Special Space-like Curves in Minkowski Space-time

Authors: Melih Turgut, Suha Yilmaz
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this work, a system of differential equation on Minkowski space-time E41, a special case of Smarandache geometries ([4]), whose solution gives the components of a space-like curve on Frenet axis is constructed by means of Frenet equations. In view of some special solutions of this system, characterizations of some special space-like curves are presented.
Category: General Mathematics

[353] viXra:1403.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:25:30

Super Mean Labeling of Some Classes of Graphs

Authors: P.Jeyanthi, D.Ramya
Comments: 9 Pages.

Smarandachely super m-mean labeling.
Category: General Mathematics

[352] viXra:1403.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:27:58

On the Smarandache Power Function and Euler Totient Function

Authors: Chengliang Tian, Xiaoyan Li
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the solutions of the equation...
Category: General Mathematics

[351] viXra:1403.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:29:08

A Problem Related to the Smarandache N-Ary Power Sieve

Authors: Juanli Su
Comments: 3 Pages.

We using the elementary methods to study these problems, and prove that the problem (B) is true.
Category: General Mathematics

[350] viXra:1403.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:30:10

About Smarandache Prime Additive Complement

Authors: Yanchun Guo
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Smarandache prime additive complement, sequence.
Category: General Mathematics

[349] viXra:1403.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:31:07

On the Smarandache Prime Part

Authors: Xiaoxia Yan
Comments: 4 Pages.

Smarandache superior prime part, Smarandache inferior prime part, mean value,asymptotic formula.
Category: General Mathematics

[348] viXra:1403.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:32:00

On the Smarandache Function and Square Complements

Authors: Zhang Wenpeng
Comments: 3 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the mean value properties of the Smarandache function, and give an interesting asymptotic formula.
Category: General Mathematics

[347] viXra:1403.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:33:00

On the Product of the Square-free Divisor of a Natural Number

Authors: Yanyan Han
Comments: 5 Pages.

This article uses the hyperbolic summation and the convolution method to obtain a better error term.
Category: General Mathematics

[346] viXra:1403.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:34:17

On the Pseudo Smarandache Square-Free Function

Authors: Bin Cheng
Comments: 4 Pages.

We study the solvability of an equation involving the Pseudo Smarandache Square-free function, and prove that it has infinity positive integer solutions.
Category: General Mathematics

[345] viXra:1403.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:35:11

On the Square-Free Number Sequence

Authors: Ren Dongmei
Comments: 3 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to study the number of the square-free number sequence, and give two interesting asymptotic formulas for it. At last, give another asymptotic formula and a corollary.
Category: General Mathematics

[344] viXra:1403.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:36:18

An Equation Involving the Square Sum of Natural Numbers and Smarandache Primitive Function

Authors: Hai Yang, Ruiqin Fu
Comments: 8 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary methods to study the number of the solutions of the equation...
Category: General Mathematics

[343] viXra:1403.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:37:24

On the Smarandache Reciprocal Function and Its Mean Value

Authors: Liping Ding
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary and analytic methods to study the mean value distribution properties of Sc(n), and give two interesting mean value formulas for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[342] viXra:1403.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:38:37

Smarandache Representation and Its Applications

Authors: W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy, M. Khoshnevisan, K.Ilanthenral
Comments: 16 Pages.

Here we for the first time define Smarandache representation of ¯nite S-bisemigroup.
Category: General Mathematics

[341] viXra:1403.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:39:40

On the Smarandache Sequences

Authors: Yanting Yang
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we use the elementary method to study the convergence of the Smarandache alternate consecutive, reverse Fibonacci sequence and Smarandache multiple sequence.
Category: General Mathematics

[340] viXra:1403.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:41:55

Structures of Cycle Bases with Some Extremal Properties

Authors: Han Ren, Yun Bai
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper, we investigate the structures of cycle bases with extremal properties which are related with map geometries, i.e., Smarandache 2-dimensional manifolds.
Category: General Mathematics

[339] viXra:1403.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:43:18

Study of the Problems of Persons with Disability (PWD) Using FRMs

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, A. Praveen Prakash, K. Thirusangu
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we find the interrelations and the hidden pattern of the problems faced by the PWDs and their caretakers using Fuzzy Relational Maps (FRMs).
Category: General Mathematics

[338] viXra:1403.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:44:25

Smarandache Sums of Products

Authors: Anant W. Vyawahare
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper deals with the sums of products of ¯rst n natural numbers, taken r at a time. Many interesting results about the summations are obtained. Mr. Ramasubramanian [1] has already made some work in this direction. This paper is an extension of his work.
Category: General Mathematics

[337] viXra:1403.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:45:41

Super Fibonacci Graceful Labeling

Authors: R. Sridevi, S.Navaneethakrishnan, K.Nagarajan
Comments: 19 Pages.

We prove that these graphs are super Fibonacci graceful graphs.
Category: General Mathematics

[336] viXra:1403.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:46:57

Supermagic Coverings of Some Simple Graphs

Authors: P.Jeyanthi, P.Selvagopal
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this paper we show that edge amalgamation of a finite collection of graphs isomorphic to any 2-connected simple graph H is H-supermagic.
Category: General Mathematics

[335] viXra:1403.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:47:55

Surface Embeddability of Graphs via Joint Trees

Authors: Yanpei Liu
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper provides a way to observe embedings of a graph on surfaces based on join trees and then characterizations of orientable and nonorientable embeddabilities of a graph with given genus.
Category: General Mathematics

[334] viXra:1403.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:48:58

Surface Embeddability of Graphs via Reductions

Authors: Yanpei Liu
Comments: 7 Pages.

On the basis of reductions, polyhedral forms of Jordan axiom on closed curve in the plane are extended to establish characterizations for the surface embeddability of a graph.
Category: General Mathematics

[333] viXra:1403.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:50:04

Switching Equivalence in Symmetric N-Sigraphs-V

Authors: P.Siva Kota Reddy, M.C.Geetha, K.R.Rajanna
Comments: 6 Pages.

We give the relation between antipodal symmetric n-sigraphs and S-antipodal symmetric n-sigraphs. Further, we discuss structural characterization of S-antipodal symmetric n-sigraphs.
Category: General Mathematics

[332] viXra:1403.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:51:23

Tangent Space and Derivative Mapping on Time Scale

Authors: Emin OZYILMAZ
Comments: 10 Pages.

A pseudo-Euclidean space, or Smarandache space is a pair.
Category: General Mathematics

[331] viXra:1403.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:52:33

On the Time-like Curves of Constant Breadth in Minkowski 3-Space

Authors: Suha Yılmaz, Melih Turgut
Comments: 6 Pages.

A regular curve with more than 2 breadths in Minkowski 3-space is called a Smarandache breadth curve. In this paper, we study a special case of Smarandache breadth curves.
Category: General Mathematics

[330] viXra:1403.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:53:39

Topological Multi-Groups and Multi-Fields

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 9 Pages.

Topological groups, particularly, Lie groups are very important in differential geometry, analytic mechanics and theoretical physics. Applying Smarandache multi-spaces, topological spaces, particularly, manifolds and groups were generalized to combinatorial manifolds and multi-groups underlying a combinatorial structure in references.
Category: General Mathematics

[329] viXra:1403.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:54:48

The Toroidal Crossing Number of K4,n

Authors: Shengxiang Lv, Tang Ling, Yuanqiu Huang
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this paper, we study the crossing number of the complete bipartite graph.
Category: General Mathematics

[328] viXra:1403.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:55:46

Total Dominator Colorings in Paths

Authors: A.Vijayalekshmi
Comments: 7 Pages.

Let G be a graph without isolated@@ vertices.
Category: General Mathematics

[327] viXra:1403.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:57:04

Total Dominator Colorings in Cycles

Authors: A.Vijayalekshmi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Let G be a graph without isolated vertices.
Category: General Mathematics

[326] viXra:1403.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:58:17

Total Minimal Dominating Signed Graph

Authors: P.Siva Kota Reddy, S. Vijay
Comments: 6 Pages.

A Smarandachely k-signed graph (Smarandachely k-marked graph) is an ordered pair S.
Category: General Mathematics

[325] viXra:1403.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 06:59:41

Total Semirelib Graph

Authors: Manjunath Prasad K B, Venkanagouda M Goudar
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, the concept of Total semirelib graph of a planar graph is introduced. We present a characterization of those graphs whose total semirelib graphs are planar, outer planar, Eulerian, hamiltonian with crossing number one.
Category: General Mathematics

[324] viXra:1403.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:01:20

On the Smarandache Totient Function and the Smarandache Power Sequence

Authors: Yanting Yang, Min Fang
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary and analytic method to study the convergence of the function ...
Category: General Mathematics

[323] viXra:1403.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:02:38

Smarandachely T-Path Step Signed Graphs

Authors: P. Siva Kota Reddy, B. Prashanth, V. Lokesha
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we characterize signed graphs which are switching equivalent to their Smarandachely 3-path step signed graphs.
Category: General Mathematics

[322] viXra:1403.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:04:05

On Smarandache Triple Factorial Function

Authors: You Qiying
Comments: 4 Pages.

We study the hybrid mean value of the Smarandache triple factorial function and the Mangoldt function, and give a sharp asymptotic formula.
Category: General Mathematics

[321] viXra:1403.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:05:37

Triple Connected Domination Number of a Graph

Authors: G.Mahadevan, Selvam Avadayappan, J.Paulraj Joseph, T.Subramanian
Comments: 12 Pages.

The concept of triple connected graphs with real life application was introduced in [7] by considering the existence of a path containing any three vertices of a graph G. In this paper, we introduce a new domination parameter, called Smarandachely triple connected domination number of a graph.
Category: General Mathematics

[320] viXra:1403.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:06:58

Tulgeity of Line, Middle and Total Graph of Wheel Graph Families

Authors: Akbar Ali.M.M, S.Panayappan, Vernold Vivin.J
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper we find the tulgeity of line, middle and total graph of wheel graph, Gear graph and Helm graph.
Category: General Mathematics

[319] viXra:1403.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:09:10

Two Asymptotic Formulae on the K + 1-Power Free Numbers

Authors: Shen Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to study the distributive properties of k + 1-power free numbers, and give two interesting asymptotic formulae.
Category: General Mathematics

[318] viXra:1403.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:10:07

On Two Inequalities for the Composition of Arithmetic Functions

Authors: Jozsef Sandor
Comments: 5 Pages.

Arithmetic functions, inequalities.
Category: General Mathematics

[317] viXra:1403.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:11:56

Two Equations Involving the Smarandache LCM Dual Function

Authors: Chengliang Tian
Comments: 6 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the number of the solutions of two equations involving the Smarandache LCM dual function SL¤(n), and give their all positive integer solutions.
Category: General Mathematics

[316] viXra:1403.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:13:01

On Two New Arithmetic Functions and the K-Power Complement Number Sequences

Authors: Xu Zhefeng
Comments: 5 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to study the asymptotic property of the k-power complement numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[315] viXra:1403.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:13:55

Ontwosubsets of Generalized Smarandache Palindromes

Authors: Jason Earls
Comments: 3 Pages.

Two subsets of generalized Smarandache palindromes are constructed to determine some of their properties. New sequences, conjectures, and unsolved questions are given.
Category: General Mathematics

[314] viXra:1403.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:14:55

Smarandache U-Liberal Semigroup Structure

Authors: Yizhi Chen
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, Smarandache U-liberal semigroup structure is given. It is shown that a semigroup S is Smarandache U-liberal semigroup if and only if it is a strong semilattice of some rectangular monoids.
Category: General Mathematics

[313] viXra:1403.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:17:56

The Upper Monophonic Number of a Graph

Authors: J.John, S.Panchali
Comments: 7 Pages.

Smarandachely k-monophonic path, Smarandachely k-monophonic number,monophonic path, monophonic number.
Category: General Mathematics

[312] viXra:1403.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:19:22

On the Value Distribution Properties of the Smarandache Double-Factorial Function

Authors: Jianping Wang
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary and analytic methods to study the value distribution properties of SDF(n), and give an interesting mean value formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[311] viXra:1403.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:20:39

Value Distribution of the F.smarandache LCM Function

Authors: Jianbin Chen
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary methods to study the value distribution properties of the function SL(n), and give a sharper value distribution theorem.
Category: General Mathematics

[310] viXra:1403.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 07:21:50

A Variation of Decomposition Under a Length Constraint

Authors: Ismail Sahul Hamid, Mayamma Joseph
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper we introduce and initiate a study of a new variation of decomposition namely equiparity induced path decomposition of a graph which is defined to be a decomposition in which all the members are induced paths having same parity.
Category: General Mathematics

[309] viXra:1403.0388 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-10 20:45:52

Gravitational Wave Experiments with Zener Diode Quantum Detectors: Fractal Dynamical Space

Authors: Reginald T Cahill
Comments: 8 Pages. Minor correction re alpha decay

The discovery that the electron current fluctuations through Zener diode pn junctions in reverse bias mode, which arise via quantum barrier tunnelling, are completely driven by space fluctuations, has revolutionised the detection and characterisation of gravitational waves, which are space fluctuations, and also has revolutionised the interpretation of probabilities in the quantum theory. Here we report very simple and cheap table-top gravitational wave experiments using Zener diode detectors, and reveal the implications for the nature of space and time, and for the quantum theory of “matter”, and the emergence of the “classical world” as space-induced wave function localisation. The dynamical space posses an intrinsic inflation epoch.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[308] viXra:1403.0387 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-03 17:42:58

Gravitational Wave Experiments with Zener Diode Quantum Detectors: Fractal Dynamical Space

Authors: Reginald T Cahill
Comments: 8 Pages.

The discovery that the electron current fluctuations through Zener diode $pn$ junctions in reverse bias mode, which arise via quantum barrier tunnelling, are completely driven by space fluctuations, has revolutionised the detection and characterisation of gravitational waves, which are space fluctuations, and also has revolutionised the interpretation of probabilities in the quantum theory. Here we report new data from the very simple and cheap table-top gravitational wave experiment using Zener diode detectors, and reveal the implications for the nature of space and time, and for the quantum theory of ``matter", and the emergence of the ``classical world" as space-induced wave function localisation. The dynamical space posses an intrinsic inflation epoch with associated fractal turbulence: gravitational waves, perhaps as observed by the BICEP2 experiment in the Antarctica.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[307] viXra:1403.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-20 22:39:22

Black Hole Properties -Including, Three Event Horizons & NO Evaporation!

Authors: S.C. Gaudie
Comments: 4 pages; mostly font 11; A4 paper; UK English; Freelance scientist.

This looks at black holes from a different viewpoint. The black holes and normal space are viewed as two parts to a single closed system. the ideas are:- [1] As electrons and protons have mass they cannot travel at the velocity of light. This would mean that there must be three event horizons. (a) The electro-magnetic event horizon. (b) The electron - positron event horizon (c) The proton - anti-proton event horizon [2] If a black hole is in empty space the only influence is that the pairs formed from virtual particles are pulled apart at the last two event horizons. The infalling particles will have more kinetic energy than the emitted particles. From the E = m * c^2 equivalence principle, the kinetic energy differences will add mass to the black hole. [3] Infalling photons should gain energy from the gravity gradient and the “emitted” photon (Hawking radiation from inside the e - p event horizon) should lose energy because of the gravity gradient. Overall photons falling into the black hole would have higher photonic energy than the “emitted” photons. the photon energy differences will add mass to the black hole. [2] & [3] = The original mass of the black hole does not reduce! [Unless bombarded with antimatter!] [4] Black holes have a massive “footprint” in our “normal space” [NS]. Because of this we must consider black holes & “normal space” together, as two parts of “closed system” both from a thermodynamic and a quantum point of view. Properties in & around black holes, including polarisation [polarization] of the cosmic microwave background radiation, are considered from this new viewpoint.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[306] viXra:1403.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 02:44:35

The Number of Minimum Dominating Sets in Pn × P2

Authors: H.B.Walikar, Kishori P. Narayankar, Shailaja S. Shirakol
Comments: 5 Pages.

A set S of vertices in a graph G is said to be a Smarandachely k-dominating set if each vertex of G is dominated by at least k vertices of S.
Category: General Mathematics

[305] viXra:1403.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 02:46:31

On the Number of Numbers with a Given Digit Sum

Authors: Jon Perry
Comments: 6 Pages.

We consider the sum of digits function which maps an integer to the sum of it’s digits, for example 142 is mapped to 1 + 4 + 2 = 7. This papers examines the question of how many other integers are mapped to a given digit in the range 1 to 10z.
Category: General Mathematics

[304] viXra:1403.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 02:47:59

On a Number Set Related to the K-Free Numbers

Authors: Li Congwei
Comments: 3 Pages.

Let Fk denotes the set of k-free number.
Category: General Mathematics

[303] viXra:1403.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 02:50:33

A Number Theoretic Function and Itsmean Value

Authors: Ren Ganglian
Comments: 4 Pages. 4

The author had used the analytic method to consider the special case: p1 and p2 are two fixed distinct primes.
Category: General Mathematics

[302] viXra:1403.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 02:52:09

Odd Harmonious Labeling of Some Graphs

Authors: S.K.Vaidya, N.H.Shah
Comments: 8 Pages.

The labeling of discrete structures is a potential area of research due to its wide range of applications. The present work is focused on one such labeling called odd harmonious labeling.
Category: General Mathematics

[301] viXra:1403.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 02:53:23

On the Odd Sieve Sequence

Authors: Yao Weili
Comments: 3 Pages.

The odd sieve sequence is the sequence, which is composed of all odd numbers that are not equal to the difference of two primes. In this paper, we use analytic method to study the mean value properties of this sequence, and give two interesting asymptotic formulae.
Category: General Mathematics

[300] viXra:1403.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 02:54:46

One-Mother Vertex Graphs

Authors: F. Salama
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper we will define a new type of graph. The idea of this definition is based on when we illustrate the cardiovascular system by a graph we find that not all vertices have the same important so we define this new graph and call it 1- mother vertex graph.
Category: General Mathematics

[299] viXra:1403.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 02:57:44

Open Alliance in Graphs

Authors: N.Jafari Rad, H.Rezazadeh
Comments: 7 Pages.

A defensive alliance in a graph G = (V,E) is a set of vertices S ⊆ V satisfying the condition that for every vertex v ∈ S, the number of v’s neighbors is at least as large as the number of v’s neighbors in V − S.
Category: General Mathematics

[298] viXra:1403.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 02:59:41

Open Distance-Pattern Uniform Graphs

Authors: Bibin K. Jose
Comments: 13 Pages.

All graphs considered in this paper are finite, simple, undirected and connected. For graph theoretic terminology we refer to Harary.
Category: General Mathematics

[297] viXra:1403.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:02:20

The Palindrome Concept and Its Applications to Prime Numbers

Authors: Henry Ibstedt
Comments: 16 Pages.

This article originates from a proposal by M. L. Perez of American Research Press to carry out a study on Smarandache generalized palindromes [1]. The prime numbers were chosen as a rst set of numbers to apply the development of ideas and computer programs on. The study begins by exploring regular prime number palindromes. To continue the study it proved useful to introduce a new concept, that of extended palindromes with the property that the union of regular palindromes and extended palindromes form the set of Smarandache generalized palindromes. An interesting observation is proved in the article, namely that the only regular prime number palindrome with an even number of digits is 11.
Category: General Mathematics

[296] viXra:1403.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:07:31

Parastrophic Invariance of Smarandache Quasigroups

Authors: Jaiyeola Temitope Gbolahan
Comments: 6 Pages.

The study of the Smarandache concept in groupoids was initiated by W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy in [18].
Category: General Mathematics

[295] viXra:1403.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:08:52

On Pathos Lict Subdivision of a Tree

Authors: Keerthi G.Mirajkar, Iramma M.Kadakol
Comments: 8 Pages.

The concept of pathos of a graph G was introduced by Harary [1] as a collection of minimum number of line disjoint open paths whose union is G.
Category: General Mathematics

[294] viXra:1403.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:10:31

On Pathos Semitotal and Total Block Graph of a Tree

Authors: Muddebihal M. H., Syed Babajan
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this communications, the concept of pathos semitotal and total block graph of a graph is introduced. Its study is concentrated only on trees. We present a characterization of those graphs whose pathos semitotal block graphs are planar, maximal outer planar, non-minimally non-outer planar, non-Eulerian and hamiltonian.
Category: General Mathematics

[293] viXra:1403.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:11:54

On Pathos Total Semitotal and Entire Total Block Graph of a Tree

Authors: Muddebihal M. H., Syed Babajan
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this communication, the concept of pathos total semitotal and entire total block graph of a tree is introduced. Its study is concentrated only on trees. We present a characterization of graphs whose pathos total semitotal block graphs are planar, maximal outerplanar, minimally nonouterplanar, nonminimally nonouterplanar, noneulerian and hamiltonian.
Category: General Mathematics

[292] viXra:1403.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:13:20

A Note on Path Signed Digraphs

Authors: P. Siva Kota Reddy S. Vijay, H. C. Savithri
Comments: 5 Pages.

For standard terminology and notion in digraph theory, we refer the reader to the classic text- books of Bondy and Murty [2]and Harary et al. [4]; the non-standard will be given in this paper as and when required.
Category: General Mathematics

[291] viXra:1403.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:15:05

The T-Pebbling Number of Jahangir Graph

Authors: A.Lourdusamy, S.Samuel Jeyaseelan, Loyola T.Mathivanan
Comments: 4 Pages.

Given a configuration of pebbles on the vertices of a connected graph G, a pebbling move (or pebbling step) is defined as the removal of two pebbles from a vertex and placing one pebble on an adjacent vertex.
Category: General Mathematics

[290] viXra:1403.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:16:01

Smarandache's Pedal Polygon Theorem in the Poincar¶e Disc Model of Hyperbolic Geometry

Authors: Catalin Barbu
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this note, we present a proof of the hyperbolic a Smarandache's pedal polygon theorem in the Poincar¶e disc model of hyperbolic geometry.
Category: General Mathematics

[289] viXra:1403.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:17:21

Perfect Domination Excellent Trees

Authors: Sharada B.
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the concept of perfect domination excellent graph as a graph in which every vertex belongs to some perfect dominating set of minimum cardinality. We also provide a constructive characterization of perfect domination excellent trees.
Category: General Mathematics

[288] viXra:1403.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:18:34

The Smarandache Perfect Numbers

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 7 Pages.

