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1804 Submissions

[452] viXra:1804.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-30 13:23:25

Electron Orbitals Manipulated in Diamonds

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

While defects in a diamond are mostly undesirable, certain defects are a quantum physicist's best friend, having the potential to store bits of information that could one day be used in a quantum computing system. [11] Japanese researchers have optimized the design of laboratory-grown, synthetic diamonds. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[451] viXra:1804.0496 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-30 14:57:35

Energia W Szczególnej Teorii Względności

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 14 Pages. In Polish.

Podałem nowe relatywistyczne wzory dla energii kinetycznej, spoczynkowej i całkowitej. Przyrost energii kinetycznej cząstki wyznaczyłem jako pracę wykonaną przez składowe przestrzenne czterowektora siły Minkowskiego. Przedstawiłem nową relację między trójwymiarowym pędem relatywistycznym i relatywistyczną energią kinetyczną oraz interpretację składowej czasowej czterowektora siły Minkowskiego.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[450] viXra:1804.0495 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-13 11:45:04

Antygrawitacja

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 84 Pages.

W rozprawie tej opisałem zjawisko antygrawitacji w ramach ogólnej teorii względności oraz podałem przykłady jego zastosowania takie jak czarne dziury i nowy model wszechświata wyjaśniający problemy współczesnej kosmologii. Grawitacja i antygrawitacja mają naturę warstwową. Nasz Wszechświat można potraktować jak gigantyczną jednorodną czarną dziurę. Jest izolowany od reszty wszechświata przez obszar czasoprzestrzeni, w którym występuje antygrawitacja. Zaproponowałem stosunkowo prosty eksperyment testujący przedstawione hipotezy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[449] viXra:1804.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-30 16:02:13

Applying the Transtheoretical Model of Behavioral Change to Reddit Data: A Pilot Study of Cessation Strategies and Outcomes among Tobacco Users

Authors: Danielle Mowery, Albert Park, Mike Conway
Comments: 6 Pages. Presented at UK HEALTHCARE TEXT ANALYTICS CONFERENCE APRIL 18-19, 2018, MANCHESTER, UK

Despite the existence of numerous studies demonstrating that tobacco use is strongly associated with cancer, heart disease, stroke, and other health problems, tobacco continues to be a major public health threat worldwide. Social media provides a rich resource for population-level, health-based monitoring and understanding of tobacco cessation efforts and trends. In this pilot study, we identified common and emerging tactics used by Reddit users for tobacco cessation and demonstrated that the Transtheoretical Model — an established and widely used behavioural change theory – could be leveraged to track and identify successful cessation of tobacco usage within this population.
Category: Linguistics

[448] viXra:1804.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-30 17:39:51

Refutation of the Complementarity Inequality © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The modified Mach-Zehnder setup is tautologous. This confirms the findings of the Afshar experiment. The subsequent complementarity inequality is not tautologous, although the closest state of truthity (non-contingent). This violates and refutes the complementarity inequality, and confirms the original Afshar paper.
Category: Quantum Physics

[447] viXra:1804.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-30 18:32:49

Prime Nimber Formula

Authors: Nazihkhelifa
Comments: 1 Page. Version 1

Prime Number Formula
Category: Number Theory

[446] viXra:1804.0491 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-08 13:14:41

Sunqm-3s2: Using {N,n} QM Model to Calculate Out the Snapshot Pictures of a Gradually Disk-Lyzing Pre-Sun Ball

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, by using {N,n} QM structure model, combining with Schrodinger equation solution, and the first order spin-perturbation solution, and the multiplier n' theory, I calculated out the ring thickness vs. orbit-r curve for a gradually disk-lyzing pre-Sun ball. From it, I constructed a series of snapshot pictures of pre-Sun disks. I also developed a very useful new rule for {N,n} QM structure: all mass between r(n) and r(n+1) belong to orbit n.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[445] viXra:1804.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 07:33:58

Information Technology Revolution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Washington, working with researchers from the ETH-Zurich, Purdue University and Virginia Commonwealth University, have achieved an optical communications breakthrough that could revolutionize information technology. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[444] viXra:1804.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 08:56:25

Smarter Drugs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

A new method has been developed to make drugs 'smarter' using nanotechnology so they will be more effective at reaching their target. [19] It's called gene editing, and University of Alberta researchers have just published a game-changing study that promises to bring the technology much closer to therapeutic reality. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9]
Category: Biochemistry

[443] viXra:1804.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 10:50:06

A Simpler Yet More Revealing HCE8S Flow Diagram

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 5 Pages.

Abstract: A more revealing yet simpler forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of a now 8th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle is shown taking to identify the TR and TF parts of the cycle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[442] viXra:1804.0487 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 10:57:13

Heat Pipes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[441] viXra:1804.0486 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-01 00:05:31

Society: Analysis and Challenges of Present Day Nepal

Authors: Arjun Dahal
Comments: 6 Pages.

Society is one of the intangible needs of humans, for humans since their very dawn have been a social animal. Through this article, we have attempted to analyze the social aspects of current day Nepal, and have made a humble attempt to categorize the major challenges faced by current day Nepal under 4 major headings.
Category: Social Science

[440] viXra:1804.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 15:00:44

The Location of Titan on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

One of Saturn's moons, Titan, is placed on the WT Diagram. Explanation of what we should expect from this placement is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[439] viXra:1804.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 17:20:47

Foreign Labels on Your Clothes

Authors: Barkhudarov L.S., Komissarov V.N.
Comments: 5 Pages. I will be grateful if you publish my work as soon as possible. It is really very important for me . lovelyadelya@gmail.com

lovelyadelya@gmail.com Evaluating a person, we note how much clothing corresponds to age, social status, fashion. Some people have a desire to be similar in clothes to those who matter, others use clothes as a way to stand out. This style, long possessed by Europe and America, is gaining increasing popularity among young people. This work will be useful and interesting in that it will allow teenagers to pay attention to the translation of inscriptions on their clothes, and ensure the correctness of the use of information that should reflect the true interests of the wearer with the inscriptions.
Category: Linguistics