Let N be the set of all positive integer. For any positive integer a, let S(a) denote the Smarandache function of a. Let n be a postivie integer.
Category: General Mathematics

[287] viXra:1403.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:21:26

Perfect Powers in Smarandache N-Expressions

Authors: Muneer Jebreel Karama
Comments: 11 Pages.

In [1] I studied the concept of Smarandache n-expressions, for example I proposed formulas, found solutions, proposed open questions, and conjectured, but all for the ¯xed 3, and 2 numbers, but what will happen if these equations have di®erent ¯xed numbers such as 7? This paper will answer this question.
Category: General Mathematics

[286] viXra:1403.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:22:28

Euler-Savary Formula for the Lorentzian Planar Homothetic Motions

Authors: M.A. Gungor, A.Z. Pirdal, M. Tosun
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper we have given the canonical relative systems of a plane with respect to other planes so that the plane has a curve on it, which is spacelike or timelike under homothetic motion.
Category: General Mathematics

[285] viXra:1403.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:23:45

Plick Graphs with Crossing Number 1

Authors: B.Basavanagoud, V.R.Kulli
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, we deduce a necessary and sufficient condition for graphs whose plick graphs have crossing number 1. We also obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for plick graphs to have crossing number 1 in terms of forbidden subgraphs.
Category: General Mathematics

[284] viXra:1403.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:25:00

On M-TH Power Free Part of an Integer

Authors: Zhao Xiaopeng, Ren Zhibin
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, we using the elementary method to study the convergent property of one class Dirichlet series involving a special sequences, and give an interesting identity for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[283] viXra:1403.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:26:12

On the M-Powerfree Part of an Integer

Authors: Liu Yanni, Gao Peng
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the mean value properties of a new arithmetical function involving the m-power free part of an integer, and give an interesting asymptotic formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[282] viXra:1403.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:28:14

On the M-TH Power Residue of N

Authors: Li Junzhuang, Gao Peng
Comments: 3 Pages.

we use the elementary method to study the asymptotic properties of log and give an interesting asymptotic formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[281] viXra:1403.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:29:23

On the M-Powerresidues Numbers Sequence

Authors: Ma Yuankui, Zhang Tianping
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to study the distribution properties ofm-power residues numbers, and give two interesting asymptotic formulae.
Category: General Mathematics

[280] viXra:1403.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:31:23

The n-th Power Signed Graphs-II

Authors: P. Siva Kota Reddy, S. Vijay, V. Lokesha
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, we present solutions of some signed graph switching equations involving the line signed graph, complement and n-th power signed graph operations.
Category: General Mathematics

[279] viXra:1403.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:32:50

Smarandachely Precontinuous maps and Preopen Sets in Topological Vector Spaces

Authors: Sayed Elagan
Comments: 6 Pages.

It is shown that linear functional on topological vector spaces are Smarandachely precontinuous. Prebounded, totally prebounded and precompact sets in topological vector spaces are identified.
Category: General Mathematics

[278] viXra:1403.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:34:13

On the Smarandache Prime-Digital Subsequence Sequences

Authors: Songye Shang, Juanli Su
Comments: 3 Pages.

The main purpose of the paper is using the elementary method to study the properties of the Smarandache Prime-Digital Subsequence, and give an interesting limit Theorem.This solved a problem proposed by Charles.
Category: General Mathematics

[277] viXra:1403.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:35:39

On the Smarandache Prime Part Sequences and Its Two Conjectures

Authors: Yahui Yu, Lixiang Cai
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, we de¯ned some determinants involving the Smarandache prime part sequences, and introduced two conjectures proposed by professor Zhang Wenpeng.
Category: General Mathematics

[276] viXra:1403.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:45:33

On the Primitive Numbers of Powerp and Its Asymptotic Property

Authors: Yi Yuan
Comments: 3 Pages.

About this problem, Professor Zhang and Liu in [2] have studied it and obtained an interesting asymptotic formula. That is, for any fixed prime p and any positive integer n...
Category: General Mathematics

[275] viXra:1403.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:46:45

On the Primitive Numbers of Power P and Its Mean Value Properties

Authors: Ding Liping
Comments: 3 Pages.

The problem is interesting because it can help us to calculate the Smarandache function.
Category: General Mathematics

[274] viXra:1403.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:48:55

On the Primitive Numbers of Power P

Authors: Weiyi Zhu
Comments: 4 Pages.

For any positive integer n and prime p, let Sp(n) denotes the smallest positive integer m such that m! is divisible by ...
Category: General Mathematics

[273] viXra:1403.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:51:15

On a Problem of F.smarandache

Authors: Mingshun Yang
Comments: 3 Pages.

For any positive integer n, the famous Euler function is defined as the number of all integers m...
Category: General Mathematics

[272] viXra:1403.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:52:44

One Problem Related to the Smarandache Quotients

Authors: Xiaojun Qi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In his book "Only problems, not solutions", professor F.Smarandache introduced many functions, sequences and unsolved problems, many authors had studied it.
Category: General Mathematics

[271] viXra:1403.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:54:13

On a Problem Related to Function S(n)

Authors: Baoli Liu, Xiaowei Pan
Comments: 3 Pages.

For any positive integer n, the famous@@ F.Smarandache function S(n) is defined as the smallest positive integer m such that n divides m!.
Category: General Mathematics

[270] viXra:1403.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:55:06

The Product of Divisors Minimum and Maximum Functions

Authors: Jozsef Sandor
Comments: 6 Pages.

Let T(n) denote the product of divisors of the positive integer n.
Category: General Mathematics

[269] viXra:1403.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:57:08

A Proof of Smarandache-Patrascu's Theorem Using Barycentric Coordinates

Authors: Claudiu Coanda
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this article we prove the Smarandache-Patrascu's theorem in relation to the inscribed orthohomological triangles using the barycentric coordinates.
Category: General Mathematics

[268] viXra:1403.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 03:58:28

Some Properties of Birings

Authors: A.A.A.Agboola
Comments: 10 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to present some properties of bialgebraic structures.
Category: General Mathematics

[267] viXra:1403.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 04:00:00

One Problem Related to the Smarandache Function

Authors: Wei Qin
Comments: 3 Pages.

For any positive integer n, the famous F.Smarandache function S(n) is de¯ned as the smallest positive integer m such that n / m!.
Category: General Mathematics

[266] viXra:1403.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 04:02:51

Smarandache PSEUDO– Happy Numbers

Authors: Anant W. Vyawahare
Comments: 6 Pages.

"A natural number n is a Happy Number if the sum of squares of its digits, when added iteratively, terminates to 1."
Category: General Mathematics

[265] viXra:1403.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 04:05:14

On the Smarandache Pseudo-number Sequences

Authors: Li Zhanhu
Comments: 3 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using elementary method to study the main value of the m-th power mean of the sum of all digits in the Smarandache pseudo-number sequence, and give some interesting asymptotic formulae for them.
Category: General Mathematics

[264] viXra:1403.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 04:06:09

A Note on the Pseudo-Smarandache Function

Authors: A.A.K. Majumdar
Comments: 25 Pages.

This paper gives some results and observations related to the Pseudo-Smarandache function Z(n). Some explicit expressions of Z(n) for some particular cases of n are also given.
Category: General Mathematics

[263] viXra:1403.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 04:07:22

On Some Pseudo Smarandache Function Related Triangles

Authors: A.A.K. Majumdar
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Smarandache function, denoted by S(n), is de¯ned as follows...
Category: General Mathematics

[262] viXra:1403.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 04:09:44

On the Pseudo Smarandache Function

Authors: Yuanbing Lou
Comments: 3 Pages.

For any positive integer n, the famous pseudo Smarandache function Z(n) is de¯ned as the smallest positive integer m such that n evenly divides...
Category: General Mathematics

[261] viXra:1403.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 04:10:54

On the Pseudo-Smarandache-Squarefree Function and Smarandache Function

Authors: Xuhui Fan
Comments: 5 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary methods to study the mean value properties of the Pseudo-Smarandache-Squarefree function and Smarandache function, and give two sharper asymptotic formulas for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[260] viXra:1403.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 04:14:23

Radio Number of Cube of a Path

Authors: B. Sooryanarayana, Vishu Kumar M., Manjula K.
Comments: 25 Pages.

Let G be a connected graph.
Category: General Mathematics

[259] viXra:1403.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 04:16:35

On an Equation Involving the Smarandache Reciprocal Function and Its Positive Integer Solutions

Authors: Zhibin Ren
Comments: 3 Pages.

This solved a problem posed by Zhang Wenpeng during the Fourth International Conference on Number Theory and the Smarandache Problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[258] viXra:1403.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 04:19:11

Recursive Palindromic Smarandache Values

Authors: Jason Earls
Comments: 3 Pages.

In [1] Recursive Prime Numbers were studied and shown to be finite. This article deals with the same "recursive" topic, but applies the method to numbers whose Smarandache value, S(n), gives a palindromic number.
Category: General Mathematics

[257] viXra:1403.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 04:21:04

The Relationship Between Sp(n) and Sp(kn)

Authors: Weiyi Zhu
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary methods to study the relationship between Sp(n) and Sp(kn), and give an interesting identity.
Category: General Mathematics

[256] viXra:1403.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 04:23:03

Remarks on Some of the Smarandache's Problem. Part 2

Authors: Mladen V. Vassilev-Missana, Krassimir T. Atanassov
Comments: 26 Pages.

In 1999, the second author of this remarks published a book over 30 of Smarandache's problems in area of elementary number theory (see [1, 2]). After this, we worked over new 20 problems that we collected in our book [28]. These books contain Smarandache's problems, described in [10, 16]. The present paper contains some of the results from [28].
Category: General Mathematics

[255] viXra:1403.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 04:24:38

Smarandache Replicating Digital Function Numbers

Authors: Jason Earls
Comments: 3 Pages.

In 1987, Mike Keith introduced "repfigits" (replicating Fibonacci-like digits) [1]. In this paper two generalizations of repfigits are presented in which Smarandache type functions are applied to the digits of n. Some conjectures and unsolved questions are then proposed.
Category: General Mathematics

[254] viXra:1403.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 04:26:04

Some Results on Pair Sum Labeling of Graphs

Authors: R. Ponraj, J. Vijaya Xavier Parthipan, R. Kala
Comments: 9 Pages.

Here we study about the pair sum labeling of some standard graphs.
Category: General Mathematics

[253] viXra:1403.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 04:27:43

Further Results on Product Cordial Labeling

Authors: S.K.Vaidya, C.M.Barasara
Comments: 8 Pages.

A graph labeling is an assignment of integers to the vertices or edges or both subject to certain condition(s). If the domain of the mapping is the set of vertices (or edges) then the labeling is called a vertex labeling (or an edge labeling).
Category: General Mathematics

[252] viXra:1403.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 04:28:41

The Smarandache Reverse Auto Correlated Sequences of Natural Numbers

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we give an explicit formula for the n times Smarandache reverse auto correlated sequence of natural numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[251] viXra:1403.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 04:29:39

Smarandache Reverse Powersummation Numbers

Authors: Jason Earls
Comments: 2 Pages.

A computer program was written and a search through the first 1000SRPS numbers yielded several useful results.
Category: General Mathematics

[250] viXra:1403.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-21 04:30:51

A Revision to G¨odel’s Incompleteness Theorem by Neutrosophy

Authors: Fu Yuhua, Fu Anjie
Comments: 7 Pages.

According to Smarandache’s neutrosophy, the G¨odel’s incompleteness theorem contains the truth, the falsehood, and the indeterminacy of a statement under consideration. It is shown in this paper that the proof of G¨odel’s incompleteness theorem is faulty, because all possible situations are not considered (such as the situation where from some axioms wrong results can be deducted, for example, from the axiom of choice the paradox of the doubling ball theorem can be deducted; and many kinds of indeterminate situations, for example, a proposition can be proved in 9999 cases, and only in 1 case it can be neither proved, nor disproved).
Category: General Mathematics

[249] viXra:1403.0315 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-13 07:58:49

Living in the Shadows of the Sun: Realities, Perils and Escapades, Man, Planet and the Kardashev Scale Making the Great Transition.

Authors: Michael Muteru
Comments: 09 Pages.

With the current global human population surpassing the 7 billon mark, energy requirements exponentially rise (shift) with demographics. Living in a planetary system of finite natural resources the Biosphere in turn overstretched. Humanity has to think outside the box to satisfy / quench this first for energy within our technology means. I herein apply the notion of harnessing the energy of the sun (star using green Biomass as the only efficient means that not only ‘cleans’ our planet of a biotic factors upsetting the planet’s climate, but provide sustainable energy to power the rising population while also promoting biodiversity but providing all life forms on planet suitable Biomes for we all need one another for successful co-existence. The reader of this work is left with the meditative task of answering on where we lie on the cosmic energy scale (Kardashev scale) our obligations, where we should be. The leader should derive methods which he/she can personal apply in life making the best out of the scenarios within, with the ultimate goal making the planet for all life (not only humans) with one foot on earth and the other in the heavens(Cosmos) we set forth.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[248] viXra:1403.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-20 07:32:04

A Resolution of the Okamoto-Nolen-Schiffer Anomaly

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 4 Pages.

Half a century old Okamoto-Nolen-Schiffer anomaly, has not been properly resolved as of now. We revive here, an old model of Sacks of a phenomenological exchange potential, which uses Majorana exchange potential idea to obtain the electric charge switching back and forth between a neutron-proton pair, thereby producing a current along the line joining them. Thus a modified charge current is required to fulfil a new continuity equation. This introduces a new term, completely missed out so far, in the binding energy difference in the mirror nuclei. Thus the above anomaly is resolved consistently within a completely nuclear physics framework.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[247] viXra:1403.0313 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-17 00:30:41

"Emission & Regeneration" Unified Field Theory

Authors: Osvaldo Domann
Comments: 70 Pages. Copyright. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author

The Standard Model (SM) defines for each force a different field resulting the electric, magnetic, weak, strong and gravitation fields. Based on a space-like representation of Subatomic Particles (SPs) as Focal Points of rays of Fundamental Particles (FPs) that extend up to infinity, a theory is presented where all known forces are derived from one single field. The main finding of the approach is that many concepts introduced by the SM like Gluons, Gravitons, dark mater, dark energy, expansion of the universe, equivalence principle, etc. are simply fictitious entities which are the result of the unphysical point-like representation of Subatomic Particles.
Category: Classical Physics

[246] viXra:1403.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-20 09:46:46

Stellar Metamorphosis Versus Establishment Dogma: The Location of Accretion

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 illustrations, 3 references

It is explained in easy to understand language and pictures the main differences between GTSM’s (The General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis) location for accretion and the establishment’s location for accretion.
Category: Astrophysics

[245] viXra:1403.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-20 00:14:06

Operator Exponentials for the Clifford Fourier Transform on Multivector Fields

Authors: David Eelbode, Eckhard Hitzer
Comments: Submitted to Publications of Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences (PRIMS), March 2014, 18 pages.

This paper briefly reviews the notion of Clifford's geometric algebras and vector to multivector functions; as well as the field of Clifford analysis (function theory of the Dirac operator). In Clifford Fourier transformations (CFT) on multivector signals the complex unit $i\in \mathbb{C}$ is replaced by a multivector square root of $-1$, which may be a pseudoscalar in the simplest case. For these transforms we derive, via a multivector function representation in terms of monogenic polynomials, the operator representation of the CFTs by exponentiating the Hamilton operator of a harmonic oscillator.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[244] viXra:1403.0309 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-23 01:58:55

An Unifying Scientific Principle

Authors: francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 2 Pages. Note to the Editor of Nature (12 March 2013), rejected without justification

A generalization of the virial theorem, using the basic quantum proportionality between energy and frequency, leads to a Coherence Principle which applies both in atomistics, astrophysics and cosmology, with the determination of several so-called 'free cosmic parameters'. An application in biology is also proposed
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[243] viXra:1403.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-20 03:50:42

Reconstruction of Ghost Scalar Fields

Authors: Mustafa Salti
Comments: 7 Pages. Eur.Phys.J. Plus (2014) 129:42

In literature, a large number of approaches have been done to reconstruct the potential and dynamics of the scalar fields by establishing a connection between holographic/Ricci/new agegraphic/ghost energy density and a scalar eld model of dark energy. In most of these attempts, the analytical form of the potentials in terms of the scalar eld have not been reconstructed due to the complexity of the equations involved. In the present work, we establish a correspondence between ghost dark energy and quintessence, tachyon and dilaton scalar eld models in anisotropic Bianchi type-I universe to reconstruct the dynamics of these scalar fields.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[242] viXra:1403.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-20 03:53:06

Dynamics of Light in Teleparallel Bianchi Type-I Universe

Authors: Mustafa Salti
Comments: 6 Pages. Commun. Theor. Phys. 61 (2014) 171–176.

In the present study, using the Fourier analyze method and considering the Bianchi-type I spacetime, we investigate the dynamics of photon in the torsion gravity, and show that the free-space Maxwell equations give the same results. Furthermore, we also discuss the harmonic oscillator behavior of the solutions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[241] viXra:1403.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-20 03:57:40

Thermodynamics of Chaplygin Gas Interacting with Cold Dark Matter

Authors: Mustafa Salti
Comments: 5 Pages. Int.J.Theor.Phys. 52 (2013) 4583-4591

The main goal of the present work is to investigate the validity of the second law of gravitational thermodynamics in an expanding Godel-type universe filled with generalized Chaplygin gas interacting with cold dark matter. By assuming the Universe as a thermodynamical system bounded by the apparent horizon, and calculating separately the entropy variation for generalized Chaplygin gas, cold dark matter and for the horizon itself, we obtained an expression for the time derivative of the total entropy. We conclude that the 2nd law of gravitational thermodynamics is conditionally valid in the cosmological scenario where the generalized Chaplygin gas interacts with cold dark matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[240] viXra:1403.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-19 17:12:04

Prawdziwie Cudowny DOWÓD (The Truly Marvellous Proof)

Authors: Leszek w. Guła
Comments: 3 Pages. I woul like to request publish my work.

Elementarny dowód Wielkiego Twierdzenia Fermata (Elementary proof of The Fermat's Last Theorem).
Category: Number Theory

[239] viXra:1403.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-19 18:07:58

Nikodym-Type Theorems for Lattice Group-Valued Measures with Respect to Filter Convergence

Authors: Antonio Boccuto, Xenofon Dimitriou
Comments: 3 Pages.

We present some new convergence and boundedness theorem with respect to filter convergence for lattice group-valued measures, whose techniques are based on sliding hump arguments.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[238] viXra:1403.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-19 14:56:28

Nodes of the Gravitational Metric

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 1 Page.

Diagram with text presents major stages of the gravitational take-over of the electromagnetic metric and its functions at increasing matter densities and local gravitational field strengths.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[237] viXra:1403.0302 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-21 03:08:46

AAC Conjecture for a Simple and Finer Version of FLT

Authors: Shunichi Katoh
Comments: 4 Pages. Opportunity for Finding a Simple Proof of FLC.

This paper presents AAC conjecture for a simple and finer version of FLT (Fermat's Last Theorem) which had been FLC (Fermat's Last Conjecture) for more than 350 years since 1637 and was finally proved in the end of the 20th cencury in a profoundly sophisticated and complex way. However complex the proof is, FLC itself is very simple. It conjectures that a simple equation has no solutions. AAC conjecture comes from a pursuit of a simpler proof of FLC. It conjectures that two simple equations have no solutions except some evident ones. It is shown, in a rigorous and step-by-step way, that if AAC is true then FLC is true, and that AAC is a finer version of FLC. AAC conjecture will give us a finer view and an opportunity for finding a simple proof of FLC. If AAC conjecture is proved without using FLT, then AAC theorem will be a theorem for itself, and FLT will be a beautiful specialization of AAC theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[236] viXra:1403.0300 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-30 10:35:44

B-mode Octonionic Inflation of E8 Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 20 Pages.

B-mode CMB polarization observed by BICEP2 is consistent with the Octonionic Inflation of E8 Physics that does not use a conventional inflaton field but instead uses NonAssociative Non-Unitary Octonionic Quantum Processes. V2 adds details such as inflation producing a matter-dominated Universe. V3 corrects and expands material about matter-antimatter and generation-antigeneration. V4 add some details about Octonionic Inflation. V5 adds discussion of gravity fluctuations leading to cosmological structure.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[235] viXra:1403.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-18 09:18:23

Crystalline Carbon and Silicon: Covalent or Ionic?

Authors: Joel M Williams
Comments: 4 Pages.

Diamonds and silicon wafers are prized materials that share a common crystal structure. Tetrahedral atom interactions are the basis for their properties: hardness, thermal conductivity, electrical non-conductivity, etc. sp3-Hybrid orbitals provide the current explanation for the interatomic “bond” connections. These covalent bonds, however, do not provide an adequate mechanism for these materials acting as semiconductors. Ionic bonding between atoms with the crystal lattice fully connected via overlapped, but “unoccupied”, orbitals does provide a logical structure to explain how semiconductor doping works, however.
Category: Quantum Physics

[234] viXra:1403.0295 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-19 01:04:07

The Minimal Length Stringy Uncertainty Relations Follow from Clifford Space Relativity

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 14 Pages. Submitted to Physics Letters B

We improve our earlier work in [14] and derive the minimal length string/membrane uncertainty relations by imposing momentum slices in flat Clifford spaces. The Jacobi identities associated with the modified Weyl-Heisenberg algebra require noncommuting spacetime coordinates, but commuting momenta, and which is compatible with the notion of curved momentum space. Clifford Phase Space Relativity requires the introduction of a maximal scale which can be identified with the Hubble scale and is a consequence of Born's Reciprocal Relativity Principle.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[233] viXra:1403.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-17 17:45:38

Elementarny DOWÓD Wielkiego Twierdzenia Fermata (Elementary Proof of the Fermat's Last Theorem)

Authors: Leszek W. Guła
Comments: 3 Pages. Thanks

Elementarny dowód Wielkiego Twierdzenia Fermata = Elementary proof of the Fermat's Last theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[232] viXra:1403.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-17 18:13:49

Introduction to the Tron Theory

Authors: Richard A. Marsen, James R. Marsen
Comments: 10 Pages.