[438] viXra:1804.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-30 00:25:45

Law of the Existence of Elementary Particles\\\\\Закон существования элементарных частиц

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 15 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> Law of the Existence of Elementary Particles 30 APR 2018

In this article, which is an integral part of the "Theory of Nature", the author gives an explanation of one of the most important laws of nature - the law of the existence of elementary particles (EP). Elementary particles are neutrons, protons, electrons, photons, etc. These are elementary and minimal material formations in nature. These are well-known facts. The author believes that each EP consists of one and the same minimum in nature amount of matter. This fact should be adequately reflected in physics: matter must be introduced into the bosom of physics as the main physical quantity. The author believes that all elementary particles have the shape of balls and, therefore, have their own diameter and have their own mass. The law of the existence of EP states that the product of the mass of EP by its diameter is a constant value equal to the minimum amount of matter in nature. +++++++++++++++++++++++ В настоящей статье, являющейся неотъемлемой частью «Теории Природы», автор даёт разъяснение одного важнейшего закона природы – закона существования элементарных частиц (ЭЧ). Элементарными частицами считаются нейтроны, протоны, электроны, фотоны и др. Это элементарные и минимальные материальные образования в природе. Это общеизвестные факты. Автор считает, что каждая ЭЧ состоит из одного и того же минимального в природе количества материи. Этот факт должен быть адекватно отражён в физике: материя должна быть введена в лоно физики в качестве основной физической величины. Автор считает, что все элементарные частицы имеют форму шариков и, значит, имеют свой собственный диаметр и имеют свою собственную массу. Закон существования ЭЧ гласит: произведение массы ЭЧ на её диаметр есть величина постоянная, равная минимальному количеству материи в природе.
Category: Classical Physics

[437] viXra:1804.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-30 06:00:38

A Method of Real Time Quantitative Supply of Cosmetic Raw Materials Using Weight Sensor

Authors: Kwang Bok Han, Kwang Ho Ri, Chen Il Jo, Yu Chol Kim, Pong Ryol Jang
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we have discussed a method of real time quantitative supply of cosmetic raw materials using weight sensor. In addition, the technical characteristics of the system were clarified and introduced to the production process, contributing to the automation of cosmetic compounding process. We have tested the measuring and supply about 6 liquid materials (water, glycerin, propylene, milistynic acid, squalene, liquid paraffin) with this device. According to the measuring results, we have verified supply error is below 0.5% on the average.
Category: Classical Physics

[436] viXra:1804.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-30 06:00:53

Biomedical Shape-Memory Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Kyoto University scientists are one step closer to designing porous materials that can change and retain their shapes—a function known as shape-memory effect. [25] With a thin probe and a burst of microwaves, doctors can eradicate cancer cells without opening up a patient for surgery. [24] A new source of intense terahertz (THz) radiation, which could offer a less harmful alternative to X-rays and has strong potential for use in industry, is being developed by scientists at the University of Strathclyde and Capital Normal University in Beijing. [23] Biomedical engineers at the University of California, Davis, have developed a new technique for measuring blood flow in the human brain, which could be used in patients with stroke or traumatic brain injury, for example. [22] According to a new study in Cell, it may be possible to teach machines how to pick out features in neurons and other cells that have not been stained or undergone other damaging treatments. [21] The possibility of cognitive nuclear-spin processing came to Fisher in part through studies performed in the 1980s that reported a remarkable lithium isotope dependence on the behavior of mother rats. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16]
Category: Physics of Biology

[435] viXra:1804.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-30 06:34:44

Resolution of Microscopes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Researchers from Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russia) and Bangor University (UK) have experimentally verified anomalous amplitude apodization for non-spherical particles for the first time. This phenomenon makes it possible to boost the magnifying power of microscopes and to record molecules and viruses more effectively. [25] With a thin probe and a burst of microwaves, doctors can eradicate cancer cells without opening up a patient for surgery. [24] A new source of intense terahertz (THz) radiation, which could offer a less harmful alternative to X-rays and has strong potential for use in industry, is being developed by scientists at the University of Strathclyde and Capital Normal University in Beijing. [23] Biomedical engineers at the University of California, Davis, have developed a new technique for measuring blood flow in the human brain, which could be used in patients with stroke or traumatic brain injury, for example. [22] According to a new study in Cell, it may be possible to teach machines how to pick out features in neurons and other cells that have not been stained or undergone other damaging treatments. [21] The possibility of cognitive nuclear-spin processing came to Fisher in part through studies performed in the 1980s that reported a remarkable lithium isotope dependence on the behavior of mother rats. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[434] viXra:1804.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-30 07:22:39

De Werkelijkheid Vanuit Zijn Grondbeginselen

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages. d

Het opbouwen van een natuurkundige theorie vanuit de grondbeginselen van de fysieke werkelijkheid is geen kostbare onderneming en kan met wat doorzettingsvermogen gerealiseerd worden. Het vinden van de basisstructuur is daarbij van wezenlijk belang. De ontdekking van die structuur heeft merkwaardig genoeg al lang geleden plaats gehad. De huidige natuurkunde maakt nog geen gebruik van deze kennis.
Category: Quantum Physics

[433] viXra:1804.0478 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-01 05:09:21

Supersymmetric Preons and the Standard Model

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 10 Pages. Typo corrections. Journal ref. Nucl. Phys. B (2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2018.04.021

The experimental fact that standard model superpartners have not been observed compels one to consider an alternative implementation for supersymmetry. The basic supermultiplet proposed here consists of a photon and a charged spin 1/2 preon field, and their superpartners. These fields are shown to yield the standard model fermions, Higgs fields and gauge symmetries. Supersymmetry is defined for unbound preons only. Quantum group SLq(2) representations are introduced to classify topologically scalars, preons, quarks and leptons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[432] viXra:1804.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-30 09:02:57