The Tron Theory is proposed for unifying physical science. It presents a new fundamental particle called the tron. The tron is several orders of magnitude smaller than the electron. Trons are premised to be everywhere, their physical involvement thorough. Each tron is composed of even smaller particles called rons. Adjacent trons attract each other with an elemental force that is neutral of charge. The inter-tron force is inversely proportional to the distance between tron cores. The fundamental particles are constructed with trons closely pressed together. Tenuous arrays of trons cohere to form the respective imponderable physical fields. Micro-particle action is revealed as a causal discipline. Particles are presented in determinate activity. The composition and dynamic properties of the tron and ron are set forth in seven axiom forming the Tron Postulate.
Category: Classical Physics

[231] viXra:1403.0292 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-18 08:24:35

Echoes of the Big Bang

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: Replaced because I left out about 5 pages that try to answer questions.

What do you think of today's attention to so-called echoes of the big bang (imprints of gravitational waves from the time of the big bang that have left their trace in the cosmic microwave background)? It's obviously an amazing discovery but my fear is that it's going to be used more for alleged confirmation of present theories than for investigation of the questions it raises (especially in the short term). A starting point for these questions is, "If the universe expanded to about the size of a football in 10^-36 second, what was outside the football?" Many people will say this is an invalid question because no space or time existed outside the football. But I think that's mere evasion of the question (understandable if there are no other ideas to fall back on). There's a simple alternative which says there was space and time outside the football, and this alternative is supported by the modern idea of a multiverse. I'll take a lazy approach to the last sentence and copy/paste relevant sections from a couple of my recent vixra articles - "Defining Division by Zero (Making it not Just Possible, But Essential) and Relating Zero to Infinity" (http://vixra.org/abs/1402.0087) and "Connecting Bioscience, Atoms, Gravitation, Black Holes, and Strings” (http://vixra.org/abs/1403.0149). I heard a short talk with Dr. Lawrence Krauss, a theoretical physicist at Arizona State University in the US (http://www.abc.net.au/newsradio/content/s3965819.htm), whose comments about gravity being a quantum theory and the universe originating from “absolutely nothing” are addressed by my articles. If the binary digits of 1 and 0 are the basis for manufacturing space-time (whose curves and warps are gravity), this is in firm agreement with gravity being a quantum theory. And electronic bits could easily avoid Dr. Krauss’s “supernatural shenanigans” by being a product of human technology – we know this much to be true – that is recycled to 13.8 billion years ago by our future discovery of how to time travel into the past (a hypothesis explaining this is presented). It seems unfortunate that no science journal is interested in my ideas (maybe it’s the way I write?) because I’m certain I’m correct, even if my ideas sound too strange to be true. I don’t think I’ll bother sending these thoughts to Dr. Krauss (professional scientists don’t answer my emails) – but I just might, if I get impulsive.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[230] viXra:1403.0291 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-17 14:24:42

The Concept of Super-Symmetry in the Discrete Measurement Space

Authors: Piyush M. Singhal
Comments: 3 Pages.

The concept of super-symmetry in terms of the measurements made by an observer with finite capability is discussed. It is suggested that the symmetry establishing the correct definition of the origin in observer's measurement space, should be the symmetry to which other known symmetries must converge to.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[229] viXra:1403.0290 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-24 05:57:49

Hydrodynamic Analogue for Curved Space-Time and General Relativity

Authors: John R. Cipolla, Usha Raut
Comments: 25 Pages.

An attempt is made to simulate the curved space-time of General Relativity by comparison with the characteristics of a potential vortex at steady state sometimes called a free vortex. In this paper, we present results of our study of the potential vortex as an analogy with gravity and General Relativity. Analyses of potential vortex characteristics demonstrate that an analogy exists between potential vortex flow, General Relativity and the gravitational fields around massive objects. An analogue model of gravity is developed which simulates the potential vortex model of space-time observed by Gravity Probe-B experiments. Statements by Gravity Probe-B researchers that the region around Earth resembles a “space-time vortex” lend credibility to the premise of this paper that potential vortex flow and gravity are related. Albert Einstein introduced the first analogue model for General Relativity that describes space-time as a membrane upon which objects move along geodesics. Analogue models provide a unique and viable means of analyzing complex space-time in situations that would normally be beyond our means to explore using conventional methods. Further, by exploring the dynamics of the analogue model, we are able to recover the equivalent form of the Einstein field equation starting from the usual equations of hydrodynamics and vector dynamics and make predictions about space-time and gravity using these observations. An implication for the existence of an analogy between space-time and the potential vortex is the possibility that space-time can be considered a superfluid forming the surface of our universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[228] viXra:1403.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-17 08:20:44

The Short Proof

Authors: Leszek W. Guła
Comments: 1 Page. Dedicated to my Parents and my Brother

The short proof of the Fermat's Last Theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[227] viXra:1403.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-17 09:33:40

A New Principle of Conservation of Energy

Authors: Alejandro A. Torassa
Comments: 3 Pages.

In classical mechanics, this paper presents a new principle of conservation of energy which is invariant under transformations between reference frames and which can be applied in any reference frame (rotating or non-rotating) (inertial or non-inertial) without the necessity of introducing fictitious forces.
Category: Classical Physics

[226] viXra:1403.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-17 09:36:43

Anisotropy in Stelar Plasma Doppler Profile Disproves Cosmic Inflation

Authors: Albert Zotkin
Comments: 3 Pages.

I'm going to prove in this brief paper that actually there is not a so called "cosmic inflation", because that so called "cosmic inflation" is just an artifact of an incorrect theoretic model of Doppler effect for electromagnetic waves in remote sources.
Category: Astrophysics

[225] viXra:1403.0286 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-02 12:52:37

The Arm Theory

Authors: Arm Boris Nima
Comments: 14 Pages.

Did you ever wondered what is the Taylor formula for an arbitrary chosen basis ? The answer of this question is the Arm theory introduced in this article.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[224] viXra:1403.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-17 06:10:06

The p-Arm Theory

Authors: Arm Boris Nima
Comments: Pages.

We introduce the p-Arm theory which give rise to a new mathematical object that we call the "p-exponential" which is invariant under p derivation. We calculate its derivate and we use this new function to solve dierential equations. Next, we dene its real and imaginary part which are the p-cosinus and the p-sinus respectively.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[223] viXra:1403.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-17 06:11:48

The Arm Prime Factor Decomposition

Authors: Arm Boris Nima
Comments: Pages.

We introduce the Arm prime factors decomposition which is the equivalent of the Taylor formula for decomposition of integers on the basis of prime numbers. We make the link between this decomposition and the p-adic norm known in the p-adic numbers theory. To see how it works, we give examples of these two formulas.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[222] viXra:1403.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-17 06:13:24

The Arm Factorization

Authors: Arm Boris Nima
Comments: Pages.

We construct the equivalent of the Taylor formula in the basis of all roots fx kgK when K is Z iZ, Q iQ and C.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[221] viXra:1403.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-17 06:15:09

The Arm Fourier Theory

Authors: Arm Boris Nima
Comments: Pages.

We give the developpment of functions in C[z] C[z 1 ] with a scalar product which involves an integral and a residue calculus. Then we give some examples of those developpments and nd new 'representations' of the exponential and the logarithm function . We draw those representations and we see that there are similar to their original representations
Category: Mathematical Physics

[220] viXra:1403.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-17 06:17:47

The Arm Lie Group Theory

Authors: Arm Boris Nima
Comments: Pages.

We developp the Arm-Lie group theory which is a theory based onthe exponential of a changing of matrix variable u(X). We dene a corresponding u-adjoint action, the corresponding commutation relations in the Arm-Lie algebra and the u-Jacobi identity. Throught the exponentiation, Arm-Lie algebras become Arm-Lie groups. We give the example of pp so(2) and pp su(2).
Category: Mathematical Physics

[219] viXra:1403.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-17 06:19:35

Remarks Around Lorentz Transformation

Authors: Arm Boris Nima
Comments: 6 Pages.

After diagonalizing the Lorentz Matrix, we nd the frame where the Dirac equation is one derivation and we calculate the 'speed' of the Schwarschild metric
Category: Mathematical Physics

[218] viXra:1403.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-17 06:20:51

Some Poisson Lie sigma Models

Authors: Arm Boris Nima
Comments: 10 Pages.

We calculate the Poisson-Lie sigma model for every 4-dimensional Manin triples (function of its structure constant) and we give the 6-dimensional models for the Manin triples (sl(2; C) sl(2; C) ; sl(2; C); sl(2; C) ), (sl(2; C) sl(2; C) ; sl(2; C) ); sl(2; C), (sl(2; C); su(2; C); sb(2; C)) and (sl(2; C); sb(2; C); su(2; C))
Category: Mathematical Physics

[217] viXra:1403.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-17 06:22:13

Noncommutative_ricci_curvature_and_dirac_operator_on_b_qsu_2_at_the_fourth_root_of_unity

Authors: Arm Boris Nima
Comments: 16 Pages.

We calculate the torsion free spin connection on the quantum group Bq[SU2] at the fourth root of unity. From this we deduce the covariant derivative and the Riemann curvature. Next we compute the Dirac operator of this quantum group and we give numerical approximations of its eigenvalues.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[216] viXra:1403.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-17 06:24:03

Noncommutative_geometry_on_d6.

Authors: Arm Boris Nima
Comments: 22 Pages.

We study the noncommutative geometry of the dihedral group D6 using the tools of quantum group theory. We explicit the torsion free regular spin connection and the corresponding 'Levi-Civita' connection. Next, we nd the Riemann curvature and its Ricci tensor. The main result is the Dirac operator of a representation of the group which we nd the eigenvalues and the eigenmodes
Category: Mathematical Physics

[215] viXra:1403.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-17 06:25:21

Non_commutative_geometry_on_usb2

Authors: Arm Boris Nima
Comments: 16 Pages.

We study the Borel algebra dene by [xa; xb] = 2a;1xb as a noncommutative manifold R 3 . We calculate its noncommutative dierential form relations. We deduce its partial derivative relations and the derivative of a plane wave. After calculating its de Rham cohomology, we deduce the wave operator and its corresponding magnetic solution
Category: Mathematical Physics

[214] viXra:1403.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-16 16:59:21

The Short Proofs

Authors: Leszek Włodzimierz Guła
Comments: 2 Pages. My the short proofs are true.

The short proofs of the Fermat's Last Theorem for even n≥4.
Category: Number Theory

[213] viXra:1403.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-16 17:36:38

Prawdziwie Cudowny Dowód (The Truly Marvellous Proof)

Authors: Leszek Włodzimierz Guła
Comments: 3 Pages. My proof is true.

1. The hypothetical Fermat's proof of FLT. 2. Elementary proof of The fermat's Last Theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[212] viXra:1403.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-16 20:23:48

Four Years and 2500 Sakai Portfolios

Authors: S. J. Nettleton
Comments: 15 Pages. A presentation at auSakai 2010.

Four years experience in the use of Type 3 student eportfolios for assessment in undergraduate and postgraduate courses.
Category: Social Science

[211] viXra:1403.0272 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-05 14:38:07

Why the Composite Magnetic Monopoles of Yang-Mills Gauge Theory Have All the Required Chromodynamic and Confinement Symmetries of Baryons, How These May be Developed Into Topologically-Stable Protons and Neutrons, and How to Path Integrate in Yang-Mills

Authors: Jay R. Yablon
Comments: 225 Pages. Revision 3 updates section 14, adds new sections 15 through 20.

We develop in detail, the classical magnetic monopoles of non-abelian Yang-Mills gauge theory and show how these monopoles, when analyzed using Gauss’ / Stokes’ theorem, appear to confine their gauge fields, and also, appear to be composite objects. Of course, baryons, which include the protons and neutrons at the heart of nuclear physics, also confine their gauge fields and are similarly-composite objects. This raises the question whether the magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills theory are in some fashion related to the observed physical baryons. After developing inverse solutions for the non-abelian electric charge densities while carefully examining uniqueness and gauge fixing, we use these solutions together with Dirac theory to “populate” these classical monopoles with fermions. Applying the Fermi-Dirac-Pauli Exclusion Principle to these fermions forces the selection of a dimension-3 gauge group initially chosen to be SU(3). We then find that these non-abelian magnetic monopoles have the exact chromodynamic symmetries of baryons and interact via colored magnetic fields with the exact chromodynamic symmetries of mesons. We show that a required U(1) factor ensures that these monopoles are topologically stable, and also “flavors” these monopole as protons and neutrons. Because this exposition is classical, we also discuss the extent to which classical field theory can be used to effectively analyze baryons and confinement. We point out how a recursive aspect of the non-abelian electric charge solution may be used to perform an analytically-exact quantum path integration for Yang-Mills theory, proving the existence of a non-trivial quantum Yang–Mills theory on R4 for any simple gauge group G. Finally, we use the results of this path integration to develop four examples of the application of analytical non-linear quantum field theory, which includes a quantum field explanation of confinement, a fitting of the running QCD curve to the known empirical data within experimental error bars, and a careful review of single and double slit experiments.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[210] viXra:1403.0271 [pdf] replaced on 2014-12-09 12:37:03

The Triangular Properties of Associated Legendre Functions Using the Vectorial Addition Theorem for Spherical Harmonics

Authors: Rami Mehrem
Comments: 7 Pages.

Triangular properties of associated Legendre functions are derived using the Vectorial Addition Theorem of spherical harmonics
Category: Mathematical Physics

[209] viXra:1403.0270 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-17 04:35:06

Does the Body Weight Depend on Its Speed?

Authors: Nikolay V. Dibrov .
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract. Based on the Shadow-Gravity theory a dependency of bodyweight on speed is analysed.
Category: Classical Physics

[208] viXra:1403.0269 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-13 04:00:40

Conjectures on Primes and Fermat Pseudoprimes, Many Based on Smarandache Function

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 82 Pages.

It is always difficult to talk about arithmetic, because those who do not know what is about, nor do they understand in few sentences, no matter how inspired these might be, and those who know what is about, do no need to be told what is about.Arithmetic is the branch of mathematics that you keep it in you’re soul and you’re mind not in you’re suitcase or laptop. It also will not help you to gain money (unless you will prove Fermat’s last theorem without using complex numbers or you will prove Beal’s conjecture which is unlikely) but it will give you something more important than that. Part One of this book of collected papers aims to show new applications of Smarandache function in the study of some well known classes of numbers, like prime numbers, Poulet numbers, Carmichael numbers, Sophie Germain primes etc. Beside the well known notions of number theory, we defined in these papers the following new concepts: “Smarandache-Coman divisors of order k of a composite integer n with m prime factors”, “Smarandache-Coman congruence on primes”, “Smarandache-Germain primes”, “Coman-Smarandache criterion for primality”, “Smarandache-Korselt criterion”, “Smarandache-Coman constants”. Part Two of this book brings together several articles regarding primes, submitted by the author to the preprint scientific database Vixra.
Category: Number Theory

[207] viXra:1403.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-16 09:56:34

Casimir Attraction Between Electrons

Authors: Ray Fleming
Comments: 4 Pages.

In a previous paper the author showed that the Casimir force between protons is strong enough to account for the nuclear force. The purpose of this paper is to investigate if the Casimir force between two electrons computed by using a proximity force approximation is also strong enough to overcome Coulomb repulsion. The electrons are approximated as shells on the scale of the Compton wavelength, since their mass-energy has been shown to be consistent with a shell structure on that scale. It was determined that the Casimir force between two electrons is strong enough to overcome Coulomb repulsion such that there is a strong attraction between them. This is important as it gives us a mechanism to explain electron charge clustering.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[206] viXra:1403.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 20:58:17

Photographs of a Ferrofluid Cell

Authors: Michael Snyder
Comments: 8 Pages.

This document is an update to my paper "Photonic Dipole Contours of Ferrofluid Hele-Shaw Cell" arXiv:0805.4364v2 . Photographs are the primary datasets and makeup the majority of the document. The overall argument is that the ferrofluid cells are basically spin based radar systems that show photon scatter off of electron flows inside of the ferrofluid cell; induced by external magnetic fields. In other words, we are watching sparks cascading through an irregular lattice like lighting jumping cloud to cloud. They build up static electricity like a solar cell.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[205] viXra:1403.0266 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-20 03:58:31

Since the Time-Dilation of Super-Novae Light-Curves Is Not a Confirmative-Evidence for Expansion of Space-Time and the Universe, Some Alternative Possibilities that the Universe May Not Be Expanding

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Nine-page paper

This paper makes use of some astronomical-observations to gain deeper insight into the fundamental questions of physics and astrophysics. Alternative-interpretations of cosmological-red-shift are generally rejected on the ground that ‘tired-light-interpretations’ are inconsistent with the observations of time-dilation of super-nova-light-curves; whereas it is shown here that these curves are time-domain-representations of amplitude of light. So, these curves can be Fourier-transformed into wave-number-domain, and it is this wide band of waves which propagates in inter-galactic-space, and reaches us after millions of years. These Fourier-transformed-components, being electromagnetic-waves, get red-shifted by any mechanism that can cause spectral-shift, and when transformed back into time-domain, show time-dilation. Thus, time-dilation of super-nova light-curves, or the relativistic-time-dilation, means ‘red-shift of light’ due to any mechanism. Similarly, the relativistic-length-contraction is also explained using wave-theory. With this explanation, this letter presents five new possible-mechanisms for the ‘cosmological-red-shift’; which will also give some insight into pure physics. These alternative-interpretations are: (i) Inter-galactic-photons can also get red-shifted due to vacuum-polarization-mechanism; (ii) Spherically-expanding-wave-front of light can be viewed as a spherically-expanding cavity, continuously changing its impedance, causing around -400 dB reflected-power back to the source; (iii) Cumulative-phase-alteration of extra-galactic-photons caused by the cosmic-microwave-background; (iv) Electric-field and magnetic-field of extra-galactic-light in the transverse-directions, causing virtual-electrons to oscillate, and generating gravitational-field in the longitudinal-direction; losing part of their energy in the form of ‘gravitational-waves’; (v) Though the rest-mass of photon is zero, it has a ‘relativistic-mass’ equal to its momentum-divided-by-its-speed (h f / c^2); so this ‘relativistic-mass’ of the photon can radiate gravitational-waves, branching-out its energy into gravitational-wave and electromagnetic-wave; and as a supportive-evidence, it is shown here that the energy lost by ‘cosmologically-red-shifting-photons’ is strikingly proportional to the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces. These new alternative explanations also explain the non-linearity of red-shift-distance-curve, observed by Perlmutter and Reiss, without any need for ‘dark-energy’.
Category: Astrophysics

[204] viXra:1403.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 11:38:55

The Jerusalem Extraterrestrial Spaceship

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 2 diagrams, 1 reference

A short analysis of the Jerusalem Extraterrestrial Spaceship is presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[203] viXra:1403.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 18:32:50

The Notion of Chameleonic Numbers, a Set of Composites that “hide” in Their Inner Structure an Easy Way to Obtain Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I present the notion of “chameleonic numbers”, a set of composite squarefree numbers not divisible by 2, 3 or 5, having two, three or more prime factors, which have the property that can easily generate primes with a certain formula, other primes than they own prime factors but in an amount proportional with the amount of these ones.
Category: Number Theory

[202] viXra:1403.0263 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-15 13:36:18

Efficient Computation of Clebsch-Gordan Coefficients

Authors: William O. Straub
Comments: 5 Pages. Computer program didn't typeset correctly; third attempt

The problem of angular momentum addition requires the calculation of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. While systems involving small values of momenta and spin present no special problem, larger systems require extensive computational effort. This paper describes a straightforward method for computing the coefficients for any two-particle problem exactly by means of a simplified form of the recursion formula in a notation that is particularly accessible to the third- or fourth-year student. The method is summarized in a brief BASIC program.
Category: Quantum Physics

[201] viXra:1403.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 21:51:47

A Mathematical Analysis of Crowds

Authors: Shreyak Chakraborty
Comments: 8 Pages.

Crowds are generally analyzed in the regime of sociology- where they are studied and classified on the basis of crowd psychology. This analysis arises from the study of collective behavior and treats crowds as dependent on psychology of humans in the crowd. In this introductory paper we show a generalized treatment of crowds as a set of living objects: called members of the crowd. We classify crowds based on various parameters and study some general and specific characteristics of crowd of humans and study the response of a simple crowd to an external situation or stimulus by deriving the solution of the generalized crowd equation. We also define some terminology regarding the mathematical description of crowds and hence arrive at some useful conjectures.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[200] viXra:1403.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 02:33:25

A New Smarandache Function and Its Elementary Properties

Authors: Jing Fu, Yu Wang
Comments: 3 Pages.

For any positive integer n, we define a new Smarandache function G(n) as the smallest positive integer m such...
Category: General Mathematics

[199] viXra:1403.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 02:37:42

The Function Equation S(n) = Z(n) 1

Authors: Maohua Le
Comments: 2 Pages.

For any positive integer n, let S(n) and Z(n) denote the Smarandache function and the pseudo Smarandache function respectively. In this paper we prove that the equation S(n) = Z(n) has infinitely many positive integer solutions n.
Category: General Mathematics

[198] viXra:1403.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 02:39:25

On the Smarandche Function and Its Hybrid Mean Value

Authors: Yao Weili
Comments: 3 Pages.