Positron Luminescence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Now in a new study, researchers have found that a beam of positrons (positively charged anti-electrons) incident on a phosphor screen produces significantly more luminescence than an electron beam does. [26] Researchers from Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russia) and Bangor University (UK) have experimentally verified anomalous amplitude apodization for non-spherical particles for the first time. This phenomenon makes it possible to boost the magnifying power of microscopes and to record molecules and viruses more effectively. [25] With a thin probe and a burst of microwaves, doctors can eradicate cancer cells without opening up a patient for surgery. [24] A new source of intense terahertz (THz) radiation, which could offer a less harmful alternative to X-rays and has strong potential for use in industry, is being developed by scientists at the University of Strathclyde and Capital Normal University in Beijing. [23] Biomedical engineers at the University of California, Davis, have developed a new technique for measuring blood flow in the human brain, which could be used in patients with stroke or traumatic brain injury, for example. [22] According to a new study in Cell, it may be possible to teach machines how to pick out features in neurons and other cells that have not been stained or undergone other damaging treatments. [21] The possibility of cognitive nuclear-spin processing came to Fisher in part through studies performed in the 1980s that reported a remarkable lithium isotope dependence on the behavior of mother rats. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[431] viXra:1804.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-30 10:25:40

Vibrations in Superconducting Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Manipulating the flow of energy through superconductors could radically transform technology, perhaps leading to applications such as ultra-fast, highly efficient quantum computers. [33] University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have added a new dimension to our understanding of why straining a particular group of materials, called Ruddlesden-Popper oxides, tampers with their superconducting properties. [32] Nuclear techniques have played an important role in determining the crystal structure of a rare type of intermetallic alloy that exhibits superconductivity. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[430] viXra:1804.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 14:20:02

Elementary Functions and Schrödinger Equations

Authors: Y. J. F. Kpomahou, J. Akande, D. K. K. Adjaï, L. H. Koudahoun, M. D. Monsia
Comments: 5 pages

The Schrödinger eigenvalue problem with diverse potentials is investigated in this work. It is shown that exact and explicit discrete bound state solutions may be computed in terms of elementary functions.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[429] viXra:1804.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 14:33:16

Goldbach's Conjecture Proof

Authors: Elizabeth Gatton-Robey
Comments: 2 Pages.

I created an algorithm that guarantees the validity of Goldbach’s Conjecture. The algorithm eliminates all even integers that are not the sum of an even integer when the number 3 is added to one other prime number. The visual pattern that emerges from the algorithm maps all prime numbers. This pattern is also applied to individual consecutive primes to eliminate all even numbers that are not the sum of each prime number plus one other prime number. By layering the pattern to account for all possible “sums of two prime numbers” combinations, it can either be said that “all evens will be eliminated” or “no evens will be eliminated”. What this means is that what happens to one even integer is universal.
Category: Number Theory

[428] viXra:1804.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 14:42:54

Lorentz Transformation @ (2pi)^0.5

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 3 Pages.

Lorentz Transformation @ (2pi)^0.5 Fine Structure Constant @ (2pi)^0.5 Time Dilation KronosPrime@outlook.com
Category: Quantum Physics

[427] viXra:1804.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 16:13:56

The Flawed Lorentz Transformation

Authors: John Roach
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Lorentz Transformation is a flawed Theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[426] viXra:1804.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 18:44:49

Statistical Confirmation of 1000 Primes as a Random Distribution © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The distribution is confirmed as random and refuted as not clumped as in claims by various theoretical methods.
Category: Number Theory

[425] viXra:1804.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 20:02:56

Solving the Problem of Natural Units \\\ Решение проблемы натуральных единиц

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 8 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Solving the Problem of Natural Units 29/04/2018

The present article raises the question of the existence in nature of natural units of mass, length and time, and proposes its solution. In the past, many physicists have addressed the problem of finding natural units. His solution to this question was provided by Irish physicist G. J. Stoney and German physicist M. Planck. The author of this article provides his own solution to this problem. The author believes that his solution of the problem of natural units is complete and final and removes this question from the agenda. +++++++++++++++++++++ В настоящей статье ставится вопрос о существовании в природе натуральных единиц массы, длины и времени и предлагается его решение. К вопросу отыскания натуральных единиц в прошлом обращались многие физики. Своё решение этого вопроса предоставили ирландский физик Дж. Стони и немецкий физик М. Планк. Автор настоящей статьи предоставляет своё собственное решение этой проблемы. Автор считает, что его решение проблемы натуральных единиц является полным и окончательным и снимает этот вопрос с повестки дня.
Category: Classical Physics

[424] viXra:1804.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 02:04:52

Wykłady Z Fizyki – Mechanika ### Lectures in Physics – Mechanics

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 234 Pages. In Polish.

E-book "Wykłady z Fizyki – Mechanika" jest pierwszym tomem pomocniczych materiałów do jednorocznego kursu fizyki prowadzonego przeze mnie na różnych kierunkach studiów inżynierskich. Zainteresowani studiowaniem fizyki znajdą tu podstawowe pojęcia, prawa, jednostki, wzory, wykresy i przykłady. ### The e-book "Lectures in Physics – Mechanics" is the first volume of auxiliary materials for one-year physics course conducted by me in various fields of engineering studies. Those interested in studying physics will find here the basic concepts, laws, units, formulas, graphs and examples.
Category: Education and Didactics

[423] viXra:1804.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 02:10:46

Wykłady Z Fizyki – Akustyka ### Lectures in Physics – Acoustics

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 90 Pages. In Polish.

E-book "Wykłady z Fizyki – Akustyka" jest drugim tomem pomocniczych materiałów do jednorocznego kursu fizyki prowadzonego przeze mnie na różnych kierunkach studiów inżynierskich. Zainteresowani studiowaniem fizyki znajdą tu podstawowe pojęcia, prawa, jednostki, wzory, wykresy i przykłady. ### The e-book "Lectures in Physics – Acoustics" is the second volume of auxiliary materials for one-year physics course conducted by me in various fields of engineering studies. Those interested in studying physics will find here the basic concepts, laws, units, formulas, graphs and examples.
Category: Education and Didactics

[422] viXra:1804.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 02:14:03

Wykłady Z Fizyki – Hydromechanika ### Lectures in Physics – Hydromechanics

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 90 Pages. In Polish.