For any positive integer n, let S(n) denotes the Smarandache function, then S(n) is defined as the smallest m 2 N+ with njm!. In this paper, we study the asymptotic property of a hybrid mean value of the Smarandache function and the Mangoldt function, and give an interesting hybrid mean value formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[197] viXra:1403.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 02:40:54

On a Conjecture Involving the Function SL¤(n)

Authors: Yanrong Xue
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, we de¯ne a new arithmetical function SL¤(n), which is related with the famous F.Smarandache LCM function SL(n). Then we studied the properties of SL¤(n), and solved a conjecture involving function SL¤(n).
Category: General Mathematics

[196] viXra:1403.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 02:42:39

On Functions Preserving Convergence of Series in Fuzzy N-Normed Spaces

Authors: Sayed Elagan
Comments: 10 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to introduce finite convergence sequences and functions preserving convergence of series in fuzzy n-normed spaces.
Category: General Mathematics

[195] viXra:1403.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 02:44:46

On Fuzzy Matroids

Authors: Talal Ali AL-Hawary
Comments: 9 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to discuss properties of fuzzy regular-flats, fuzzy C-flats, fuzzy alternative-sets and fuzzy i-flats. Moreover, we characterize some peculiar fuzzy matroids via these notions. Finally, we provide a decomposition of fuzzy strong maps.
Category: General Mathematics

[194] viXra:1403.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 02:46:15

On the F.Smarandache LCM Ratio Sequence

Authors: Rong Ma
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we use the elementary methods to study the F.Smarandache LCM ratio sequence, and obtain three interesting recurrence relations for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[193] viXra:1403.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 02:47:24

Some Properties of the LCM Sequence

Authors: Hailong Li, Qianli Yang
Comments: 8 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the properties of the Smarandache LCM sequence, and give some interesting identities.
Category: General Mathematics

[192] viXra:1403.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 02:49:05

On Smarandache Least Common Multiple Ratio

Authors: S.M. Khairnar, Anant W. Vyawahare, J.N.Salunke
Comments: 8 Pages.

Smarandache LCM function and LCM ratio are already de¯ned in [1]. This paper gives some additional properties and obtains interesting results regarding the ¯gurate numbers. In addition, the various sequaences thus obtained are also discussed with graphs and their interpretations.
Category: General Mathematics

[191] viXra:1403.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 02:50:42

Euler-Savary's Formula for the Planar Curves in Two Dimensional Lightlike Cone

Authors: Handan BALGETIR OZTEKIN, Mahmut ERGUT
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, we study the Euler-Savary's formula for the planar curves in the lightlike cone. We ¯rst de¯ne the associated curve of a curve in the two dimensional lightlike cone Q2:Then we give the relation between the curvatures of a base curve, a rolling curve and a roulette which lie on two dimensional lightlike cone Q2.
Category: General Mathematics

[190] viXra:1403.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 02:52:17

Lucas Gracefulness of Almost and Nearly for Some Graphs

Authors: M.A.Perumal, S.Navaneethakrishnan, A.Nagarajan
Comments: 19 Pages.

Let G be a (p, q) - graph. An injective function f : V (G) → {l0, l1, l2, · · · , la}, (a ǫ N), is said to be Lucas graceful labeling if...
Category: General Mathematics

[189] viXra:1403.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 02:53:25

On the Mean Value of Some New Sequences

Authors: Jiao Chen
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary and analytic methods to study the mean value properties of the Smarandache repetitional sequence, and give two asymptotic formulas for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[188] viXra:1403.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 02:54:21

On Themeanvalue of the SCBF Function

Authors: Zhang Xiaobeng
Comments: 6 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the asymptotic properties of the SCBF function on simple numbers, and give an interesting asymptotic formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[187] viXra:1403.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 02:55:46

On the mean value of SSMP(n) and SIMP(n)

Authors: Yiren Wang
Comments: 5 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper it to studied the mean value properties of the Smarandache Superior m-th power part sequence SSMP(n) and the Smarandache Inferior m-th power part sequence SIMP(n), and give several interesting asymptotic formula for them.
Category: General Mathematics

[186] viXra:1403.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 02:57:12

A Note on Q-Nanlogue of Sandor's Functions

Authors: Taekyun Kim
Comments: 5 Pages.

The additive analogues of Pseudo-Smarandache, Smarandache-simple functions and their duals have been recently studied by J. Sandor. In this note, we obtain q-analogues of Sandor's theorems [6].
Category: General Mathematics

[185] viXra:1403.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 02:58:50

On Near Mean Graphs

Authors: A. Nagarajan, A. Nellai Murugan, S. Navaneetha Krishnan
Comments: 6 Pages.

Let G = (V,E) be a graph with p vertices and q edges and let f : V (G) → {0, 1, 2, . . . , q − 1, q + 1} be an injection. The graph G is said to have a near mean labeling if for each edge, there exist an induced injective map f : E(G) → {1, 2, . . . , q} ...
Category: General Mathematics

[184] viXra:1403.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:00:10

On the Near Pseudo Smarandache Function

Authors: Yongfeng Zhang
Comments: 4 Pages.

For any positive integer n, the near pseudo Smarandache function K(n) is defined as...
Category: General Mathematics

[183] viXra:1403.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:02:10

Negation Switching Equivalence in Signed Graphs

Authors: P.Siva Kota Reddy, K.Shivashankara, K. V.Madhusudhan
Comments: 6 Pages.

A Smarandachely k-signed graph (Smarandachely k-marked graph) is an ordered pair...
Category: General Mathematics

[182] viXra:1403.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:04:29

Neutrosophic Applications in Finance, Economics and Politics|a Continuing Bequest of Knowledge by an Exemplarily Innovative Mind

Authors: Mihaly Bencze
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is not very common for a young PhD aspirant to select a topic for his dissertation that makes exploratory forays into a fiedgling science | one that is still in the process of finding feet within the ramparts of academia. It would be considered a highly risky venture to say the least given that through his dissertation the PhD aspirant would need to not only convince his examiners on the merit of his own research on the topic but also present a strong case on behalf of the topic itself.
Category: General Mathematics

[181] viXra:1403.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:06:55

Neutrosophic Groups and Subgroups

Authors: Agboola A.A.A., Akwu A.D., Oyebo Y.T.
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper is devoted to the study of eutrosophic groups and neutrosophic subgroups. Some properties of neutrosophic groups and neutrosophic subgroups are pre-sented. It is shown that the product of a neutrosophic subgroup and a pseudo neutrosophic subgroup of a commutative neutrosophic group is a neutrosophic subgroup and their union is also a neutrosophic subgroup even if neither is contained in the other. It is also shown that all neutrosophic groups generated by the neutrosophic element I and any group isomorphic to Klein 4-group are Lagrange neutrosophic groups. The partitioning of neutrosophic groups is also presented.
Category: General Mathematics

[180] viXra:1403.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:08:18

Neutrosophic Rings I

Authors: Agboola A.A.A., Akinola A.D., Oyebola O.Y.
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper, we present some elementary properties of neutrosophic rings. The structure of neutrosophic polynomial rings is also presented. We provide answers to the questions raised by Vasantha Kandasamy and Florentin Smarandache in [1] concerning principal ideals, prime ideals, factorization and Unique Factorization Domain in neutrosophic polynomial rings.
Category: General Mathematics

[179] viXra:1403.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:10:02

Neutrosophic Rings II

Authors: Agboola A.A.A., Akinola A.D., Oyebola O.Y.
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper is the continuation of the work started in [12]. The present paper is devoted to the study of ideals of neutrosophic rings. Neutrosophic quotient rings are also studied.
Category: General Mathematics

[178] viXra:1403.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:11:21

A New Additive Function and the F. Smarandache Function

Authors: Yanchun Guo
Comments: 10 Pages.

For any positive integer n, we de¯ne the arithmetical function F(n) as F(1) = 0.
Category: General Mathematics

[177] viXra:1403.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:12:27

On a New Class of Smarandache Prime Numbers

Authors: Jason Earls
Comments: 2 Pages.

The purpose of this note is to report on the discovery of some new prime numbers that were built from factorials, the Smarandache Consecutive Sequence, and the Smarandache Reverse Sequence.
Category: General Mathematics

[176] viXra:1403.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:13:44

A New Critical Method for Twin Primes

Authors: Fanbei Li
Comments: 3 Pages.

For any positive integer n ¸ 3, if n and n + 2 both are primes, then we call that n and n + 2 are twin primes. In this paper, we using the elementary method to study the relationship between the twin primes and some arithmetical function, and give a new critical method for twin primes.
Category: General Mathematics

[175] viXra:1403.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:15:16

New Families of Mean Graphs

Authors: Selvam Avadayappan, R. Vasuki
Comments: 13 Pages.

Let G(V,E) be a graph with p vertices and q edges.
Category: General Mathematics

[174] viXra:1403.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:16:40

A New Function and Its Mean Value

Authors: Ding Liping
Comments: 3 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the mean value properties of a new function for n, and give a sharp asymptotic formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[173] viXra:1403.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:19:03

A New Additive Function and the Smarandache Divisor Product Sequences

Authors: Weili Yao, Tieming Cao
Comments: 5 Pages.

For any positive integer n, we define the arithmetical function G(n) as G(1) = 0. The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method and the prime distribution theory to study the mean value properties of G(n) in Smarandache divisor product sequences fpd(n)g and fqd(n)g, and give two sharper asymptotic formulae for them.
Category: General Mathematics

[172] viXra:1403.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:20:15

A New Limit Theorem Involving the Smarandache LCM Sequence

Authors: Xiaowei Pan
Comments: 4 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the LCM Sequence, and give an asymptotic formula about this sequence.
Category: General Mathematics

[171] viXra:1403.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:21:49

New Mean Graphs

Authors: S.K.Vaidya
Comments: 7 Pages.

A vertex labeling of G is an assignment f : V (G) → {1, 2, 3, . . . , p + q} be an injection.
Category: General Mathematics

[170] viXra:1403.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:23:30

Some New Problems About the Smarandache Function and Related Problems

Authors: Yulin Lu
Comments: 2 Pages.

For any positive integer n, the famous F.Smarandache function S(n) is defined as the smallest positive integer m such that njm!. That is, S(n) = minfm : m 2 N; njm!g. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce some new unsolved problems involving the Smarandache function and the related functions.
Category: General Mathematics

[169] viXra:1403.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:25:48

A Very Simple But Possible Important Conjecture About Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I present a conjecture about primes with an extremely simple enunciation, but very interesting despite (or on the contrary, because of) its simplicity.
Category: Number Theory

[168] viXra:1403.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:26:22

Non-Solvable Equation Systems with Graphs Embedded in Rn

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 16 Pages.

Different from the homogenous systems, a Smarandache system is a contra-dictory system in which an axiom behaves in at least two different ways within the same system, i.e., validated and invalided, or only invalided but in multiple distinct ways. Such systems widely exist in the world. In this report, we discuss such a kind of Smarandache sys-tem, i.e., non-solvable equation systems, such as those of non-solvable algebraic equations,non-solvable ordinary differential equations and non-solvable partial differential equations by topological graphs, classify these systems and characterize their global behaviors, partic-ularly, the sum-stability and prod-stability of such equations. Applications of such systems to other sciences, such as those of controlling of infectious diseases, interaction fields and flows in network are also included in this report.
Category: General Mathematics

[167] viXra:1403.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:27:51

Non-Solvable Spaces of Linear Equation Systems

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 16 Pages.

A Smarandache system (;R) is such a mathematical system that has at least one Smarandachely denied rule in R, i.e., there is a rule in (;R) that behaves in at least two different ways within the same set , i.e., validated and invalided, or only invalided but in multiple distinct ways. For such systems, the linear equation systems without solutions, i.e., non-solvable linear equation systems are the most simple one.
Category: General Mathematics

[166] viXra:1403.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:29:09

A Note on 1-Edge Balance Index Set

Authors: Chandrashekar Adiga, Shrikanth A. S., Shivakumar Swamy C.S.
Comments: 5 Pages.

Let G be a graph with vertex set V and edge set E, and Z2 = {0, 1}.
Category: General Mathematics

[165] viXra:1403.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:31:37

A Note on Exponential Divisors and Related Arithmetic Functions

Authors: Jozsef Sandor
Comments: 5 Pages.

EXPONENTIAL DIVISORS AND RELATED ARITHMETIC FUNCTIONS.
Category: General Mathematics

[164] viXra:1403.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:32:53

A Note on the Near Pseudo Smarandache Function

Authors: A.A.K. Majumdar
Comments: 8 Pages.

Vyawahare and Purohit [1] introduced the near pseudo Smarandache function, K(n). In this paper, we derive some more recurrence formulas satis¯ed by K(n). We also derive some new series, and give an expression for the sum of the ¯rst n terms of the sequence fK(n)g.
Category: General Mathematics

[163] viXra:1403.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:34:25

On a Note of the Smarandache Power Function

Authors: Wei Huang, Jiaolian Zhao
Comments: 6 Pages.

For any positive integer n, the Smarandache power function SP(n) is defined as the smallest positive integer m such that...
Category: General Mathematics

[162] viXra:1403.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:35:54

A Note on Primes of the Form a2 + 1

Authors: Juan Lopez Gonzalez
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this note I prove using an algebraic identity and Wilson's Theorem...
Category: General Mathematics

[161] viXra:1403.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:37:42

A Note on Smarandache Number Related Triangles

Authors: H. Gunarto, A.A.K. Majumdar
Comments: 6 Pages.

The pseudo Smarandache function, denoted by Z(n), has been introduced by Kashihara.
Category: General Mathematics

[160] viXra:1403.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:39:05

Some Notes on the Paper \the Mean Value of a New Arithmetical Function"

Authors: Jin Zhang, Pei Zhang
Comments: 6 Pages.

In reference [2], we used the elementary method to study the mean value properties of a new arithmetical function, and obtained two mean value formulae for it, but there exist some errors in that paper. The main purpose of this paper is to correct the errors in reference [2], and give two correct conclusions.
Category: General Mathematics

[159] viXra:1403.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-15 03:40:21

Smarandache Breadth Pseudo Null Curves in Minkowski Space-time

Authors: Melih Turgut
Comments: 8 Pages.

A regular curve with more than 2 breadths in Minkowski 3-space is called a Smarandache Breadth Curve [8].
Category: General Mathematics

[158] viXra:1403.0219 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-18 07:07:14

Dark Matter and Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[157] viXra:1403.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 12:26:59

Discrete Modeling of the Universe

Authors: Nikolay Samofatov
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this article we examine mathematical properties of discrete universe models in their most general form and propose a special technique (universe self-programming with recursive self-virtualization) which can be used to guide evolution within the model.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[156] viXra:1403.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 07:34:53

Defeating the 2ND Law of Thermodynamics with Quantum-Entangled Bits

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 3 Pages.

Disorder (entropy) increases over time. This is known as the 2nd law of thermodynamics. In the 1860s, physicist James Clerk Maxwell invented the hypothetical "Maxwell's Demon" - this classic thought experiment could break the law by sorting hot and cold gas particles without expending any energy. 150 years later, a research team in the USA has published a mathematical model envisioning a machine which really could decrease entropy without using energy. It would only need a supply of bits – the binary digits of 0 and 1 – with which to encode information about the particles. Such a machine may supply infinite energy in the future, according to team member Dibyendu Mandal. But it would require about 200 x 10^18 bytes to heat a gram of water by just a single degree Celsius – at present, an overwhelming demand on data storage. (from “Conquering a Demon” by Shannon Palus – Discover Magazine, March 2014, p.17). My vixra article seeks to show how to delete that overwhelming demand.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[155] viXra:1403.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 05:28:33

Smarandache's Synonymity Test

Authors: Said Broumi
Comments: Pages.

The Smarandache's Synonymity Test: similar to, and an extension of, the antonym test in psychology, is a verbal test where the subject must supply as many as possible synonyms of a given word within a as short as possible period of time. How to measure it?
Category: General Mathematics

[154] viXra:1403.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 05:31:29

The Beauty of Smarandache Sequences

Authors: Said Broumi
Comments: Pages.

The Smarandache Sequences. 1, 12, 123, 1234, 12345, 123456, 1234567, 12345678, …
Category: General Mathematics

[153] viXra:1403.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 05:34:11

Trepte S M a R a N D a C H e

Authors: Mircea Selariu
Comments: Pages.

Plot#+0.1 t/ Cos#t'sSqrt#1 Sin#t'^2 ' 0.25Pit, t, 0, 10Pi'
Category: General Mathematics

[152] viXra:1403.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 05:35:33

A Proof of Smarandache-Pătraşcu’s Theorem Using Barycentric Coordinates

Authors: Claudia Coanda
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this article we prove the Smarandache–Pătraşcu’s Theorem in relation to the inscribed orthohomological triangles using the barycentric coordinates.
Category: General Mathematics

[151] viXra:1403.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 05:37:39

“Unmatter,” as a New Form of Matter, and Its Related “un-Particle,” “un-Atom,” “un-Molecule”

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 10 Pages.

Florentin Smarandache has introduced the notion of “unmatter” and related concepts such as “unparticle,” “unatom,” “unmolecule” in a manuscript from 1980 according to the CERN web site, and he uploaded articles about unmatter starting with year 2004 to the CERN site and published them in various journals in 2004, 2005, 2006.
Category: General Mathematics

[150] viXra:1403.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 05:39:08

The Fulfilled Euclidean Plane

Authors: Adrian Vasiu
Comments: 6 Pages.

The fulfilled euclidean plane is the real projective plane completed with the infinite point of its infinite line denoted c. This new incidence structure is a structure with neighbouring elements, in which the unicity of the line through two distinct points is not assured. This new Geometry is a Smarandacheian structure introduced in [10] and [11], which generalizes and unites in the same time: Euclid, Bolyai Lobacewski Gauss and Riemann Geometries.
Category: General Mathematics

[149] viXra:1403.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:06:49

On the Second Smarandache's Problem

Authors: Krassimir T. Atanassov
Comments: 3 Pages.

Treating a problem on Smarandache circular sequence.
Category: Number Theory

[148] viXra:1403.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:10:03

Two Problems Related to the Smarandache Function

Authors: Wenpeng Zhangy, Ling Liy
Comments: 3 Pages.

For any positive integer n, the famous pseudo Smarandache function Z(n) is de¯ned as the smallest positive integer m such that n j m(m + 1)2 . That is, Z(n) = min ½ m : n j m(m + 1) 2 ; n 2 N. The Smarandache reciprocal function Sc(n) is de¯ned as Sc(n) = max fm : y j n! for all 1 · y · m; and m + 1 y n!g. That is, Sc(n) is the largest positive integer m such that y j n! for all integers 1 · y · m. The main purpose of this paper is to study the solvability of some equations involving the pseudo Smarandache function Z(n)and the Smarandache reciprocal function Sc(n), and propose some interesting conjectures.
Category: General Mathematics

[147] viXra:1403.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:11:21

On 15-TH Smarandache's Problem

Authors: Mladen V. Vassilev
Comments: 4 Pages.

Remarks on a problem regarding Smarandache's simple number.
Category: Number Theory

[146] viXra:1403.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:12:39

On the 82-TH SMARANDACHE’S Problem

Authors: Fu Ruiqin
Comments: 3 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the asymptotic properties of the integer part of the k-th root positive integer, and give two interesting asymptotic formulae.
Category: General Mathematics

[145] viXra:1403.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:14:24

On the 83-TH Problem of F. Smarandache

Authors: Gao Nan
Comments: 5 Pages.

For any positive integer n, let mq(n) denote the integer part of k-th root of n. That is, mq(n) = h n 1k i. In this paper, we study the properties of the sequences fmq(n)g, and give an interesting asymptotic formula.
Category: General Mathematics

[144] viXra:1403.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:18:45

The 97-TH Problem of F.smarandache

Authors: Yi Yuan
Comments: 3 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the analytic method to study the n-ary sieve sequence, and solved one conjecture about this sequence.
Category: General Mathematics

[143] viXra:1403.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:19:59

Some Faces of Smarandache Semigroups' Concept in Transformation Semigroups' Approach

Authors: F. Ayatollah Zadeh Shiraziy, A. Hosseini
Comments: 4 Pages.

In the following text, the main aim is to distinguish some relations between Smarad- che semigroups and (topological) transformation semigroups areas. We will see that a transfor- mation group is not distal if and only if its enveloping semigroup is a Smarandache semigroup. Moreover we will ¯nd a classifying of minimal right ideals of the enveloping semigroup of a transformation semigroup.
Category: General Mathematics

[142] viXra:1403.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:21:23

On K-Factorials and Smarandacheials

Authors: Jon Perry
Comments: 4 Pages.

F. Smarandache defines a k-factorial as n(n¡k)(n¡2k) ¢ ¢ ¢, terminating when n ¡ xk is positive and n ¡ (x + 1)k is 0 or negative. Smarandacheials extend this definition into the negative numbers such that the factorial terminates when jn ¡ xkj is less than or equal to n and jn ¡ (x + 1)kj is greater than n. This paper looks at some relations between these numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[141] viXra:1403.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:22:55

The Smarandache Factorial Sequence

Authors: Zhang Xiaobeng
Comments: 2 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the asymptotic properties of the Smarandache factorial sequence, and give an interesting asymptotic formula.
Category: General Mathematics

[140] viXra:1403.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:24:22

Smarandache Fantastic Ideals of Smarandache Bci-Algebras

Authors: Y. B. Jun
Comments: 5 Pages.

The notion of Smarandache fantastic ideals is introduced, examples are given, and related properties are investigated. Relations among Q-Smarandache fresh ideals, Q-Smarandache clean ideals and Q-Smarandache fantastic ideals are given. A characterization of a Q-Smarandache fantastic ideal is provided. The extension property for Q-Smarandache fantastic ideals is established.
Category: General Mathematics

[139] viXra:1403.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:26:27

Super Fibonacci Graceful Labeling of Some Special Class of Graphs

Authors: R.Sridevi, S.Navaneethakrishnan, K.Nagarajan
Comments: 14 Pages.