E-book "Wykłady z Fizyki – Hydromechanika" jest trzecim tomem pomocniczych materiałów do jednorocznego kursu fizyki prowadzonego przeze mnie na różnych kierunkach studiów inżynierskich. Zainteresowani studiowaniem fizyki znajdą tu podstawowe pojęcia, prawa, jednostki, wzory, wykresy i przykłady. ### The e-book "Lectures in Physics – Hydromechanics" is the third volume of auxiliary materials for one-year physics course conducted by me in various fields of engineering studies. Those interested in studying physics will find here the basic concepts, laws, units, formulas, graphs and examples.
Category: Education and Didactics

[421] viXra:1804.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 02:16:20

Wykłady Z Fizyki – Termodynamika ### Lectures in Physics – Thermodynamics

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 250 Pages. In Polish.

E-book "Wykłady z Fizyki – Termodynamika" jest czwartym tomem pomocniczych materiałów do jednorocznego kursu fizyki prowadzonego przeze mnie na różnych kierunkach studiów inżynierskich. Zainteresowani studiowaniem fizyki znajdą tu podstawowe pojęcia, prawa, jednostki, wzory, wykresy i przykłady. ### The e-book "Lectures in Physics – Thermodynamics" is the fourth volume of auxiliary materials for one-year physics course conducted by me in various fields of engineering studies. Those interested in studying physics will find here the basic concepts, laws, units, formulas, graphs and examples.
Category: Education and Didactics

[420] viXra:1804.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 02:19:12

Wykłady Z Fizyki – Grawitacja ### Lectures in Physics – Gravitation

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 86 Pages. In Polish.

E-book "Wykłady z Fizyki – Grawitacja" jest piątym tomem pomocniczych materiałów do jednorocznego kursu fizyki prowadzonego przeze mnie na różnych kierunkach studiów inżynierskich. Zainteresowani studiowaniem fizyki znajdą tu podstawowe pojęcia, prawa, jednostki, wzory, wykresy i przykłady. ### The e-book "Lectures in Physics – Gravitation" is the fifth volume of auxiliary materials for one-year physics course conducted by me in various fields of engineering studies. Those interested in studying physics will find here the basic concepts, laws, units, formulas, graphs and examples.
Category: Education and Didactics

[419] viXra:1804.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 02:21:43

Wykłady Z Fizyki – Elektryczność ### Lectures in Physics – Electricity

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 258 Pages. In Polish.

E-book "Wykłady z Fizyki – Elektryczność" jest szóstym tomem pomocniczych materiałów do jednorocznego kursu fizyki prowadzonego przeze mnie na różnych kierunkach studiów inżynierskich. Zainteresowani studiowaniem fizyki znajdą tu podstawowe pojęcia, prawa, jednostki, wzory, wykresy i przykłady. ### The e-book "Lectures in Physics – Electricity" is the sixth volume of auxiliary materials for one-year physics course conducted by me in various fields of engineering studies. Those interested in studying physics will find here the basic concepts, laws, units, formulas, graphs and examples.
Category: Education and Didactics

[418] viXra:1804.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 02:25:10

Wykłady Z Fizyki – Magnetyzm ### Lectures in Physics – Magnetism

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 94 Pages. In Polish.

E-book "Wykłady z Fizyki – Magnetyzm" jest siódmym tomem pomocniczych materiałów do jednorocznego kursu fizyki prowadzonego przeze mnie na różnych kierunkach studiów inżynierskich. Zainteresowani studiowaniem fizyki znajdą tu podstawowe pojęcia, prawa, jednostki, wzory, wykresy i przykłady. ### The e-book "Lectures in Physics – Magnetism" is the seventh volume of auxiliary materials for one-year physics course conducted by me in various fields of engineering studies. Those interested in studying physics will find here the basic concepts, laws, units, formulas, graphs and examples.
Category: Education and Didactics

[417] viXra:1804.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 02:27:40

Wykłady Z Fizyki – Elektromagnetyzm ### Lectures in Physics – Electromagnetism

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 136 Pages. In Polish.

E-book "Wykłady z Fizyki – Elektromagnetyzm" jest ósmym tomem pomocniczych materiałów do jednorocznego kursu fizyki prowadzonego przeze mnie na różnych kierunkach studiów inżynierskich. Zainteresowani studiowaniem fizyki znajdą tu podstawowe pojęcia, prawa, jednostki, wzory, wykresy i przykłady. ### The e-book "Lectures in Physics – Electromagnetism " is the eighth volume of auxiliary materials for one-year physics course conducted by me in various fields of engineering studies. Those interested in studying physics will find here the basic concepts, laws, units, formulas, graphs and examples.
Category: Education and Didactics

[416] viXra:1804.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 02:30:13

Wykłady Z Fizyki – Optyka ### Lectures in Physics – Optics

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 222 Pages. In Polish.

E-book "Wykłady z Fizyki – Optyka" jest dziewiątym tomem pomocniczych materiałów do jednorocznego kursu fizyki prowadzonego przeze mnie na różnych kierunkach studiów inżynierskich. Zainteresowani studiowaniem fizyki znajdą tu podstawowe pojęcia, prawa, jednostki, wzory, wykresy i przykłady. ### The e-book "Lectures in Physics – Optics" is the ninth volume of auxiliary materials for one-year physics course conducted by me in various fields of engineering studies. Those interested in studying physics will find here the basic concepts, laws, units, formulas, graphs and examples.
Category: Education and Didactics

[415] viXra:1804.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 02:32:27

Wykłady Z Fizyki – Kwanty ### Lectures in Physics – Quanta

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 198 Pages. In Polish.

E-book "Wykłady z Fizyki – Kwanty" jest dziesiątym tomem pomocniczych materiałów do jednorocznego kursu fizyki prowadzonego przeze mnie na różnych kierunkach studiów inżynierskich. Zainteresowani studiowaniem fizyki znajdą tu podstawowe pojęcia, prawa, jednostki, wzory, wykresy i przykłady. ### The e-book "Lectures in Physics – Quanta" is the tenth volume of auxiliary materials for one-year physics course conducted by me in various fields of engineering studies. Those interested in studying physics will find here the basic concepts, laws, units, formulas, graphs and examples.
Category: Education and Didactics

[414] viXra:1804.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 02:36:27

Wykłady Z Fizyki – Ciało Stałe ### Lectures in Physics – Solid Body

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 80 Pages. In Polish.

E-book "Wykłady z fizyki – Ciało Stałe" jest jedenastym tomem pomocniczych materiałów do jednorocznego kursu fizyki prowadzonego przeze mnie na różnych kierunkach inżynierskich. Zainteresowani studiowaniem fizyki znajdą tu podstawowe pojęcia, prawa, jednostki, wzory, wykresy i przykłady. ### E-book " Lectures in Physics – Solid Body" is eleventh volume of auxiliary materials for one-year physics course conducted by me in various fields of engineering studies. Those interested in studying physics will find here the basic concepts, laws, units, formulas, graphs and examples.
Category: Education and Didactics

[413] viXra:1804.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 02:38:38

Wykłady Z Fizyki – Jądra ### Lectures in Physics – Atomic Nuclei

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 116 Pages. In Polish.

E-book "Wykłady z Fizyki – Jądra" jest dwunastym tomem pomocniczych materiałów do jednorocznego kursu fizyki prowadzonego przeze mnie na różnych kierunkach studiów inżynierskich. Zainteresowani studiowaniem fizyki znajdą tu podstawowe pojęcia, prawa, jednostki, wzory, wykresy i przykłady. ### The e-book "Lectures in Physics – Atomic Nuclei" is the twelfth volume of auxiliary materials for one-year physics course conducted by me in various fields of engineering studies. Those interested in studying physics will find here the basic concepts, laws, units, formulas, graphs and examples.
Category: Education and Didactics

[412] viXra:1804.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 02:40:42

Wykłady Z Fizyki – Cząstki Elementarne ### Lectures in Physics – Elementary Particles

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 130 Pages. In Polish.

E-book "Wykłady z Fizyki – Cząstki Elementarne" jest trzynastym tomem pomocniczych materiałów do jednorocznego kursu fizyki prowadzonego przeze mnie na różnych kierunkach studiów inżynierskich. Zainteresowani studiowaniem fizyki znajdą tu podstawowe pojęcia, prawa, jednostki, wzory, wykresy i przykłady. ### The e-book "Lectures in Physics – Elementary Particles" is the thirteenth volume of auxiliary materials for one-year physics course conducted by me in various fields of engineering studies. Those interested in studying physics will find here the basic concepts, laws, units, formulas, graphs and examples.
Category: Education and Didactics

[411] viXra:1804.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 02:43:12

Wykłady Z Fizyki – Teoria Względności ### Lectures in Physics – Theory of Relativity

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 156 Pages. In Polish.

E-book "Wykłady z Fizyki – Teoria Względności" jest czternastym tomem pomocniczych materiałów do jednorocznego kursu fizyki prowadzonego przeze mnie na różnych kierunkach studiów inżynierskich. Zainteresowani studiowaniem fizyki znajdą tu podstawowe pojęcia, prawa, jednostki, wzory, wykresy i przykłady. ### The e-book "Lectures in Physics – Theory of Relativity" is the fourteenth volume of auxiliary materials for one-year physics course conducted by me in various fields of engineering studies. Those interested in studying physics will find here the basic concepts, laws, units, formulas, graphs and examples.
Category: Education and Didactics

[410] viXra:1804.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 02:45:14

Wykłady Z Fizyki – Stałe Uniwersalne I Jednostki ### Lectures in Physics – Universal Constants and Units of Measurement

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 98 Pages. In Polish.

E-book "Wykłady z Fizyki – Stałe Uniwersalne i Jednostki" jest piętnastym tomem pomocniczych materiałów do jednorocznego kursu fizyki prowadzonego przeze mnie na różnych kierunkach studiów inżynierskich. Zainteresowani studiowaniem fizyki znajdą tu podstawowe pojęcia, prawa, jednostki, wzory, wykresy i przykłady. ### The e-book "Lectures in Physics – Universal Constants and Units of Measurement" is the fifteenth volume of auxiliary materials for one-year physics course conducted by me in various fields of engineering studies. Those interested in studying physics will find here the basic concepts, laws, units, formulas, graphs and examples.
Category: Education and Didactics

[409] viXra:1804.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 02:50:43

Zadania Problemowe Z Fizyki ### Problem Tasks of Physics

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 46 Pages. In Polish.

E-book "Zadania problemowe z fizyki" zawiera 360 zadań z fizyki. Stanowią one ilustrację i uzupełnienie prowadzonych przeze mnie wykładów z fizyki dla studentów pierwszego roku różnych kierunków inżynierskich. ### The e-book "Problem tasks of physics" contains 360 tasks of physics. They are an illustration and complementation of lectures in physics conducted by me for students of the first year of various fields of engineering studies.
Category: Education and Didactics

[408] viXra:1804.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 02:52:54

Zadania Problemowe Z Biofizyki ### Problem Tasks of Biophysics

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 22 Pages. In Polish.

E-book "Zadania problemowe z biofizyki" zawiera ponad 170 zadań z biofizyki. Stanowią one ilustrację i uzupełnienie prowadzonych przeze mnie wykładów z biofizyki dla studentów pierwszego roku fizjoterapii. ### The e-book "Problem tasks of biophysics" contains over 170 tasks of biophysics. They are an illustration and supplement of my biophysics lectures for first-year physiotherapy students.
Category: Education and Didactics

[407] viXra:1804.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 02:58:48

English-Polish and Polish-English Dictionary of Physical Terms

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 200 Pages. In Polish.

The e-book "English-Polish and Polish-English Dictionary of Physical Terms" contains more than 1600 entries in alphabetic and thematic layouts. This dictionary can be useful for people using English-language Internet resources while studying physics.
Category: Education and Didactics

[406] viXra:1804.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 07:43:37

Nuclease Activity of the DNA Polymerases: an Evasion of Microscopic Reversibility Leading to Fidelity in Excess of Kinetic Control Levels

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 8 Pages.