A Smarandache-Fibonacci Triple is a sequence S(n), n ≥ 0 such that S(n) = S(n − 1) + S(n − 2), where S(n) is the Smarandache function for integers n ≥ 0. Certainly, it is a generalization of Fibonacci sequence. A Fibonacci graceful labeling and a super Fi-bonacci graceful labeling on graphs were introduced by Kathiresan and Amutha in 2006. Generally, let G be a (p, q)-graph and S(n)|n ≥ 0 a Smarandache-Fibonacci Triple. An bi-jection f : V (G) → {S(0), S(1), S(2), . . . , S(q)} is said to be a super Smarandache-Fibonacci graceful graph if the induced edge labeling f∗(uv) = |f(u) −f(v)| is a bijection onto the set {S(1), S(2), . . . , S(q)}. Particularly, if S(n), n ≥ 0 is just the Fibonacci sequence Fi, i ≥ 0, such a graph is called a super Fibonacci graceful graph. In this paper, we show that some special class of graphs namely Ftn, Ctn and St m,n are super fibonacci graceful graphs.
Category: General Mathematics

[138] viXra:1403.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:30:18

On Finite Smarandache Near-Rings

Authors: T.Ramaraj, N.Kannappa
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper we study the Finite Smarandache-2-algebraic structure of Finite-near-ring, namely, Finite-Smarandache-near-ring, written as Finite-S-near-ring. We de¯ne Finite Smarandache near-ring with examples. We introduce some equivalent conditions for Finite S-near-ring and obtain some of its properties.
Category: General Mathematics

[137] viXra:1403.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:31:55

On the F.smarandache LCM Function SL(n)

Authors: Yanrong Xue
Comments: 5 Pages.

For any positive integer n, the famous .Smarandache LCM function SL(n) is de¯ned as the smallest positive integer k such that n j [1; 2; ¢ ¢ ¢ ; k], where [1; 2; ¢ ¢ ¢ ; k] denotes the least common multiple of 1; 2; ¢ ¢ ¢ ; k. The main purpose of this paper is using the elemen-tary methods to study the mean value distribution property of (P(n)¡p(n))SL(n), and give an interesting asymptotic formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[136] viXra:1403.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:34:11

A Note on F-Minimum Functions

Authors: Jozsef Sandor
Comments: 4 Pages.

For a given arithmetical function f : N ! N, let F : N ! N be de¯ned byF(n) = minfm ¸ 1 : njf(m)g, if this exists. Such functions, introduced in [4], will be called as the f-minimum functions. If f satis¯es the property a · b =) f(a)jf(b), we shall prove that F(ab) = maxfF(a); F(b)g for (a; b) = 1. For a more restrictive class of functions, we will determine F(n) where n is an even perfect number. These results are generalizations of theorems from [10], [1], [3], [6].
Category: General Mathematics

[135] viXra:1403.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:36:18

The Forcing Domination Number of Hamiltonian Cubic Graphs

Authors: H.Abdollahzadeh Ahangar
Comments: 5 Pages.

A set of vertices S in a graph G is called to be a Smarandachely dominating k-set, if each vertex of G is dominated by at least k vertices of S. Particularly, if k = 1, such a set is called a dominating set of G. The Smarandachely domination number k(G) of G is the minimum cardinality of a Smarandachely dominating set of G. For abbreviation, we denote 1(G) by (G). In 1996, Reed proved that the domination number (G) of every n-vertex graph G with minimum degree at least 3 is at most 3n/8. Also, he conjectured that (H) ≥ ⌈n/3⌉ for every connected 3-regular n-vertex graph H. In [?], the authors presented a sequence of Hamiltonian cubic graphs whose domination numbers are sharp and in this paper we study forcing domination number for those graphs.
Category: General Mathematics

[134] viXra:1403.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:38:14

Forcing (G,D)-number of a Graph

Authors: K.Palani, A.Nagarajan
Comments: 6 Pages.

In [7], we introduced the new concept (G,D)-set of graphs. Let G = (V,E) be any graph. A (G,D)-set of a graph G is a subset S of vertices of G which is both a dominating and geodominating(or geodetic) set of G. The minimum cardinality of all (G,D)-sets of G is called the (G,D)-number of G and is denoted by γG(G). In this paper, we introduce a new parameter called forcing (G,D)-number of a graph G. Let S be a γG-set of G. A subset T of S is said to be a forcing subset for S if S is the unique γG-set of G containing T. A forcing subset T of S of minimum cardinality is called a minimum forcing subset of S. The forcing (G,D)-number of S denoted by fG,D(S) is the cardinality of a minimum forcing subset of S. The forcing (G,D)-number of G is the minimum of fG,D(S), where the minimum is taken over all γG-sets S of G and it is denoted by fG,D(S).
Category: General Mathematics

[133] viXra:1403.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:40:27

On the Forcing Hull and Forcing Monophonic Hull Numbers of Graphs

Authors: J.John, V.Mary Gleeta
Comments: 10 Pages.

For a connected graph G = (V,E), let a set M be a minimum monophonic hull set of G. A subset T ⊆ M is called a forcing subset for M if M is the unique minimum monophonic hull set containing T. A forcing subset for M of minimum cardinality is a minimum forcing subset of M. The forcing monophonic hull number of M , denoted by fmh(M), is the cardinality of a minimum forcing subset of M. The forcing monophonic hull number of G, denoted by fmh(G), is fmh(G) = min fmh(M)}, where the minimum is taken over all minimum monophonic hull sets in G. Some general properties satisfied by this concept are studied. Every monophonic set of G is also a monophonic hull set of G and so mh(G) ≤ h(G), where h(G) and mh(G) are hull number and monophonic hull number of a connected graph G. However, there is no relationship between fh(G) and fmh(G), where fh(G) is the forcing hull number of a connected graph G. We give a series of realization results for various possibilities of these four parameters.
Category: General Mathematics

[132] viXra:1403.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:43:19

The Forcing Weak Edge Detour Number of a Graph

Authors: A.P.Santhakumaran, S.Athisayanathan
Comments: 8 Pages.

For two vertices u and v in a graph G = (V,E), the distance d(u, v) and detour distance D(u, v) are the length of a shortest or longest u − v path in G, respectively, and the Smarandache distance di S(u, v) is the length d(u, v)+ i(u, v) of a u−v path in G, where 0 ≤ i(u, v) ≤ D(u, v) − d(u, v). A u − v path of length di S(u, v), if it exists, is called a Smarandachely u − v i-detour. A set S ⊆ V is called a Smarandachely i-detour set if every edge in G has both its ends in S or it lies on a Smarandachely i-detour joining a pair of vertices in S. In particular, if i(u, v) = 0, then di S(u, v) = d(u, v); and if i(u, v) = D(u, v) − d(u, v), then di S(u, v) = D(u, v). For i(u, v) = D(u, v) − d(u, v), such a Smarandachely i-detour set is called a weak edge detour set in G. The weak edge detour number dnw(G) of G is the minimum order of its weak edge detour sets and any weak edge detour set of order dnw(G) is a weak edge detour basis of G. For any weak edge detour basis S of G, a subset T ⊆ S is called a forcing subset for S if S is the unique weak edge detour basis containing T. A forcing subset for S of minimum cardinality is a minimum forcing subset of S. The forcing weak edge detour number of S, denoted by fdnw(S), is the cardinality of a minimum forcing subset for S. The forcing weak edge detour number of G, denoted by fdnw(G), is fdnw(G) = min{fdnw(S)}, where the minimum is taken over all weak edge detour bases S in G. The forcing weak edge detour numbers of certain classes of graphs are determined. It is proved that for each pair a, b of integers with 0 ≤ a ≤ b and b ≥ 2, there is a connected graph G with fdnw(G) = a and dnw(G) = b.
Category: General Mathematics

[131] viXra:1403.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:45:02

Two Formulas for Smarandache LCM Ratio Sequences

Authors: Wang Ting
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, a reduction formula for Smarandache LCM ratio sequences SLR(6)and SLR(7) are given.
Category: General Mathematics

[130] viXra:1403.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:46:29

Four Problems Related to the Pseudo-Smarandache-Squarefree Function

Authors: Wenji Guan
Comments: 3 Pages.

For any positive integer n, the Pseudo-Smarandache-Squarefree function Zw(n)is de¯ned as the smallest positive integer m such that mn is divisible by n. That is,Zw(n) = min fm : m 2 N; n j mng. In reference [2], Felice Russo proposed many problems and conjectures related to the Pseudo-Smarandache-Squarefree function Zw(n). The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary methods to study several problems in [2], and four of them are solved.
Category: General Mathematics

[129] viXra:1403.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:47:47

Smarandache Friendly Cube Numbers

Authors: Muneer Jebreel Karama
Comments: 3 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to introduce new concepts of Smarandache numbers, namely Smarandache Friendly Cube Numbers, and give definitions, curious note, theorem, conjectures, proposed future studies, and ask open problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[128] viXra:1403.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:49:31

On the Smarandache Function and the Divisor Product Sequences

Authors: Mingdong Xiao
Comments: 4 Pages.

Let n be any positive integer, Pd(n) denotes the product of all positive divisors of n. The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary and analytic methods to study the mean value properties of a new arithmetical function S (Pd(n)), and give an interesting asymptotic formula for it.
Category: General Mathematics

[127] viXra:1403.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 06:51:39

On the Pseudo Smarandache Function and Its Two Conjectures

Authors: Yani Zheng
Comments: 3 Pages.

For any positive integer n, the famous Pseudo Smarandache function Z(n) is de¯ned as the smallest integer m such that n evenly divides Xm k=1 k. That is, Z(n) = min ½ m : nj m(m + 1) 2; m 2 N¾, where N denotes the set of all positive integers. The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method to study the properties of the Pseudo Smarandache function Z(n), and solve two conjectures posed by Kenichiro Kashihara in ref- erence [2].
Category: General Mathematics

[126] viXra:1403.0184 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-22 08:12:02

The Answer of the Axiom Equivalent to Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: T.Nakashima
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper is the answer of the Riemann Hypothesis about the sum of the mebius function.
Category: Number Theory

[125] viXra:1403.0183 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-24 16:43:40

Theory of Gravity "ENERGY-WAVE": the Origin

Authors: Rodolfo Sergio González Castro
Comments: 12 Pages. hal.archives-ouvertes.fr:hal-00947254

In this paper I derive an equation relating the gravitational acceleration with the gravitational wavelength corresponding to the “gravitational energy” density at a point in space and with the speed of light, without using the gravitational constant of Newton (G), derive an equation of the Energy-Momentum of Einstein suppressing this constant, and further I set the foundations for new theory of gravity “Energy-Wave”.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[124] viXra:1403.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 19:42:37

Anthropic Principle, Cosmomicrophysics and Biosphere

Authors: Aleksandr V. Bukalov
Comments: 7 Pages. Proc. 11-th Gamov Odessa Astronomical Conftrence, - Odessa,2011

It is shown, that the Earth biosphere main parameters, such as the alive matter total mass, the DNA and peptides length, are connected with the observed Universe parameters. In particular, the length of the integral genome DNA of the Earth biosphere is equal to the Hubble radius. The consideration of humanity as the biosphere matter especial part provides us to value the human mass limit and extremal quantity; the obtained results coincide with the ones, calculated by the demography specialists. The obtained relations are explained by the author conception of the synergistical evolutioning Universe, where the nonequilibrium structures, including the alive ones, are created under the action of the observed energy forms as well as of the dark energy. The connection between the biosphere and Universe parameters provides us to extend the Anthropic principle notion as well as the observer conception because the biosphere is an adaptation tracing system, which adjusts itself under the Universe evolution to be the one unit with it. Keywords: biosphere, cosmological parameters, Hubble radius, DNA length, humanity mass, Earth biosphere mass, Universe mass, Hubble radius, P. Dirac Big Numbers, fine structure constant, synergetical Universe, biospheres number in the Universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[123] viXra:1403.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 22:21:39

Fallout Forecasts in Surface and Under Water Bursts

Authors: Nigel B. Cook
Comments: 15 Pages.

Concise, brief 15-page fallout prediction model, covering both land surface and underwater nuclear explosions, radiation shielding by buildings, fallout solubility as function of particle size, retention on vegetation, gamma ray spectrum versus time, fractionation of fission products, salting by cobalt-60 etc., and effects of environmental neutron induced activities in fallout. Includes literature summaries and data reductions to formulae based on many reports.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[122] viXra:1403.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 23:16:44

Pair Creation Model of The Universe From Positive and Negative Energy

Authors: Hyoyoung Choi, Prabir Rudra
Comments: 23 pages, 16 figures

Departing from the abstract aversion of the concept of negative mass (energy), we propose a pair creation model of the universe taking into account the possibility of co-existence of both positive and negative mass particles. Nature of negative mass has been given a fair thought and the possible dynamics is studied. The existence of negative mass has been theoretically justified. The birth of the universe is explained and the future is predicted using the pair creation model. Various cosmological problems have been discussed and it has been shown that the model presents an obvious solution to all of them. Einstein's field equations of General Relativity have been modified in the light of the model. The energy ratio of the components of the universe (matter, dark matter and dark energy) is studied using the model and found to be comparable with the experimental data obtained from WMAP and Planck. Finally it is concluded that the model deserves a serious consideration, given its consistency with the observational data.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[121] viXra:1403.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 01:24:12

The Milne Universe and the Melia 'Cosmic Horizon'.

Authors: Richard Blaber.
Comments: 9 Pages. 14 equations; 36 footnotes.

We revisit the Milne cosmological model and examine Melia’s argument for a ‘cosmic horizon’ in relation to that model, before dismissing both in favour of the standard Lambda-CDM view.
Category: Astrophysics

[120] viXra:1403.0178 [pdf] replaced on 2014-05-16 14:30:57

Cosmos 2014 Bruno Llull E8 Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 17 Pages.

Cosmos (2014) with Neil deGrasse Tyson discusses Giordano Bruno's MultiVerse. David Deutch defines the MultiVerse in terms of SnapShots that are equivalent to Cl(16) E8 Local Lagrangian Regions that can be combined by completing the union of all tensor products of all copies of Cl(16) for such E8 Local Lagrangian SnapShot Regions to produce a generalization of the Hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor that is a realistic Algebraic Quantum Field Theory for E8 Physics. Ramon Llull's 13th Century Quaternary Phase Art gives a remarkably detailed picture of the Structure of E8 Physics. In the 16th Century Giordano Bruno had access only to Llull's Ternary Art which was far less detailed than the earlier Quaternary Art, but even so was able to see that Llull's Art was, as Anthony Bonner said, "… a way to explore the connections among his infinity of worlds …", a way that can now in the 21st Century be seen to be consistent with the realistic E8 Physics model. V2 adds Vico, Joyce and Finnegans Wake
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[119] viXra:1403.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:05:32

Six Neutral Fundamental Interactions Between Four Fundamental Interactions

Authors: Fu Yuhua, Fu Anjie, Zhao Ge
Comments: 2 Pages.

Besides the existing four fundamental interactions there must exist six neutral fundamental interactions (as six new forms of interaction) in accordance with the neutrosophy theory. For example, between strong interaction and weak interaction there exists intermediate interaction, namely neutral strong-weak fundamental interaction, it’s neither strong interaction nor weak interaction, but something in between. Similarly, other five neutral fundamental interactions are neutral strong-electromagnetic fundamental interaction, neutral strong-gravitation fundamental interaction, neutral weak-electromagnetic fundamental interaction, neutral weak-gravitation fundamental interaction and neutral electromagnetic-gravitation fundamental interaction. Thus, there are ten fundamental interactions all together.
Category: General Mathematics

[118] viXra:1403.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:09:15

Smarandache Car Primes

Authors: Jason Earls
Comments: 3 Pages.

In Smarandache Sequences Vol. I at the Smarandache web site[1], item #12 is a “Smarandache car” in which the figure of a vehicle can be seen as a picture outlined in a block of digits. In this note I report on some primes that were found using the “Smarandache car” as the initial segment of their decimal expansions.
Category: General Mathematics

[117] viXra:1403.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:10:57

The Smarandache Class of Paradoxes

Authors: Charles T. Le
Comments: 3 Pages.

The three kinds of paradoxes are equivalent. They are called: The Smarandache Class of Paradoxes.
Category: General Mathematics

[116] viXra:1403.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:13:09

The Smarandache Complex

Authors: Said Broumi
Comments: Pages.

The Smarandache Cómplex (with the accent on the first syllable): is a collection of fears.
Category: General Mathematics

[115] viXra:1403.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:15:02

Smarandache Hypothesis that: There Is No Speed Barrier in the Universe Abstract.

Authors: M. Khoshnevisan
Comments: Pages.

In this short paper, as an extension and consequence of Einstein-Podolski-Rosen paradox and Bell’s inequality, one promotes the hypothesis that: There is no speed barrier in the universe and one can construct arbitrary speeds, and also one asks if it's possible to have an infinite speed (instantaneous transmission)?
Category: General Mathematics

[114] viXra:1403.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:19:02

On Some Characterization of Smarandache Lattice with Pseudo Complement

Authors: N. Kannappa, Mr. K. Suresh
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper we have introduced smarandache - 2 - Algebraic structure of lattice namely smarandache lattice. A smarandache 2- algebraic structure on a set N means a weak algebraic structure Ao on N such that there exists a proper subset M of N which is embedded with a stronger algebraic structure A1, Stronger algebraic structure means that it is satisfying more axioms, by proper subset one understands a subset different from the empty set, from the unit element if any, and from the whole set. we define smarandache lattice and obtain some of its characterization through Pseudo complemented .For basic concept we refer to PadilaRaul[4].
Category: General Mathematics

[113] viXra:1403.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:20:40

Smarandache Linguistic Paradoxes, Vol. II

Authors: A. A. Salama
Comments: Pages.

Classes of linguistic paradoxes are introduced with examples and explanations. The general cases exposed below are modeled on the English language structure in a rigid way. In order to find nice particular examples of such paradoxes one grammatically adjusts the sentences.
Category: General Mathematics

[112] viXra:1403.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:22:42

Smarandache N-Structure

Authors: M. Khoshnevisan
Comments: Pages.

In any domain of knowledge, a Smarandache -structure, for , on a set means a weak structure on such that there exists a chain of proper subsets whose corresponding structures satisfy the inverse inclusion chain , where signifies strictly stronger (i.e., structure satisfying more axioms).
Category: General Mathematics

[111] viXra:1403.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:23:52

Smarandache Social Semi-Paradox

Authors: M. Khoshnevisan
Comments: Pages.

In a democracy should the non-democratic ideas be allowed?
Category: General Mathematics

[110] viXra:1403.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:25:05

Smarandache Sociological Theory

Authors: A. A. Salama
Comments: Pages.

As in the Primitive Society, the modern society is making for MATRIARCHATE – the woman leads in the industrialized societies.
Category: General Mathematics

[109] viXra:1403.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:26:30

A Note on Smarandache BL-Algebras

Authors: Celestin Lele, Jean B. Nganou
Comments: 10 Pages.

Using some new characterizations of ideals in BL-algebras, we revisit the paper of A. Borumand, and al.[1] recently published in this Journal. Using the concept of MV-center of a BL-algebra, we give a very simple characterization of Smarandache BL-algebra. We also restate some of the results and provide much simpler proofs. Among other things, we notice that Theorem 3.17 and Theorem 3.18 of [1] are not true and they aect a good portion of the paper. Since Deni- tion 3.19, Examples 3.20, 3.21, Theorem 3.22, Remark 3.23 and Remark 3.24 are based on a wrong Theorem, they are completely irrelevant.
Category: General Mathematics

[108] viXra:1403.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:32:26

Smarandacheials

Authors: J. Dezert
Comments: 2 Pages.

Let n>k≥1 be two integers. Then the Smarandacheial is defined as:
Category: General Mathematics

[107] viXra:1403.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:35:00

The Smarandache-PĂTRAŞCU Theorem of Orthohomological Triangles

Authors: Mihai Dicu
Comments: 1 Page.

The Smarandache-Pătrașcu Theorem of orthohomological Triangles is the folllowing: If P1,P2 are isogonal points in the triangle ABC , and if 1 1 1 ABC and 2 2 2 A B C are their pedal triangles such that the triangles ABC and 1 1 1 ABC are homological (the lines 1 1 1 AA , BB , CC are concurrent), then the triangles ABC and 2 2 2 A B C are also homological.
Category: General Mathematics

[106] viXra:1403.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:38:13

Smarandache’s Quantum Chromodynamics Formula

Authors: A. A. Salama
Comments: Pages.

In order to save the colorless combinations prevailed in the Theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) of quarks and antiquarks in their combinations when binding, we devise the following formula.
Category: General Mathematics

[105] viXra:1403.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:42:40

Smarandache’s Codification Used in Computer Programming

Authors: Xingsen Li
Comments: Pages.

Since Venn diagram is very hard to draw and to read for the cases when the number of sets becomes big (say n = 8, 9, 10, 11, …), Smarandache has proposed a generalization of Venn diagram through an algebraic representation for the intersection of sets.
Category: General Mathematics

[104] viXra:1403.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:43:56

SMARANDACHE’S Illusion

Authors: Xingsen Li
Comments: Pages.

Suppose you travel to a third world country, for example Romania.
Category: General Mathematics

[103] viXra:1403.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:45:17

Smarandache's Law on Sensations and Stimuli

Authors: Xingsen Li
Comments: Pages.

Is is an improvement of Weber's and Fechner's Laws on sensations and stimuli.
Category: General Mathematics

[102] viXra:1403.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:46:59

Smarandache's Syndrome

Authors: Xingsen Li
Comments: Pages.

Is characterized by nose frequently bleeding under stress, fear,restlessness, tiredness, nervousness, prolonged unhappiness.
Category: General Mathematics

[101] viXra:1403.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:48:38

Smarandache Linguistic Tautologies

Authors: Said Broumi
Comments: Pages.

Classes of linguistic tautologies are introduced with examples and explanations. The general cases exposed below are modeled on the English language structure in a rigid way. In order to find nice particular examples of such tautologies one grammatically adjusts the sentences.
Category: General Mathematics

[100] viXra:1403.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:54:42

Connecting Bioscience, Atoms, Gravitation, Black Holes, and Strings

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 6 Pages.