The exonuclease and endonuclease activities of the DNA polymerases, which extend their proof-reading capabilities and maintain high fidelity in the replication process, apparently conflict with the principle of microscopic reversibility. However, deeper mechanistic analysis of the reaction leads to fascinating insights into the kinetic and thermodynamic effects controlling the replication of the primary genetic material. Thus, nucleotide addition and excision apparently involve different pathways, although violation of microscopic reversibility is avoided as the overall reaction does not reach equilibrium. Intriguingly, however, this allows the fidelity levels to exceed those expected from simple kinetic control.
Category: Biochemistry

[405] viXra:1804.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:07:14

(α,β,γ)-Equalities of Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: Songsong Dai
Comments: 5 Pages.

The single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS) is a subclass of neutrosophic set,which can describe and handle indeterminate information and inconsistent information. Since a SVNS is characterized independently by three functions: a truth-membership function, an indeterminacy-membership function, and a falsity-membership function.
Category: General Mathematics

[404] viXra:1804.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:09:13

A Novel Approach to Nano Topology Via Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: M. Lellis Thivagar, Saeid Jafari, V. Sutha Devi, V. Antonysamy
Comments: 9 Pages.

The main objective of this study is to introduce a new hybrid intelligent structure called Neutrosophic nano topology. Fuzzy nano topology and intuitionistic nano topology can also be deduced from the neutrosophic nano topology. Based on the neutrosophic nano approximations we have classified neutrosophic nano topology. Some properties like neutrosophic nano interior and neutrosophic nano closure are derived.
Category: General Mathematics

[403] viXra:1804.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:10:34

Bézier Surface Modeling for Neutrosophic Data Problems

Authors: Selçuk Topal, Ferhat Taş
Comments: 5 Pages.

The main goal of this paper is to construct Bézier surface modeling for neutrosophic data problems. We show how to build the surface model over a data sample from agriculture science after the theoretical structure of the modeling is introduced. As a sampler application for agriculture systems, we give a visualization of Bézier surface model of an estimation of a given yield of bean seeds grown in a field over a period.
Category: General Mathematics

[402] viXra:1804.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:12:12

Commutative Falling Neutrosophic Ideals in BCK-Algebras

Authors: Young Bae Jun, Florentin Smarandache, Mehmat Ali Ozturk
Comments: 10 Pages.

The notions of a commutative (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal and a commutative falling neutrosophic ideal are introduced, and several properties are investigated.
Category: General Mathematics

[401] viXra:1804.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:13:45

Contributions of Selected Indian Researchers to Multi Attribute Decision Making in Neutrosophic Environment: An Overview

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Rama Mallick, Anindita Dasgupta
Comments: 22 Pages.

Multi-attribute decision making (MADM) is a mathematical tool to solve decision problems involving conflicting attributes. With the increasing complexity, uncertainty of objective things and the neutrosophic nature of human thought, more and more attention has been paid to the investigation on multi attribute decision making in neutrosophic environment, and convincing research results have been reported in the literature.
Category: General Mathematics

[400] viXra:1804.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:15:12

Correlation Coefficient Measures of Interval Bipolar Neutrosophic Sets for Solving Multi-Attribute Decision Making Problems

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 10 Pages.

Interval bipolar neutrosophic set is a significant extension of interval neutrosophic set where every element of the set comprises of three independent positive membership functions and three independent negative membership functions.
Category: General Mathematics

[399] viXra:1804.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:16:49

Distance Measure Based MADM Strategy with Interval Trapezoidal Neutrosophic Numbers

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas Chandra Giri
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce interval trapezoidal neutrosophic number and define some arithmetic operations of the proposed interval trapezoidal neutrosophic numbers. Then we consider a multiple attribute decision making (MADM) problem with interval trapezoidal neutrosophic numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[398] viXra:1804.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:18:09

Entropy Based Single Valued Neutrosophic Digraph and Its Applications

Authors: Kalyan Sinha, Pinaki Majumdar
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper introduces the single valued neutrosophic (i.e. SVN) digraph. The basic terminologies and operations of SVN digraphs have been defined. Later certain types of SVN digraphs are shown and some of the important properties of SVN digraphs are investigated. Finally SVN digraphs are applied in solving a multicriterion decision making problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[397] viXra:1804.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:19:26

Further Results on (∈,∈)-Neutrosophic Subalgebras and Ideals in Bck/bci-Algebras

Authors: G. Muhiuddin, Hashem Bordbar, Florentin Smarandache, Young Bae Jun
Comments: 8 Pages.

Characterizations of an (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal are considered. Any ideal in a BCK/BCI-algebra will be realized as level neutrosophic ideals of some (∈,∈)-neutrosophic ideal.
Category: General Mathematics

[396] viXra:1804.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:21:28

Generalizations of Neutrosophic Subalgebras in BCK/BCI-Algebras Based on Neutrosophic Points

Authors: Seon Jeong Kim, Seok-Zun Song, Young Bae Jun
Comments: 10 Pages.

Saeid and Jun introduced the notion of neutrosophic points, and studied neutrosophic subalgebras of several types in BCK/BCI-algebras by using the notion of neutrosophic points.
Category: General Mathematics

[395] viXra:1804.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:23:58

Hybrid Binary Logarithm Similarity Measure for MAGDM Problems under SVNS Assessments

Authors: Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 14 Pages.