I'm studying Bioscience externally with Charles Darwin University in Australia, and the textbook for this unit is "Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology" (Tenth Edition) by Elaine N. Marieb - Pearson Education Limited, 2014. In the textbook on p.35, Review Question 3 asks "Which is not essential to survival? (Water, Oxygen, Gravity, Atmospheric pressure, Nutrients)" Of course, the answer is supposed to be "gravity". For years, I've firmly believed (based on neglected theories of Einstein's, that I've built on) that gravity is as essential as any of the other items (without gravity, there would be no atoms and no water, oxygen, atmosphere etc.) My question is - If I'm asked this as a multiple choice in a test (meaning there'e no space for lengthy explanation), what should I do? Stick to the beliefs I've spent years developing, and get marked "wrong"? Or conform to tradition, answer "gravity" even though I don't want to, and get marked "right"?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[99] viXra:1403.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:50:06

On Smarandache’s Sphere

Authors: Mihaly Bencze
Comments: 3 Pages.

Through one of the intersecting points of two circles we draw a line that intersects a second time the circles in the points 1 M and 2 M respectively. Then the geometric locus of the point M which divides the segment 1 2 M M in a ratio k (i.e. M1M = k⋅MM2) is the circle of center O (where O is the point that divides the segment of line that connects the two circle centers O1 and respectively O2 into the ratio k, i.e. O1O = k ⋅OO2 ) and radius OA, without the points A and B.
Category: General Mathematics

[98] viXra:1403.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:52:16

A Smarandache Strong Structure

Authors: R. Padilla
Comments: 2 Pages.

A Smarandache Strong Structure on a set S means a structure on S that has a proper subset P with a stronger structure. By proper subset of a set S, we mean a subset P of S, different from the empty set, from the original set S, and from the idempotent elements if any.
Category: General Mathematics

[97] viXra:1403.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:53:43

A Smarandache Strong-Weak Structure

Authors: R. Padilla
Comments: 1 Page.

A Smarandache Strong-Weak Structure on a set S means a structure on S that has two proper subsets: P with a stronger structure, and Q with a weaker structure.
Category: General Mathematics

[96] viXra:1403.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:55:13

Smarandache Summands

Authors: Mihaly Bencze
Comments: 2 Pages.

Let n>k≥1 be two integers. Then a Smarandache Summand is defined as:
Category: General Mathematics

[95] viXra:1403.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:57:08

A Smarandache Weak Structure

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy
Comments: 1 Page.

A Smarandache Weak Structure on a set S means a structure on S that has a proper subset P with a weaker structure. By proper subset of a set S, we mean a subset P of S, different from the empty set, from the original set S, and from the idempotent elements if any.
Category: General Mathematics

[94] viXra:1403.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 03:58:17

Smarandache-Wellin Numbers and Primes

Authors: Said Broumi
Comments: Pages.

A Smarandache-Wellin Number, SWN(n), in a given base b, is a number resulted from the concatenation of first consecutive prime numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[93] viXra:1403.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 04:01:51

Factoring of the Smarandache Back Concatenated Odd Seque

Authors: Micha Fleuren
Comments: 6 Pages.

SmBackConodd(1): 1 PRIME! SmBackConodd(2): 31 PRIME!
Category: General Mathematics

[92] viXra:1403.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 04:05:07

Smarandache Structures of Generalized BCK-Algebras

Authors: Young Bae Jun
Comments: 6 Pages.

The Smarandache structure of generalized BCK-algebras is considered. Several examples of a qS-gBCK-algebra are provided. The notion of SΩ-ideals and qSΩ-ideals is introduced, and related properties are investigated.
Category: General Mathematics

[91] viXra:1403.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 04:17:17

Enumerating Annihilator Polynomials over Z n

Authors: Navin Kashyap, Alexander Vardy
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, we present characterizations of annihilator polynomials over the ring, Zn = Z=nZ, of integers modulo n. These characterizations are used to derive an expression for the number of annihilator polynomials of degree k over Zn, as well as one for the number of monic annihilators of degree k.
Category: General Mathematics

[90] viXra:1403.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 04:18:50

A Note on Q-Analogue of S´ANDOR’S Functions

Authors: Taekyun Kim, C. Adiga, Jung Hun Han
Comments: 8 Pages.

The additive analogues of Pseudo-Smarandache, Smarandache-simple func-tions and their duals have been recently studied by J. S´andor. In this note, we obtain q-analogues of S´andor’s theorems
Category: General Mathematics

[89] viXra:1403.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 04:22:33

Pseudo-Manifold Geometries ¸ with Applications

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 15 Pages.

A Smarandache geometry is a geometry which has at least one Smarandachely denied axiom(1969), i.e., an axiom behaves in at least two different ways within the same space, i.e., validated and invalided, or only invalided but in multiple distinct ways and a Smarandache n-manifold is a nmanifold that support a Smarandache geometry. Iseri provided a construction for Smarandache 2-manifolds by equilateral triangular disks on a plane and a more general way for Smarandache 2-manifolds on surfaces, called map geome- tries was presented by the author in [9]−[10] and [12]. However, few observations for cases of n ≥ 3 are found on the journals. As a kind of Smarandache geometries, a general way for constructing dimensional n pseudo-manifolds are presented for any integer n ≥ 2 in this paper. Connection and principal fiber bundles are also defined on these manifolds. Following these constructions, nearly all existent geometries, such as those of Euclid geometry, Lobachevshy- Bolyai geometry, Riemann geometry, Weyl geometry, K¨ahler geometry and Finsler geometry, ...,etc., are their sub-geometries.
Category: General Mathematics

[88] viXra:1403.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 04:24:52

On the Universality of Some Smarandache Loops of Bol-Moufang Type

Authors: Jaiyeola Temitope Gbolahan
Comments: 15 Pages. 15

Smarandache quasigroup(loop) is shown to be universal if all its f, g-principal isotopes are Smarandache f, g-principal isotopes. Also, weak Smarandache loops of Bol-Moufang type such as Smarandache: left(right) Bol, Moufang and extra loops are shown to be universal if all their f, g-principal isotopes are Smarandache f, g- principal isotopes. Conversely, it is shown that if these weak Smarandache loops of Bol-Moufang type are universal, then some autotopisms are true in the weak Smaran- dache sub-loops of the weak Smarandache loops of Bol-Moufang type relative to some Smarandache elements. Futhermore, a S in which all its f, g-principal isotopes are Smarandache f, g-principal isotopes is shown to be universal if and only if it is a Smarandache left(right) Bol loop in which all its f, g-principal isotopes are Smarandache f, g-principal isotopes. Also, it is established that a Smarandache inverse property loop in which all its f, g-principal isotopes are Smarandache f, g-principal isotopes is universal if and only if it is a Smarandache Moufang loop in which all its f, g-principal isotopes are Smarandache f, g-principal isotopes. Hence, some of the autotopisms earlier mentioned are found to be true in the Smarandache sub-loops of universal Smarandache: left(right) inverse property loops and inverse property loops.
Category: General Mathematics

[87] viXra:1403.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 04:35:30

A Multi-Space Model for Chinese Bids Evalua¸tion with Analyzing

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 16 Pages.

A tendering is a negotiating process for a contract through by a tenderer issuing an invitation, bidders submitting bidding documents and the tenderer accepting a bidding by sending out a notification of award. As a useful way of purchasing, there are many norms and rulers for it in the purchasing guides of the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, · · ·, also in contract conditions of various consultant associations. In China, there is a law and regulation system for tendering and bidding. However, few works on the mathematical model of a tendering and its evaluation can be found in publication. The main purpose of this paper is to construct a Smarandache multi-space model for a tendering, establish an evaluation system for bidding based on those ideas in the references [7] and [8] and analyze its solution by applying the decision approach for multiple objectives and value engineering. Open problems for pseudo-multi-spaces are also presented in the final section.
Category: General Mathematics

[86] viXra:1403.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 04:37:15

An Introduction to the Smarandache N-Structures

Authors: Sukanto Bhattacharya
Comments: 3 Pages.

{w0} on S such that there exists a chain of proper subsets Pn-1 < Pn-2 < … < P2 < P1 < S, where '<' means 'included in', whose corresponding structures verify the inverse chain {wn-1} > {wn-2} > … > {w2} > {w1} > {w0}, where '>' signifies 'strictly stronger' (i.e., structure satisfying more axioms).
Category: General Mathematics

[85] viXra:1403.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 04:41:07

Designing with Smarandache Sequences, Part 1: Concatenation Sequences

Authors: Ralph E. Griswold
Comments: 3 Pages.

All kinds of things can be found among integer sequences, including the weird and nonsensical. Enter Smarandache sequences (S. sequences, for short), which are integer sequences due to Florentin Smarandache and his disciples.
Category: General Mathematics

[84] viXra:1403.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 06:54:12

Confinement of Charge Creation and Annihilation Centers by Nakanishi-Lautrup Field

Authors: Hideki Mutoh
Comments: 4 Pages.

The electromagnetic field model including Nakanishi-Lautrup (NL) field of quantum electrodynamics (QED) can easily treat creation and annihilation of positive and negative charge pairs, although it is difficult for Maxwell's equations to treat them. However, the model does not directly satisfy the charge conservation equation and permits single charge creation and annihilation. It is shown that the potential energy of NL field for a pair of charge creation and annihilation centers is proportional to their distance. It causes the confinement of charge creation and annihilation centers, which means the charge conservation for this model. The quark confinement might be also explained by the energy of NL field.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[83] viXra:1403.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 00:43:56

Son Birth and Female Lifespan Are Positively Related in Humans

Authors: Madhukar Shivajirao Dama
Comments: 20 Pages.

Sexual dimorphism of human body size starts as early as first trimester of fetal development [1]. Compared to daughters, sons develop faster [2] and weigh 2-3% higher at birth [3]. This dimorphism is believed to create an investment dimorphism for mothers, such that, women bearing sons tend to incur higher physiological investment costs. Further, analysis of human populations has shown that mothers bearing more sons require longer time to reproduce again [4]. These observations lead to the prediction that mothers bearing more sons may need to trade the physiological investments with lifespan [5].
Category: Quantitative Biology

[82] viXra:1403.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 00:41:51

Is Sarah Becker's Fully Renewable us Electricity System a Realistic Plan?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 3 Pages. This article has not been submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome

Sarah Becker et al. just released a new paper (arXiv: 1402.2833) where she and her colleagues including Mark Jacobson suggest a new plan for fully renewable US electricity system. Their title is: Features of a fully renewable US electricity system: Optimized mixes of wind and solar PV and transmission grid extensions. So I think it is worth to discuss their proposal.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[81] viXra:1403.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 01:10:34

Offspring Sex-Ratio in Humans – Does it Depend on Population Size?

Authors: Madhukar Shivajirao Dama
Comments: 18 Pages.

Balanced sex ratio evolves by a process known as frequency-dependent selection of the minority sex. Efforts to test this theory have focused mainly on experimental populations. Heterogametic sex has greater influence over the sex of the offspring. We tested the prediction that a smaller human population should favor male offspring. Our findings reveal that size of the population has significant inverse correlation with male proportion. We also present evidence for frequency-dependent selection of the minority sex and evolution of balanced sex ratio in isolated human population.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[80] viXra:1403.0114 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-07 23:11:27

Unique Einstein Gravity from Feynman's Lorentz Condition

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 6 Pages.

The Principle of Equivalence is a central concept of Einstein's theory of gravitation, which makes generally covariant presentation of that theory extremely convenient for working out and communicating its dynamical detail. Weinberg has pointed out, however, that part of the base physics content of the theory, e.g., its overall stress-energy and conserved four-momentum, is inaccessible to formulations which maintain strict general covariance. Feynman, whose lectures on gravitation initially pursue an order-by-order construction of the theory, as a by-product arrived at a revelatory insight into the dynamical character of the gravitational field that reaches one step beyond Weinberg's not yet theory-stipulating separation of the Einstein tensor into its physically dissimilar linear and nonlinear parts. While Einstein's gauge-imposition of a local conservation principle is a common theme in physical theory, permitting it to spill over into outright solution nonuniqueness clearly isn't acceptable classical physics. Thus stipulation of Feynman's gravitational Lorentz condition, which pins down the dynamical character of the gravitational field, is fundamental to physically sensible application of Einstein's gravity theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[79] viXra:1403.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 03:18:26

O Introducere ÎN Geometriile Smarandache

Authors: L. Kuciuk, M. Antholy
Comments: 4 Pages.

In această lucrare facem o prezentare a acestor geometrii inovatoare şi prezentăm un model pentru una particulară.
Category: General Mathematics

[78] viXra:1403.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 03:20:23

Smarandache Semi-Automaton and Automaton

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we study the Smarandache Semi-Automaton and Automaton using Smarandache free groupoids.
Category: General Mathematics

[77] viXra:1403.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 03:22:15

Smarandache Cosets

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper aims to study the Smarandache cosets and derive some interesting results about them. We prove the classical Lagranges theorem for Smarandache semigroup is not true and that there does not exist a one-to-one correspondence between any two right cosets. We also show that the classical theorems cannot be extended to all Smarandache semigroups. This leads to the definition of Smarandache Lagrange semigroup, Smarandache p Sylow subgroup and Smarandache Cauchy elements. Further if we restrict ourselves to the subgroup of the Smarandache semigroup all results would follow trivially hence the Smarandache coset would become a trivial definition.
Category: General Mathematics

[76] viXra:1403.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 03:24:38

Die Smarandache'sche Klasse Von Paradoxien

Authors: C. Le
Comments: 4 Pages.

Die drei Arten der Paradoxe sind äquivalent. Man nennt sie: die Smarandache'sche Klasse von Paradoxen.
Category: General Mathematics

[75] viXra:1403.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 03:27:44

Smarandache-Galois Fields

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we study the notion of Smarandache-Galois fields and homomorphism and the Smarandache quotient ring. Galois fields are nothing but fields having only a finite number of elements. We also propose some interesting problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[74] viXra:1403.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 03:31:59

Palindromic Permutations and Generalized Smarandache Palindromic Permutations

Authors: T`emitope Gbolahan Jaiyeola
Comments: 14 Pages.

The idea of left(right) palindromic permutations(LPPs,RPPs) and left(right) gen- eralized Smarandache palindromic permutations(LGSPPs,RGSPPs) are introduced in symmetric groups Sn of degree n. It is shown that in Sn, there exist a LPP and a RPP and they are unique(this fact is demonstrated using S2 and S3). The dihedral group Dn is shown to be generated by a RGSPP and a LGSPP(this is observed to be true in S3) but the geometric interpretations of a RGSPP and a LGSPP are found not to be rotation and reflection respectively. In S3, each permutation is at least a RGSPP or a LGSPP. There are 4 RGSPPs and 4 LGSPPs in S3, while 2 permutations are both RGSPPs and LGSPPs. A permutation in Sn is shown to be a LPP or RPP(LGSPP or RGSPP) if and only if its inverse is a LPP or RPP(LGSPP or RGSPP) respectively. Problems for future studies are raised.
Category: General Mathematics

[73] viXra:1403.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 03:33:49

Smarandache Groupoids

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper we study the concept of Smarandache Groupoids, subgroupoids, ideal of groupoids, semi-normal subgroupoids, Smarandache-Bol groupoids and Strong Bol groupoids and obtain many interesting results about them.
Category: General Mathematics

[72] viXra:1403.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 03:35:23

Partially Paradoxist Smarandache Geometries

Authors: Howard Iseri
Comments: 8 Pages.

A paradoxist Smarandache geometry combines Euclidean, hyperbolic, and elliptic geometry into one space along with other non-Euclidean behaviors of lines that would seem to require a discrete space. A class of continuous spaces is presented here together with specific examples that exhibit almost all of these phenomena and suggest the prospect of a continuous paradoxist geometry.
Category: General Mathematics

[71] viXra:1403.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 03:37:02

Paper Models of Surfaces with Curvature Creative Visualization Labs Baltimore Joint Mathematics Meetings

Authors: Howard Iseri
Comments: 6 Pages.

A model of a cone can be constructed from a piece of paper by removing a wedge and taping the edges together. The paper models discussed here expand on this idea (one or more wedges are added and/or removed). These models are flat everywhere, except at the “cone points,” so the geodesics are locally straight lines in a natural sense. Non-Euclidean “effects” are easily quantifiable using basic geometry, the Gauss-Bonnet theorem is a naturally intuitive concept, and the connection between hyperbolic and elliptic geometry and curvature is clearly seen.
Category: General Mathematics

[70] viXra:1403.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 03:38:56

Impulse Gauss Curvatures 2002 SSHE-MA Conference

Authors: Howard Iseri
Comments: 11 Pages.

In Riemannian (differential) geometry, the differences between Euclidean geometry, elliptic geometry, and hyperbolic geometry are understood in terms of curvature. I think Gauss and Riemann captured the essence of geometry in their studies of surfaces and manifolds, and their point of view is spectacularly illuminating. Unfortunately, curvature is highly non-trivial to work with. I will talk about a more accessible version of curvature that dates back to Descartes.
Category: General Mathematics

[69] viXra:1403.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 03:52:39

Neutrosophic Combinatorics and Its Applications

Authors: Fu Yuhua, Fu Anjie
Comments: 7 Pages.

Based on the combined method in Chinese ancient I-Ching and theory of Taiji, this paper presents the Neutrosophic combinatorics by means of the combinations of the truth, the falsehood, and the indeterminacy in Smarandache’s Neutrosophy. For the Neutrosophic combinatorics we can say that “Changes originate in the Taiji; from the Taiji come the 3 spheres. From the 3 spheres come the 9 elements, and from the 9 elements come the 27 diagrams.” As the application examples, discussing the further revision to Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem; Based on one divides into two, three, more than three, pointing out that one can divide into the mixed fraction parts even hypercomplex numbers parts, such as one divides into two point five parts, one divides into (1+9i+25000j+1700k) parts; By using Neutrosophic combinatorics, also presents the digitized Taiji figure, fractal Taiji figure and the special digitized Taiji figure (one kind of asymmetry Taiji figure). Finally, discussing the rule in the application of Neutrosophic combinatorics, namely the truth uniqueness, for example, if considering that the principle of conservation of energy is a truth, then the principle of conservation of momentum or the principle of conservation of angular momentum no longer can be considered as a truth.
Category: General Mathematics

[68] viXra:1403.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 03:54:15

On Smarandache Rings

Authors: T. Srinivas, A.K.S. Chandra Sekhar Rao
Comments: 14 Pages.

It is proved that a ring R in which for every x ∈ R there exists a (and hence the smallest) natural number n(x) > 1 such that xn(x) = x is always a Smarandache Ring. Two examples are provided for justification.
Category: General Mathematics

[67] viXra:1403.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 03:57:57

Un Model Simplu de Geometrie Smarandache Construit Exclusiv cu Elemente de Geometrie Euclidiană

Authors: Ovidiu Șandru
Comments: 3 Pages.

În spațiul euclidian tridimensional considerăm două plane paralele și distincte 1 α și 2 α . Spațiul Smarandache Σ , pe care îl definim, este alcătuit din punctele acestor două plane, sau altfel zis,Σ =α1 ∪α 2 . Tot prin definiție, considerăm că dreptele acestui spațiu sunt date de reuniunea tuturor dreptelor (euclidiene) incluse în 1 α , sau 2 α . În legătură cu elementele modelului geometric Σ enunțăm următoarele definiții :
Category: General Mathematics

[66] viXra:1403.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 04:00:02

Christianto-Smarandache's Poly-Emporium Theory in Economics

Authors: V. Christianto
Comments: 7 Pages.

A new theory is proposed: poly-emporium theory. A search done in Google on May 3rd, 2008, for the term “poly-emporium” returned no entry, so we introduce it for the first time.
Category: General Mathematics

[65] viXra:1403.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 04:02:41

Smarandache Sequences: Explorations and Discoveries with a Computer Algebra System

Authors: Paulo D. F. Gouveia, Delm F. M. Torres
Comments: 18 Pages.

We study Smarandache sequences of numbers, and related problems, via a Computer Algebra System. Solutions are discovered, and some conjectures presented.
Category: General Mathematics

[64] viXra:1403.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 04:04:34

Prim-Sum More Smarandache Conjectures on Primes' Summation (Generalizations of Goldbach and Polignac Conjectures)

Authors: L. Perez
Comments: 3 Pages.

Any odd integer n can be expressed as a combination of three primes as follows.
Category: General Mathematics

[63] viXra:1403.0089 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-24 06:33:00

Commonsense Local Realism Refutes Bell's Theorem

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: 12 Pages.

With Bell (1964) and his EPR-based mathematics contradicted by experiments, at least one step in his supposedly commonsense theorem must be false. Defining commonsense local realism as the fusion of local-causality (no causal influence propagates superluminally) and physical-realism (some physical properties change interactively), we eliminate all such contradictions and make EPR correlations intelligible by completing the quantum mechanical account in a classical way. Thus refuting the famous inequality at the heart of Bell's mathematics, we show that Bell's theorem is limited by Bell's use of naive realism. Validating the classical mantra that correlated tests on correlated things produce correlated results without mystery, we conclude that Bell's theorem and related experiments negate naive realism, not commonsense local realism.
Category: Quantum Physics

[62] viXra:1403.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-13 04:15:19

Smarandache's Concurrent Lines Theory

Authors: Mircea Eugen Selariu
Comments: 9 Pages.

Teorema liniilor concurente a lui Florentin Smarandache...
Category: General Mathematics

[61] viXra:1403.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-12 14:20:19

GTR and Perpetuum Mobile Rehabilitation

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 22 Pages.

First of all, the author solemnly declares that he recognizes the energy conservation law (understanding, however, that it will not help). Next we shall show that this law does not contradict the possibility of building a perpetual motion machine that uses the force of gravity. This, of course, reduces the kinetic energy of the Earth, but the author ignores this problem (in the same way as it is ignored by the designers of hydropower plants).
Category: Classical Physics

[60] viXra:1403.0085 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-26 08:04:04

Evolution of Vacuum and Origin of 160-Minute Oscillations Cycle

Authors: Aleksandr V. Bukalov
Comments: 5 Pages. Physics of consciousness and life, Cosmology and Astrophysics. — 2011. — № 4. — P. 49–53.

It is shown that 160-minute oscillations of luminosity of the Sun and some quasars, found out by a series of researchers, could be explained within the bounds of superconducting cosmology (SCC) as the oscillations of the primary Higgs vacuum, which remained in the present Universe. The anthropic consequences of existence of such oscillations are discussed. Key words: vacuum, superconducting cosmology, Higgs field, Anthropic Principle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[59] viXra:1403.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-12 14:35:25

GTR and Perpetuum Mobile Rehabilitation // ОТО и реабилитация вечного двигателя

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 23 Pages. in Russian

First of all, the author solemnly declares that he recognizes the energy conservation law (understanding, however, that it will not help). Next we shall show that this law does not contradict the possibility of building a perpetual motion machine that uses the force of gravity. This, of course, reduces the kinetic energy of the Earth, but the author ignores this problem (in the same way as it is ignored by the designers of hydropower plants). // Прежде всего автор торжественно заявляет, что признает закон сохранения энергии (понимая, однако, что это ему не поможет). Далее показывается, что этот закон не противоречит возможности построения вечного двигателя, использующего силы земного притяжения. При этом, естественно, уменьшается кинетическая энергия Земли, но эту проблему автор игнорирует (точно так же, как ее игнорируют конструкторы гидростанций).
Category: Classical Physics

[58] viXra:1403.0083 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-08 08:52:53

Goldbach's Conjecture

Authors: Ralf Wüsthofen
Comments: 10 Pages. First submission to the Annals of Mathematics on March 24, 2013, LATEST VERSION ON http://vixra.org/abs/1702.0300

This paper presents an elementary and short proof of the strong Goldbach conjecture. Whereas the traditional approaches focus on the control over the distribution of the primes by means of circle method and sieve theory, the proof is based on the constructive properties of the prime numbers, reflecting their multiplicative character within the natural numbers. With an equivalent but more convenient form of the conjecture in mind, we create a structure on the natural numbers. That structure leads to arithmetic identities which immediately imply the conjecture, more precisely, an even strengthened form of it. Moreover, we can achieve further results by generalizing the structuring. Thus, it turns out that the statement of the strong Goldbach conjecture is the special case of a general principle.
Category: Number Theory

[57] viXra:1403.0079 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-19 12:34:56

A Monte Carlo Simulation Framework for Testing Cosmological Models

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 10 Pages.

We tested alternative cosmologies using Monte Carlo simulations based on the sampling method of the zCosmos galactic survey. The survey encompasses a collection of observable galaxies with respective redshifts that have been obtained for a given spectroscopic area of the sky. Using a cosmological model, we can convert the redshifts into light-travel times and, by slicing the survey into small redshift buckets, compute a curve of galactic density over time. Because foreground galaxies obstruct the images of more distant galaxies, we simulated the theoretical galactic density curve using an average galactic radius. By comparing the galactic density curves of the simulations with that of the survey, we could assess the cosmologies. We applied the test to the expanding-universe cosmology of de Sitter and to a dichotomous cosmology.
Category: Astrophysics

[56] viXra:1403.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-11 17:04:04

A Tau Particle Model Based on the Sternglass Theory

Authors: Ray Fleming
Comments: 5 Pages.

Ernest Sternglass determined that a neutral meson, the π0 could be modeled as a relativistic electron-positron pair, and later determined that the muon could be modeled as an electron rotating around a similar electron-positron pair. The author noticed that there is a second higher-energy orbital solution not previously published by Sternglass where the electron-positron pair orbits around the electron’s center. A simple computation shows that the mass-energy of this second solution is consistent with the tau particle. Based on these models the mu and tau leptons are not fundamental particles as described in currently popular theories but are instead two excited meta-stable states of an electron and an electron-positron pair.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[55] viXra:1403.0077 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-25 17:59:18

On the Number of Baryons in the Observable Universe

Authors: Aleksandr V. Bukalov
Comments: 3 Pages. Physics of consciousness and life, Cosmology and Astrophysics. — 2013. — № 4. — P. 5–7

From the cosmological model of superconductivity (CCM) are obtained the formulas of the baryons and neutrinos numbers in the Universe. The connection between the number of baryons and leptons with the holographic principle is discussed. It is proposed to consider the number of generations of particles in the standard model as a quantum number. Key words: baryons, neutrinos, cosmology, baryon charge, CMBR.
Category: Astrophysics

[54] viXra:1403.0076 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-26 08:15:17

Coincidence Problem and Anthropocosmic Resonance: Precision Ratios of the Critical Density of the Universe and the Density of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation in the Modern Era

Authors: Aleksandr V. Bukalov
Comments: 2 Pages. Physics of consciousness and life, Cosmology and Astrophysics. — 2013. — № 3. — P. 10–11.

The problem of coincidence of cosmic values is discussed. It is shown that in the modern era, at z = 0, on the basis of collaboration PLANCK data, the ratio between the density of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the critical density of the universe holds with high accuracy. Such ratio, as well as other unexplained in the standard Friedmann cosmology, is well explained in the cosmological model with superconductivity (CMS), previously proposed by the author. Keywords: cosmology, microwave radiation, coincidence problem.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[53] viXra:1403.0075 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-08 07:59:15

A Test of Financial Time-Series Data to Discriminate Among Lognormal, Gaussian and Square-Root Random Walks

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper aims to offer a testing framework for the structural properties of the Brownian motion of the underlying stochastic process of a time series. In particular, the test can be applied to financial time-series data and discriminate among the lognormal random walk used in the Black-Scholes-Merton model, the Gaussian random walk used in the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck stochastic process, and the square-root random walk used in the Cox, Ingersoll and Ross process. Alpha-level hypothesis testing is provided. This testing framework is helpful for selecting the best stochastic processes for pricing contingent claims and risk management.
Category: Statistics

[52] viXra:1403.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-12 05:57:42

A Finite-Difference Model for the Thermal History of the Earth

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 6 Pages.

The present study is an investigation of the thermal history of the earth using heat transfer modeling. Assuming that the earth was a hot ball at a homogeneous temperature upon its formation, the model makes the following two predictions about conditions 4.5 Ga later (the earth's approximate present age): (i) there will be a geothermal gradient within a range of 1.5-5.0C per 100 meters in the rst km of the earth crust; and (ii) the earth's crust will be about 45 km thick, which is in agreement with average continental crust thickness. The fact that oceanic crust is much thinner (around 5-10 km thick) is explained by convective heat transfer and plate tectonics. The strong agreement between he predicted thickness of earth's crust with the average actual continental crust thickness, helps confirm the accuracy of the current inner core model of the earth indicating a solid inner core made of iron based on seismological studies.
Category: Geophysics

[51] viXra:1403.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-10 18:38:18

Illustrations of a Modified Standard Model: Part 2-the Pion/muon Decays and the Neutrino Detector Nuclear Reactions

Authors: Roger N. Weller
Comments: 13 Pages.

The concepts of a proposed Modified Standard Model are applied to explain the charged pion and muon decays along with an analysis of the nuclear reactions involved in major neutrino detection experiments.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[50] viXra:1403.0072 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-15 08:53:33

The Collapse of the Event Horizon in the de Sitter Universe

Authors: Vitaly Kuyukov Petrovich
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this article reviews the evolution of the future of the Universe with a cosmological constant. When restricting the event horizon of the Universe, there exists a nonzero temperature of the Hawking. This effect leads to the reduction of the cosmological event horizon after a stage of expansion of the Universe with constant density of dark energy. Time compression in this Universe is determined only cosmological constant.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[49] viXra:1403.0069 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-19 12:53:16

Relations Between Significant Masses in the Micro and Macro World Based on the Boscovich's Theory

Authors: Branko Zivlak, Dragoslav Stoiljkovich
Comments: 10 Pages. 8 formulas

Starting from "A Theory of Natural Philosophy" by Roger Boscovich (1711−1787), we are showing that some significant masses in the micro and macro world, mi, (the Planck mass, fundamental mass, background mass, hypothetical mass quantum mq, as well as the masses of vacuum, infinite universe and our universe) can be calculated by a simple equation mi=mqN1/i, where N is a large non-dimensional number (6.3870772•10^+121) and i=-1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, infinite. Knowing these significant masses is useful for the calculation of other real masses. We are also showing the examples of calculating the masses of proton, electron and up quark.
Category: Classical Physics

[48] viXra:1403.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-10 08:20:29

Theorem of Quantum Gravity

Authors: Richard S. Morse
Comments: 18 Pages.

Lines of Particle Transport (LOPT) are proposed as the means by which energy is transferred between objects. Particles of energy move through connected Lines of Particles (LOP) of various energy states (or perceived energy states) with more open particle patterns (low frequency of particle generation) allowing higher energy compressed particles (high frequency of particle generation) to transfer through their respective interconnected LOP, thus forming Lines of Particle Transport (LOPT). This allows the lower energy object to receive energy and thereby increase the object’s energy level until both objects are of the same energy level or state. When both objects are of the same energy level, they have identical particle patterns, and at that point transfer stabilizes along the interconnected LOPT. The proposed LOPT theory is supported by current observation and resolves the conundrum of the duality of light by eliminating the issue of wave interference, therefore eliminating support for wave theory. The constancy of the speed of light is resolved through LOPT regardless of the speed of the source relative to the observer. This solution opens areas for revised thinking on a number of energy transfer and force issues and thus places particle movement and LOPT theory in a position to solve and resolve numerous physics issues, leading to a quantum explanation for gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[47] viXra:1403.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-09 20:55:03

Stellar Metamorphosis: The Life Hypothesis Versus the Habitable Zone Hypothesis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 3 diagrams, 3 references

In the star sciences astronomers and astrophysicists have ignored basic understanding of what life needs to survive as well as what is needed for water to exist in liquid form. The life hypothesis as covered in the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis is contrasted with the Habitable Zone Hypothesis of establishment scientism.
Category: Astrophysics

[46] viXra:1403.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-10 04:42:23

The Concept of the Effective Mass Tensor in GR. Newton's Bucket Argument.

Authors: Miroslaw J. Kubiak
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the papers [1, 2] we presented the concept of the effective mass tensor (EMT) in General Relativity (GR). According to this concept under the influence of the gravitational field the bare mass tensor becomes the EMT. The concept of the EMT is a new physical interpretation of GR, where the curvature of space-time has been replaced by the EMT. In this paper we consider again the concept of the EMT in the GR but in the aspect of Newton’s bucket argument.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[45] viXra:1403.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-09 10:53:12

Computer Arithmetic of Geometrical Figures. Algorithms and Hardware Design. // Компьютерная арифметика геометрических фигур. Алгоритмы и аппаратура.

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 164 Pages. Book.

This book describes various versions of processors, designed for affine transformations of many-dimensional figures – planar and spatial. This processors is oriented to affine transformation of unstructured geometrical figures with arbitrary points distribution. The type of data presentation used in this book is non-conventional, based on a not well-known theory of vectors and geometrical figures coding. The problems of affine transformation are used widely in science and engineering. The examples of their application are computer tomography and data compression for telecommunication systems. The book covers the figures coding theory – the codes structure, algorithms of coding and decoding for planar and spatial figures, arithmetical operations with planar and spatial figures. The theory is supplemented by numerous examples. The arrangement of several versions of geometrical processor is considered – data representation, operating blocks, hardwares realization of coding, decoding and arithmetic operations algorithms. The processor’s internal performance is appraised. The book is designed for students, engineers and developers, who intend to use the computer arithmetic of geometrical figures in their own research and development in the field of specialized processors. // В книге рассматриваются различные варианты процессоров, предназначенных для аффинных преобразований многомерных фигур - плоских и пространственных. Эти процессоры ориентированы на аффинное преобразование неструктурированных геометрических фигур с произвольным характером распределения точек. При этом ипользуется нетрадиционная форма представления данных, основанная на малоизвестной теории кодирования векторов и геометрических фигур. Задачи аффинного преобразования пространства широко используются в науке и технике. В книге описывается теория кодирования фигур – структура кодов, алгоритмы кодирования, декодирования плоских и пространственных фигур, арифметические операции с плоскими и пространственными фигурами. Теория дополняется многочисленными примерами. Рассматривается несколько вариантов геометрического процессора – представление данных, операционные блоки, техническая реализация алгоритмов кодирования, декодирования и арифметических операций. Оценивается быстродействие этих процессоров.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[44] viXra:1403.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-09 10:41:32

Navier-Stokes Equations. on the Existence and the Search Method for Global Solutions. \\ Уравнения Навье-Стокса. Существование и метод поиска глобального решения.

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: Pages.

In this book we formulate and prove the variational extremum principle for viscous incompressible and compressible fluid, from which principle follows that the Navier-Stokes equations represent the extremum conditions of a certain functional. We describe the method of seeking solution for these equations, which consists in moving along the gradient to this functional extremum. We formulate the conditions of reaching this extremum, which are at the same time necessary and sufficient conditions of this functional global extremum existence. Then we consider the so-called closed systems. We prove that for them the necessary and sufficient conditions of global extremum for the named functional always exist. Accordingly, the search for global extremum is always successful, and so the unique solution of Naviet-Stokes is found. We contend that the systems described by Navier-Stokes equations with determined boundary solutions (pressure or speed) on all the boundaries, are closed systems. We show that such type of systems include systems bounded by impermeable walls, by free space under a known pressure, by movable walls under known pressure, by the so-called generating surfaces, through which the fluid flow passes with a known speed. The book is supplemented by open code programs in the MATLAB system – functions realizing the calculation method and test programs. Links on test programs are given in the text of the book when the examples are described. // Формулируется и доказывается вариационный принцип экстремума для вязкой несжимаемой и сжимаемой жидкости, из которого следует, что уравнения Навье-Стокса являются условиями экстремума некоторого функционала. Описывается метод поиска решения этих уравнений, который состоит в движении по градиенту к экстремуму этого функционала. Формулируются условия достижения этого экстремума, которые являются одновременно необходимыми и достаточными условиями существования глобального экстремума этого функционала. Книга дополняется открытыми кодами программам в системе MATLAB – функциями, реализующими расчетный метод, и тестовыми программами.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[43] viXra:1403.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-09 03:52:37

Will the Quantum Mechanical Waves of Equal de Broglie Wavelength of the Electrons and Protons Interfere in the Double Slit Experiments?

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Two-page letter

In a recent paper, titled “Explanation for the observed wave-particle-duality of Light” (Tank, H.K. http://vixra.org/abs/1402.0153, 2014) it was explained that: “Since at very high frequencies, narrowband filtering and generation of purely monochromatic light of one Hertz bandwidth is not yet technically possible, there has been quite a wide bandwidth of waves involved, in the double slit experiments and photoelectric experiments performed so far. And since this wide ‘band’ of waves coherently add only at discrete points in space and time, we get ‘particles’ at the detectors.” Now, to further confirm the validity of this explanation, a new kind of experiment is proposed here, in which protons and electrons are accelerated at appropriate velocities vp ve , such that their de Broglie wavelengths are equal; i.e. ( h / mp vp )= ( h / me ve ) and let them pass through closely spaced slits so that they can interfere with each other. Similarly, in another experiment, their wave-functions: A exp i ( kp X - ωp t ) = A exp i ( ke X - ωe t ) , and let them pass through closely spaced slits, and see how the two matter-waves interfere.
Category: Quantum Physics

[42] viXra:1403.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-08 07:27:04

On the Brich and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture

Authors: Xu Feng
Comments: 2 Pages.

Proof of the Brich and swinnerton-Dyer conjecture
Category: Number Theory

[41] viXra:1403.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-08 09:29:36

Investigation of the Rhombic Triacontahedron as a Semi-Classical Particle Model

Authors: Ray Fleming
Comments: 4 Pages.

After the author determined that the mass of a proton and electron are equal to the vacuum energy excluded by a shell the size of their charge radii, it became important to find a particle model that forms a shell, since there is no commonly accepted shell-like model. A survey of all common geometric solids was undertaken and only the rhombic tricontahedron was identified as a likely candidate that would allow for a stable quasi-spherical form made of an unequal number of point charges, 12 outer and 20 inner. The electrostatic forces were then computed and it was found that the inward and outward forces cancelled to a large extent. The remaining inward directed force necessary for stability would have to be due to magnetic interactions, which should be possible given a modest amount of rotation. Consequently the rhombic triacontahedron is thought to be a promising semi-classical model for the electron and proton.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[40] viXra:1403.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-08 04:54:38

The Other Mathematical Formulas of the Prime Numbers

Authors: Xu Feng
Comments: 1 Page.

it is on the other mathematical formulas of the prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[39] viXra:1403.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-07 22:15:22

The Coherence Principle :A New Basis for General Science

Authors: Francis. M. Sanchez, Valéry A. Kotov
Comments: 12 Pages. Rejected by Nature (8 March 2014) without serious analysis (no refferee consulted)

A Coherence Principle (CP) is proposed, a generalization and idealization of the virial theorem, stating that each well-defined phenomenon should be mono-frequency. When applied to the steady-state critical cosmology, characterized by the scale factor exp(t/T), this principle leads to three independent expressions for T compatible with the so-called Universe age TU ≈ 13.80(4) Gyr, as estimated by the recent Planck mission for the spatially-flat six parameters Λ-CDM model. The most precise formula is given by a c-free analysis of the “incredible” non-Doppler cosmic oscillation, implying tachyonic physics. This refutes (a) the primordial Big Bang model, (b) the cosmological anthropic principle and (c) the Multiverse theory, – in favor of the reconstructing Universe model with frequency about 10^103 Hz and pseudo-period T. This corresponds to critical condition Ω = 1, Hubble parameter H0 ≈ 70.8 km s^-1 Mpc^-1, matter density Ωm = 3/10, and baryonic one Ωb ≈ Ωm^2/2 = 0.045, with detailed predictions for astrophysics. The CP is connected with practical holography, which formalism is shown to be consistent with the basic quantum one, and holographic conservations are either demonstrated or observed, opening the way for further study. The CP is shown to apply also in atomic and stellar physics, together with biology, predicting the DNA chain to be a linear hologram.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[38] viXra:1403.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-08 01:53:57

The zeros of Riemann's Function And Its Fundamental Role In Quantum Mechanics

Authors: A.Garcés Doz
Comments: 35 Pages.

This paper presents a proof of the fundamental connection between the zeros of the Riemann function and quantum mechanics. Two results that unify gravity and electromagnetism, by exact calculation, both the elementary electric charge and mass of the electron. These two results depend directly on the sum of the imaginary parts of the zeros of the Riemann function, exactly following the Hilbert-Polya conjecture. This summatory, is the exponential sums of all the negative values ​​of the imaginary part of all zeros of the Riemann function.The main consequences are: scales of the Planck length gravity becomes repulsive, through the interaction of the gravitinos. Special relativity is a special case of a generalization, in which the geometry of a wormhole (hyperbolic geometry) implies that the energy of the tachyon states is zero, only if the velocity at the outer surface of the wormhole is infinite, or what is the same: an observer at rest can not distinguish an infinite speed of zero velocity, both are equivalent. There is not mere speculation; since only under this assumption the mass of the electron as a function of the non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function is calculated. Time ceases to exist, takes the value zero. These wormholes would explain the quantum entanglement, as well as resolve the paradox of information loss in black holes. Fundamental constants used in this calculation are: elementary charge, gravitational Newton constant, Planck mass, mass of the electron, and fine structure constant for zero momentum.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[37] viXra:1403.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-08 03:06:59

On the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Xu Feng
Comments: 1 Page.

Proof of the Riemann Hypothesis
Category: Number Theory

[36] viXra:1403.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-07 05:13:42

Implications of Pseudo-Hermiticity on Quantum Information Through Dekker Formalism

Authors: Chetan Waghela
Comments: 17 Pages. submitted as poster for QIPA 2013 at HRI.

Hamiltonian Mechanics works for conserved systems. Quantum Mechanics is given in Hamiltonian language. In papers by Dekker and recently by A. Sergi, this problem was circumvented by complexifying the energy and interpreting the dissipative part as Imaginary part. Based on the Dekker model, a following interpretation is presented in Density-Operator language for Pseudo-Hermiticity. Proper forms of Quantum measures are provided, as there is need in this new formalism, namely correcting Pati and Zielinski, Wang.
Category: Quantum Physics

[35] viXra:1403.0043 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-10 02:25:14

Why a Minimal Length Follows from the Extended Relativity Principle in Clifford Spaces

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 16 Pages. Submitted to Modern Physics Letters A

Recently, novel physical consequences of the Extended Relativity Theory in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) were explored and which provided a very different physical explanation of the phenomenon of ``relativity of locality" than the one described by the Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) framework. An elegant $nonlinear$ momentum-addition law was derived that tackled the ``soccer-ball'' problem in DSR. Generalized photon dispersion relations allowed also for energy-dependent speeds of propagation while still $retaining$ the Lorentz symmetry in ordinary spacetimes, but breaking the $extended$ Lorentz symmetry in $C$-spaces. This does $not$ occur in DSR nor in other approaches, like the presence of quantum spacetime foam. In this work we show why a $minimal$ length (say the Planck scale) follows naturally from the Extended Relativity principle in Clifford Spaces. Our argument relies entirely on the Physics behind the extended notion of Lorentz transformations in $ C$-space, and $does ~not$ invoke quantum gravity arguments, nor quantum group deformations of Lorentz/Poincare algebras, nor other prior arguments displayed in the Physics literature. The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford $Phase$ Spaces requires also the introduction of a $maximal$ scale which can be identified with the Hubble scale. It is found also that $ C$-space physics favors a choice of signature $ ( -, +, +, .... , + ) $.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[34] viXra:1403.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-06 12:37:41

Fundamental Atom-Molecular Engineering. Part 1. Model of Electron

Authors: A.M. Ilyanok
Comments: Pages 23, Figures 6, Table 1

The present chapter investigates electron. It is shown that electron has an intricate internal structure which determines both static and dynamic properties of the electron itself and important parameters of te condensed matter. Stationary “cold” electron (≤0.1eV) is modeled by a thin elastic ring called ector having diameter which is 137,036 times larger Bohr’s radius of hydrogen which consists of specific form of magnetic field. On the basis of the ector model the size, mass, charge, electromagnetic mass, spin and magnetic moment of electron are described. The model of “cold” ring electron in a condensed matter explains from new perspective critical parameters of phase transitions “metal-semiconductor” (Winner’s crystallization) and low temperature and high temperature superconductivity. Ring electron spirals into a void torus as compared to steady moving “hot” electrons (>>0.1эВ). The size of the torus depends on its kinetic energy which makes it possible to describe changes of the cross-section of the interaction with gas – Ramsauer effect. The model of ring electron transforming onto the torus also makes it possible to construct a hydrogen atom and describe energy states of the atom including its spectrum, process of emission/absorption, size of the atom and its stability. The model of the toroid electron explains correlation of the change of the interacting cross-section of relativistic electron with accelerating electro-magnetic wave up to complete disappearance of the interaction called disruption in the energy spectrum of cosmic electrons. Very high coincidence degree with the experimental data and simplicity of formulas testify to the adequacy of the employed model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[33] viXra:1403.0036 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-22 09:00:08

Analysis of the Refined Details of the GGU-model and an Application to Human Corporeal and Incorporeal Experiences.