Single valued neutrosophic set is an important mathematical tool for tackling uncertainty in scientific and engineering problems because it can handle situation involving indeterminacy.
Category: General Mathematics

[394] viXra:1804.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:24:53

Interval Neutrosophic Tangent Similarity Measure Based Madm Strategy and Its Application to Madm Problems

Authors: Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, tangent similarity measure of interval valued neutrosophic sets is proposed and its properties are examined. The concept of interval valued neutrosophic set is a powerful mathematical tool to deal with incomplete, indeterminate and inconsistent information. The concept of this tangent similarity measure is based on interval valued neutrosophic information.
Category: General Mathematics

[393] viXra:1804.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:27:32

Multi-Attribute Decision Making Based on Several Trigonometric Hamming Similarity Measures under Interval Rough Neutrosophic Environment

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Rumi Roy, Tapan Kumar Roy, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, the sine, cosine and cotangent similarity measures of interval rough neutrosophic sets is proposed. Some properties of the proposed measures are discussed. We have proposed multi attribute decision making approaches based on proposed similarity measures. To demonstrate the applicability, a numerical example is solved.
Category: General Mathematics

[392] viXra:1804.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:30:48

Multi Attribute Decision Making Strategy on Projection and Bidirectional Projection Measures of Interval Rough Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Rumi Roy, Tapan Kumar Roy, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we define projection and bidirectional projection measures between interval rough neutrosophic sets and prove their basic properties. Then two new multi attribute decision making strategies are proposed based on interval rough neutrosophic projection and bidirectional projection measures respectively.
Category: General Mathematics

[391] viXra:1804.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:32:24

NC-VIKOR Based MAGDM Strategy under Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Shyamal Dalapati, Shariful Alam, Tapan Kumar Roy
Comments: 14 Pages.

Neutrosophic cubic set consists of interval neutrosophic set and single valued neutrosophic set simultaneously. Due to its unique structure, neutrosophic cubic set can express hybrid information consisting of single valued neutrosophic information and interval neutrosophic information simultaneously.
Category: General Mathematics

[390] viXra:1804.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:33:42

Neutrosophic EOQ Model with Price Break

Authors: M. Mullai, R. Surya
Comments: 5 Pages.

Inventory control of an ideal resource is the most important one which fulfils various activities (functions) of an organisation. The supplier gives the discount for an item in the cost of units inorder to motivate the buyers (or) customers to purchase the large quantity of that item.
Category: General Mathematics

[389] viXra:1804.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:34:44

Neutrosophic Goal Geometric Programming Problem based on Geometric Mean Method and its Application

Authors: Sahidul Islam, Tanmay Kundu
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper describes neutrosophic goal geometric programming method, a new concept to solve multi-objective non-linear optimization problem under uncertainty.
Category: General Mathematics

[388] viXra:1804.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:36:12

On Neutrosophic Soft Prime Ideal

Authors: Tuhin Bera, Nirmal Kumar Mahapatra
Comments: 22 Pages.

The motivation of the present paper is to extend the concept of neutrosophic soft prime ideal over a ring. In this paper the concept of neutrosophic soft completely prime ideals, neutrosophic soft completely semi-prime ideals and neutrosophic soft prime k - ideals have been introduced. These are illustrated with suitable examples also. Several related properties, theorems and structural characteristics of each are studied here.
Category: General Mathematics

[387] viXra:1804.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:37:46

On Neutrosophic Soft Topological Space

Authors: Tuhin Bera, Nirmal Kumar Mahapatra
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper, the concept of connectedness and compactness on neutrosophic soft topological space have been introduced along with the investigation of their several characteristics. Some related theorems have been established also.
Category: General Mathematics

[386] viXra:1804.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:38:51

Single Valued Neutrosophic Hyperbolic Sine Similarity Measure Based MADM Strategy

Authors: Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce new type of similarity measures for single valued neutrosophic sets based on hyperbolic sine function. The new similarity measures are namely, single valued neutrosophic hyperbolic sine similarity measure and weighted single valued neutrosophic hyperbolic sine similarity measure.
Category: General Mathematics

[385] viXra:1804.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:38:49

Measuring Brain Blood Flow with Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Biomedical engineers at the University of California, Davis, have developed a new technique for measuring blood flow in the human brain, which could be used in patients with stroke or traumatic brain injury, for example. [22] According to a new study in Cell, it may be possible to teach machines how to pick out features in neurons and other cells that have not been stained or undergone other damaging treatments. [21] The possibility of cognitive nuclear-spin processing came to Fisher in part through studies performed in the 1980s that reported a remarkable lithium isotope dependence on the behavior of mother rats. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] Now researchers at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Category: Physics of Biology

[384] viXra:1804.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:40:08

Single Valued Neutrosophic Soft Approach to Rough Sets, Theory and Application

Authors: Emad Marei
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper aims to introduce a single valued neutrosophic soft approach to rough sets based on neutrosophic right minimal structure. Some of its properties are deduced and proved. A comparison between traditional rough model and suggested model, by using their properties is concluded to show that Pawlak’s approach to rough sets can be viewed as a special case of single valued neutrosophic soft approach to rough sets. Some of rough concepts are redefined and then some properties of these concepts are deduced, proved and illustrated by several examples. Finally, suggested model is applied in a decision making problem, supported with an algorithm.
Category: General Mathematics

[383] viXra:1804.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:41:19

The Creation of Three Logical Connectors to Reapprove How Comprehensive and Effective the Neutrosophic Logic is Compared to the Fuzzy Logic and the Classical Logic

Authors: Salah Bouzina, Djamel Hamoud
Comments: 3 Pages.

The main objective of this research is a simple attempt to suggest three new logical connectors and establish an equation a chart of truth for each of them. Secondly, and using the logical operations of these three connectors, we seek to show how comprehensive and widespread and effective is the Neutrosophic logic (NL) compared to any other logic, taking into account the Fuzzy Logic (FL) as well as the classical logic (CL) as a comparative model.
Category: General Mathematics

[382] viXra:1804.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:42:37

The Ingenuity of Neutrosophic Topology via N-Topology

Authors: M. Lellis Thivagar, S. Jafari, V. Antonysamy, V. Sutha Devi
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper we desire to extend the neutrosophic topological spaces into N-neutrosophic topological spaces. Also we show that this theory can be deduced to N-intuitionistic and N-fuzzy topological spaces etc. Further we develop not only the concept of classical generalized closed sets into N-neutrosophic topological spaces but also obtain its basic properties. Finally we investigate its continuous function and generalized continuous function.
Category: General Mathematics

[381] viXra:1804.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:43:58

TOPSIS Strategy for Multi-Attribute Decision Making with Trapezoidal Neutrosophic Numbers

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 11 Pages.

Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) is a popular strategy for MultiAttribute Decision Making (MADM). In this paper, we extend the TOPSIS strategy of MADM problems in trapezoidal neutrosophic number environment. The attribute values are expressed in terms of single-valued trapezoidal neutrosophic numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[380] viXra:1804.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:45:16

Two Ranking Methods of Single Valued Triangular Neutrosophic Numbers to Rank and Evaluate Information Systems Quality

Authors: Samah Ibrahim Abdel Aal, Mahmoud M. A. Abd Ellatif, Mohamed Monir Hassan
Comments: 10 Pages.

The concept of neutrosophic can provide a generalization of fuzzy set and intuitionistic fuzzy set that make it is the best fit in representing indeterminacy and uncertainty. Single Valued Triangular Numbers (SVTrN-numbers) is a special case of neutrosophic set that can handle ill-known quantity very difficult problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[379] viXra:1804.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 09:47:05

Vikor Based Magdm Strategy Under Bipolar Neutrosophic Set Environment

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Shyamal Dalapati, Shariful Alam, Tapan Kumar Roy
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper, we extend the VIKOR VIsekriterijumska optimizacija i KOmpromisno Resenje) strategy to multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) with bipolar neutrosophic set environment. In this paper, we first define VIKOR strategy in bipolar neutrosophic set environment to handle MAGDM problems, which means we combine the VIKOR with bipolar neutrosophic number to deal with MAGDM.
Category: General Mathematics

[378] viXra:1804.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 10:31:01

Less Harmful Alternative to X-Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

A new source of intense terahertz (THz) radiation, which could offer a less harmful alternative to X-rays and has strong potential for use in industry, is being developed by scientists at the University of Strathclyde and Capital Normal University in Beijing. [23] Biomedical engineers at the University of California, Davis, have developed a new technique for measuring blood flow in the human brain, which could be used in patients with stroke or traumatic brain injury, for example. [22] According to a new study in Cell, it may be possible to teach machines how to pick out features in neurons and other cells that have not been stained or undergone other damaging treatments. [21] The possibility of cognitive nuclear-spin processing came to Fisher in part through studies performed in the 1980s that reported a remarkable lithium isotope dependence on the behavior of mother rats. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14]
Category: Physics of Biology

[377] viXra:1804.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 11:09:24

Alternative Medical Imaging Techniques

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

With a thin probe and a burst of microwaves, doctors can eradicate cancer cells without opening up a patient for surgery. [24] A new source of intense terahertz (THz) radiation, which could offer a less harmful alternative to X-rays and has strong potential for use in industry, is being developed by scientists at the University of Strathclyde and Capital Normal University in Beijing. [23] Biomedical engineers at the University of California, Davis, have developed a new technique for measuring blood flow in the human brain, which could be used in patients with stroke or traumatic brain injury, for example. [22] According to a new study in Cell, it may be possible to teach machines how to pick out features in neurons and other cells that have not been stained or undergone other damaging treatments. [21] The possibility of cognitive nuclear-spin processing came to Fisher in part through studies performed in the 1980s that reported a remarkable lithium isotope dependence on the behavior of mother rats. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Category: Physics of Biology

[376] viXra:1804.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 12:06:56

Terahertz Semiconductor Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

The ability to harness light into an intense beam of monochromatic radiation in a laser has revolutionized the way we live and work for more than fifty years. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[375] viXra:1804.0418 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-30 11:17:10

Change in Kinetic Energy of the Body in the Environment with Constant Energy, Mpemba Effect

Authors: Viktor Strohm
Comments: 8 Pages.

The algorithm of change in kinetic energy of the body consisting of elastic spheres in the environment with constant energy is received. The software application is written. Physical experiments on the cooling of bodies in the constant temperature air are made. Mpemba effect is shown. Qualitative coincidence of calculated and experimental data is shown.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[374] viXra:1804.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-27 18:13:47

Refutation of Quantum Arithmetic Using Repeat-Until-Success Circuits © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The use of quantum arithmetic using repeat-until-success circuits is not tautologous and hence refuted. We abandoned further analysis of this Microsoft opus.
Category: Quantum Physics

[373] viXra:1804.0416 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-02 20:34:06

Statistical Bias in the Distribution of Prime Pairs and Isolated Primes

Authors: Waldemar Puszkarz
Comments: 7 Pages. Last version submitted to viXra. First version submitted to arXiv.

Computer experiments reveal that twin primes tend to center on nonsquarefree multiples of 6 more often than on squarefree multiples of 6 compared to what should be expected from the ratio of the number of nonsquarefree multiples of 6 to the number of squarefree multiples of 6 equal $\pi^2/3-1$, or ca 2.290. For multiples of 6 surrounded by twin primes, this ratio is 2.427, a relative difference of ca $6.0\%$ measured against the expected value. A deviation from the expected value of this ratio, ca $1.9\%$, exists also for isolated primes. This shows that the distribution of primes is biased towards nonsquarefree numbers, a phenomenon most likely previously unknown. For twins, this leads to nonsquarefree numbers gaining an excess of $1.2\%$ of the total number of twins. In the case of isolated primes, this excess for nonsquarefree numbers amounts to $0.4\%$ of the total number of such primes. The above numbers are for the first $10^{10}$ primes, with the bias showing a tendency to grow, at least for isolated primes.
Category: Number Theory

[372] viXra:1804.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-27 20:59:17

An Awaited Formula for the Planck Constant

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 1 Page.

An awaited formula for the Planck Constant and the awaited link with the other universal constants.
Category: Quantum Physics

[371] viXra:1804.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 01:58:32

Is it Necessary the Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics?

Authors: V.A. Kasimov
Comments: 8 Pages. Язык: русский

Any interpretation, being a translation from one language (for example, micro-) to another language (for example, macro-), "rests" in the unproven possibility of the same conclusionbility or expressiveness in describing phenomena of different levels of ontology. In this sense, any interpretation is inherently speculative. There is the language of the theory - and we should communicate by it. In addition, there is a meta-language of philosophical generalizations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[370] viXra:1804.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-28 02:05:55

About Evolution of the Concept of Mass in Physics

Authors: V.A. Kasimov
Comments: 8