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann
Comments: 27 Pages.

The GGU-model predicts physical and physical-like behavior. The premises can be considered as descriptions for directly observable physical events. Descriptions for physical events or objects are composed of elements taken from a general language and, as customary, are representations for the actual physical events or objects, respectively. The predictions yield all observable and describable physical events. Further, higher-forms of descriptions are predicted. These yield physical-like events, where the differences in linguistic behavior and descriptions for the terms employed signify differences in the behavior between physical-like ultranatural events or objects and the original physical events or objects, respectively. After introducing the necessary terminology and concepts, Section 5 of this paper presents a Biblical interpretation. The corporeal physical-systems and events that correspond to the, generally described, human being are identified. The closely associated and predicted incorporeal physical-like systems and events are interpreted. Of significance is the choice predicted existence of non-physical but physical-like "invisible" universes that have various applications including the modeling of statements that appear in Revelations.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[32] viXra:1403.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-06 06:29:46

Deep State USA/UK

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 5 Pages.

What is the Deep State of the USA/UK and how will it deal with a Hedge Fund Casino Financial Crisis on the scale of Hundreds of Trillions of Dollars ?
Category: Social Science

[31] viXra:1403.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-05 21:05:47

On the Causal Structure of the Universe

Authors: Blazej Kot
Comments: 10 Pages. Previously published in Prespacetime Journal, January 2014, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp. 8-18

I suggest we treat causality, not matter, as the fundamental constituent of reality. I introduce a unit of causality named toma and outline how the resulting framework leads naturally to general relativity, quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics. This novel framework is the first to show how to derive GR, QED and QCD from first principles and as such holds promise for being a Grand Unified Theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[30] viXra:1403.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-05 12:44:53

The New Interpretation of Arithmetic Operation Symbols

Authors: E.Koorambas
Comments: 4 Pages.

We introduce the permutation group of arithmetic operations symbols by getting the permutations of all the common arithmetic operations symbols, with keeping the brackets out of ordering. We find 6 ways of doing the arithmetic operations. Therefore the output of any mathematical formulas depends on which one element of the arithmetical permutation group we work on. We find invariants by the reordering of the arithmetic operation x+y, xy. Working with the irreducible representation of the permutation arithmetic symbols group we define new arithmetic structures called arithmetic particles symbols.
Category: General Mathematics

[29] viXra:1403.0032 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-02 07:54:01

The Curvature Tensor of the Stationary Accelerated Frame in the Gravity Field

Authors: sangwha Yi
Comments: 16 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we define the accelerated frame that moves in -axis in the curved space-time. And we calculate the curvature tensor of the stationary accelerated frame in the gravity field. In this time, the curvature tensor divide the observational curvature tensor of the people and the curvature tensor of the people’s self on the planet in the gravity field
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[28] viXra:1403.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-05 11:29:08

The Dynamics of Moving Bodies Without Lorentz's Invariance Part I: Time and Distance Transformations

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 17 Pages.

The present article proposes a theory of relativity which disentangles Einstein's relativistic approach from Lorentz's invariance principle, the latter being basically an Ether theory. This modification, termed Complete Relativity (CR) is justified both theoretically and experimentally. On the theoretical side it is argued, as done half a century ago by Herbert Dingle, that the inconsistency in Special Relativity theory (SR) is a result of Einstein's attempt to reconcile the theory with the Lorentz's electrodynamics. On the empirical side, questioning the adequacy of the Lorentz invariance principle is supported by numerous experimental results, attesting to symmetry-breaking at high enough energy, and by Quantum Gravity and other theories which allow for such breaking. In part I of the theory, presented here, I focus is on relativistic time and space under conditions of uniform motion. Relaxing the constraint of SR's second axiom yields time and distance transformations in which the direction of relative movement with respect to an observer has dramatic effects. The derived time and distance expressions are tested using three different types of experiments: The seminal Michelson-Morley null experiment, the famous Frisch and Smith muon decay experiment, and recent quasi-luminal neutrino experiments. Tests of the theory, using the above mentioned experiments, shows that it succeeds in predicting all the reported results. In comparison, SR, which is known to predict the results of the first two types of experiments, fails completely in predicting the results of the quasi-luminal neutrino experiments. Because in the quasi-luminal neutrino experiment the neutrinos depart from a source laboratory and approach a detector laboratory, their results qualify as a crucial test for comparison between SR and CR.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[27] viXra:1403.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-05 11:33:45

An Aspirations-Homeostasis Theory of Interactive Decisions

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 36 Pages.

Cooperation and fairness in encounters with strangers are puzzling behaviors, since they contradict the law of natural selection. Compelling evidence shows that direct and indirect reciprocity and altruistic punishment are important mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation in the long-term. For short-interaction, cooperation and fairness are explained by theories which assume that individuals have other-regarding sentiments, or that they base their decisions on perceptions of others' intentions. The present paper proposes a new theory of decisions in interactive situations. The theory retains the assumption that individuals are solely self-interested, but assumes that individuals value their outcomes relative to their aspiration levels. The proposed theory is used to derive predictions of mutual cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game, of proposers' offers in ultimatum bargaining games, and in the sequential common-pool-resource dilemma game. These predictions are tested using experimental data. Strikingly, for the standard ultimatum game the predicted mean relative offer is the famous Golden Ratio. Keywords: Cooperation, Fairness, Aspiration Level, Prisoner's Dilemma, Ultimatum Game, Resource Dilemma, Golden Ratio.
Category: Economics and Finance

[26] viXra:1403.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-05 08:39:17

Stellar Aberration

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 3 Pages. Published in General Science Journal

Reversals of earth’s direction of motion in its orbital path around sun is an essential requirement for contemporary explanations on stellar aberration. Earth’s orbital path around sun is an apparent concept. Reversal of direction of motion of a macro body of the size of earth and moving at real linear speed of earth, in three months period without affecting its integrity is irrational. However, considering corpuscles of light as 3D matter-particles can provide logical explanation for this phenomenon.
Category: Astrophysics

[25] viXra:1403.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-04 18:28:28

Can Quantum Nonlocality be Explained Using (Complex) Maxwell Equations?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 5 Pages. This file is not yet submitted to any journal. Your comments are welcome.

Quantum non-locality belongs to one puzzling feature of quantum mechanics, which some people think as unexplained using classical theories. But there seems a possibility to explain quantum non-locality using Maxwell equations or complex Minkowski metric. Therefore it seems worth to discuss this issue.
Category: Quantum Physics

[24] viXra:1403.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-05 02:09:31

An Interesting Property Shared by a Set of Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I present a property of a set of primes, interesting not because it has a value for distinguish primes from odd composites, because there are such numbers which also have this property, but because it seems to split the set of primes into two classes – the primes that have this property and the primes that have not this property – containing primes in surprisingly equal proportion.
Category: Number Theory

[23] viXra:1403.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-05 02:29:58

A Proof of the Collatz Conjecture (After Modification)

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 15 Pages.

If every positive integer is able to be operated into 1 by set operational rule of the Collatz conjecture, then begin with 1, we can get all positive integers by another operational rule on quite the contrary to the set operational rule after pass infinite many operations. Thereby, we try to substitute such a proof of equal value for directly proving the Collatz conjecture by mathematical induction, and achieved our anticipated goal.
Category: Number Theory

[22] viXra:1403.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-05 02:39:35

Relativistic Physics of Force Fields in the Space-Time-Mass Domain

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 12 Pages.

We consider physics of reference frames moving with any speed, starting from the inertial field. We point out the different physical behavior of electrodynamic systems with respect to other systems, due to the different physical meaning of mass. These considerations allow to define a generalized concept of field that materializes in the domain Space-Time-Mass where new equations of trasformations for reference frames are used. We define at last physical properties of differential forces of reaction in fields of force.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21] viXra:1403.0023 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-27 03:17:14

About the Cosmological Constant, Acceleration Field, Pressure Field and Energy

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin
Comments: 36 pages. Jordan Journal of Physics. Vol. 9 (No. 1), pp. 1-30, (2016).

Based on the condition of relativistic energy uniqueness the calibration of the cosmological constant was performed. This allowed us to obtain the corresponding equation for the metric, to determine the generalized momentum, the relativistic energy, momentum and the mass of the system, as well as the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. The scalar curvature at an arbitrary point of the system equaled zero, if the matter is absent at this point; the presence of a gravitational or electromagnetic field is enough for the space-time curvature. Four-potentials of the acceleration field and pressure field, as well as tensor invariants determining the energy density of these fields, were introduced into the Lagrangian in order to describe the system’s motion more precisely. The structure of the Lagrangian used is completely symmetrical in form with respect to the four-potentials of gravitational and electromagnetic fields and acceleration and pressure fields. The stress-energy tensors of the gravitational, acceleration and pressure fields are obtained in explicit form, each of them can be expressed through the corresponding field vector and additional solenoidal vector. A description of the equations of acceleration and pressure fields is provided.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20] viXra:1403.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-05 03:38:21

Chemiosmosis and Microscopic Reversibility: Irreconcilable. Thermodynamic Limitations of Coupled Equilibria and the Role of Atp

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 25 Pages.

It is argued that the chemiosmotic theory, in positing the egress and ingress of protons across a membrane via different routes, violates the principle of microscopic reversibility (PMR). The theory was proposed as a mechanism for coupling the exergonic oxidation of NADH to the endergonic synthesis of ATP, believed to be a ready-to-use form of biochemical energy. The key proton-pump mechanism, however, should also operate in reverse by the PMR, hence is unlikely to be valid. Generally, the transfer of free energy via coupled equilibria is problematical, as neither of the coupled processes would go to completion. (However, it may be feasible in the case of entropy-driven reactions, as happens in the reactions of the Krebs cycle that lead to the formation of NADH.) Furthermore, reported thermodynamic data do not support the idea of ATP as a ‘high energy’ molecule, but rather indicate that ATP hydrolysis is driven by release of phosphate. In fact, many of the reactions believed to be thermodynamically driven by ATP hydrolysis are likely exergonic per se. ATP possibly provides part of the activation energy for the reaction in many cases. An alternative (non-equilibrium) mechanism for ATP synthesis is proposed based on the increase in pH that would accompany the oxidation of NADH. This would generate ADP3- and HPO42- which could form ATP4- in a thermodynamically favoured process within hydrophobic pockets.
Category: Chemistry

[19] viXra:1403.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-04 10:50:18

In Than Advantage and Deficiencies in the Special Theory of Relativity?

Authors: Mende F. F.
Comments: 2 Pages.

In order to understand advantages and deficiencies in the special theory of relativity (STR) we they must describe as it is built and what basic condition lie at its basis. Within the framework the conversions of Galileo with the description of physical phenomena they are used four independent variables (three coordinates and time). In STR variables they are not already independent variables, since is accepted the postulate about the independence of the speed of light upon transfer of one inertial system (ISR) into another.
Category: Classical Physics

[18] viXra:1403.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-04 07:06:43

Physical Nature of Vector Potential

Authors: Mende F. F.
Comments: 6 Pages.

Faradey established the law of induction, carrying out experiments on the solenoids, including turning off in them current, or moving with respect to the solenoids the turns of the wire, to which was connected the galvanometer.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[17] viXra:1403.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-04 08:34:38

Five-Dimensional Model

Authors: Valentino Giudice
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this article I describe the five-dimensional model, a model having five dimensions: three space dimensions and two time dimensions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16] viXra:1403.0017 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-06 10:28:27

The Proton Radius Puzzle and the Electro-Strong Interaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[15] viXra:1403.0016 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-03 01:15:18

Introduction to the Expanded Rishon Model

Authors: Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton
Comments: 15 Pages.

We introduce an expansion of the Rishon Model to cover quark generations, (including a previously unnoticed one), provide an explanation for T and V as a topologically convenient moniker representing aspects of phase and polarity within knots (of for example String Theory), and explain particle decay in terms of simple ``phase transform" rules. We identify all current particles (with the exception of ``Top") including the gluon, the Bosons and the Higgs, purely in terms of the underlying mechanism which topologically can be considered to be Rishons. All this is predicated on the simple assumption that all particles in effect photons phase-locked in a repeating pattern inherently obeying Maxwell's equations, in symbiotic support of their own outwardly-propagating electro-magnetic synchotronic radiation, and that Rishons represent a phase ``measurement" (real or imaginary) at key strategic points on the photon's path.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[14] viXra:1403.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-03 15:53:20

Proof of Massless Particles Only Having Two Helicity One-particle States

Authors: LIU Changli, GE Fengjun
Comments: 4 Pages.

Why massless particles, for example photons, can only have two helicity one-particle states is the main subject of this work. As we know, the little group which describes massive particle one-particle states' transformations under the Lorentz transformation is SO(3), while the little group describing massless states is ISO(2). In this paper, a new method is proposed to contract SO(3) group to ISO(2) group. We use this contraction method to prove that the particle can only have two helicity one-particle states from the perspective of \emph{kinematics}, when the particle mass trends to zero. Our proof is different from the dynamic explanation in the existing theories.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[13] viXra:1403.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-03 20:04:31

Role of Nuclear Generation in Energy-Food-Water Security

Authors: S. J. Nettleton
Comments: 25 Pages.

Presentation to the University of Technology Sydney Food-Water-Energy Security Conference 13 July 2013 on the role of Generation IV integrated fast reactors in food, water, energy and environmental security
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[12] viXra:1403.0013 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-04 11:32:13

Solution of the Horizon and Flatness Problem in Cosmology Without Inflation

Authors: Friedwardt Winterberg
Comments: 9 Pages.

It is shown that the hypothesis of an inflationary universe to solve the horizon and flatness problem can be avoided by Lorentzian relativity assuming the existence of a preferred reference system at rest with the zero point vacuum energy cut off at the Planck energy. Under this assumption there will be a “firewall” at the event horizon of an expanding universe where all matter disintegrates into radiation having everywhere the Unruh black body radiation temperature. The replacement of the Einsteinian relativity by the Lorentzian relativity to solve the problem of quantum gravity was suggested to the author by Heisenberg.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[11] viXra:1403.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-03 07:07:50

Raising the Vector Space W to the Irrational Power N.

Authors: Vyacheslav Telnin
Comments: 1 Page.

At the beginning the vector space A is constructed from infinite number of tensor cofactors. With the help of (viXra.org 1402.0167) these tensor cofactors are constructed from rational powers of vector space W. Then these powers are summed and the sum is denoted as N. And it turns out that A is W raised to the power N. The N turned out to be any real number ( rational or irrational).
Category: General Mathematics

[10] viXra:1403.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-03 07:33:31

Maxwell Equations Are Necessary?

Authors: Mende F. F.
Comments: 11 Pages.

The important task of electrodynamics is the presence of laws governing the appearance of electrical pour on, and, therefore, also the forces of those acting on the charge, at the particular point spaces, since only electric fields, generated other one or method or another, exert power influences on the charge.
Category: Classical Physics

[9] viXra:1403.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-03 08:59:38

Stellar Metamorphosis: The Essence of Gravitational Collapse

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 3 references, 1 diagram

It is explained what shape an object needs to be in order to experience gravitational collapse. Diagrams are provided and the alternative to the nebular hypothesis, stellar metamorphosis is presented, to explain what happens to young stars after they are formed.
Category: Astrophysics

[8] viXra:1403.0008 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-05 06:57:09

The Mechanism of Atomic Energy Absorption and Emission

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 2 Pages.

On the basis of concentric spherical layer-type model and multi-quantum energy level distribution, propose a new mechanism of atomic energy absorption and emission.
Category: Quantum Physics

[7] viXra:1403.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-02 11:40:33

Nonlocal Dielectric Mirror Paradox

Authors: Kelly Loum
Comments: 2 Pages.

A simple thought experiment that can easily be performed in the laboratory that gives results that do not have an explanation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[6] viXra:1403.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-02 09:08:35

The Nuclear Force Computed as the Casimir Effect Between Spheres

Authors: Ray Fleming
Comments: 6 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibility that the Casimir effect, normally very weak, is strong enough to be significant on the scale of nuclear forces around 1 femtometer (fm = 10-15m). Computations were performed for the Casimir effect between two spheres using a proximity force approximation. It was found that at 2.6 fm the computed Casimir force is strong enough to overcome Coulomb repulsion and at 0.8 fm it is 20 times stronger than Coulomb repulsion. These values indicate that this strong Casimir force is important on scales of distance consistent with the nuclear force. With refinement it appears likely that the strong Casimir force can account for the nuclear force in its entirety allowing unification of the nuclear force with quantum electrodynamic theory.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[5] viXra:1403.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-02 05:01:31

Seven Possible Alternative Interpretations of the ‘cosmological Red Shift’ Which Can do Away with the Dark Energy

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Fourteen page paper

The currently popular ‘Big Bang Theory’ is based on ‘Doppler Shift Interpretation’ of the ‘cosmological-red-shift’. But it is shown here that the value of Hubble-constant matches so perfectly with the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces, that such a coincidence is very un-likely. Secondly, if the expansion of the universe is accelerating, as the recent observations suggest, e.g.( Paal, G. et al. 1992, Adam G. Riess et al.1998, and Perlmutter, S. et al.1999)[1,2,3], then very large amount of dark-energy may be needed which is still not found. Therefore, it is proposed here that extra galactic photons may be loosing some of their energy through ‘vacuum polarization’, as described by Levine, I. (1997)[4] and Brown et al (1996)[5]. It is proposed here that: when an extra galactic photon is absorbed by either electron or positron of the virtual electron positron pair, then not only the ‘electrostatic potential energy’ of the pair is increased, but also its ‘gravitational potential energy’ as well; but when these ‘potential energies’ are released, then not only a photon, but also a graviton is emitted; so the input energy gets branched out. And we find here that the energy lost by the ‘cosmologically red shifted photons’ is strikingly proportional to the ‘strength ratio’ of gravitational and electric forces. Since, according to this new interpretation for the ‘cosmological red shift, the red-shift is a function of distance traveled by the photon, rather than relative velocity of the galaxies; so this study will also do away with the need for ‘dark energy’. In addition to this, six more alternative possibilities for the red shift are also indicated.
Category: Astrophysics

[4] viXra:1403.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-01 09:50:38

Matrices and Quaternions

Authors: Gary D. Simpson
Comments: 11 Pages.

A possibly novel mathematical structure is presented. The structure is a matrix whose elements are quaternions. The structure is distinct from a tensor.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[3] viXra:1403.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-01 03:35:45

Increasing Quality of Separation of Shelled Peanuts by X-Rays and ir Technologies

Authors: Yakov Gershman
Comments: 4 Pages.

One of the important requirements of the market to peanuts in shell is the lack of incompletely filled with fruit. Traditional mechanical sorting methods cannot solve the problem completely. In this work experimentally proved the possibility of the complete removal of immature fruits ("singles") by using image processing of x-ray and infrared.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[2] viXra:1403.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-01 01:01:17

The Description of the Physical Field with Spin 1/3.

Authors: Vyacheslav Telnin
Comments: 7 Pages.

viXra.org 1402.0167 gives general description of raising vector space W in the power M/L. The result is the new vector space V. In this paper we take W - the 8 – dimensional generalization of our 4 – dimensional vector space. Then we raise W in the power 1/3. The result is the 2 – dimensional vector space V. The metric and algebraic tensors for V are the same as in viXra.org 1402.0176. After that we take some vector from V and use it for construction of Lagrangian. And for simplicity we restrict us by only first 4 dimensions of W. Then, from the principle of minimal action, we get the equations for our vector. And we derive that vector from these equations. Then we define the tensor and vector of energy – momentum for this Lagrangian. And also we find the density of spin tensor and (with the help of the algebraic tensor) the density of spin vector. The numerical cofactor in them is 1/3. So we consider that spin of this vector is 1/3. It coincides with the power of W for V (vector space we took our vector from).
Category: Mathematical Physics

[1] viXra:1403.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-01 01:27:01

Explanations for the Observations Of: (I) ‘wave-Particle-Duality’ of ‘Light’, and (Ii) the ‘Cosmological Red-Shift’

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Seven page letter

It is well known, that in some experiments, light exhibits ‘wave’ property; like interference and diffraction; whereas in other experiments, like photoelectric effect, it shows ‘particle’ nature. So, the physicists currently think in terms of ‘wave-particle-duality’ of light, their mutual exclusiveness, and complementarily. Here, in this paper, this ‘wave-particle-duality’ is explained; that at the frequencies of light, very narrow-band filtering, and generation of purely monochromatic light, of one Hz bandwidth, are not technically possible; so there is always some bandwidth and ‘line-width’, due to which the waves form wave-packets, localized in space, as ‘particles’. Then this familiarity with waves is applied to understand the observations of ‘cosmological red shift’.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology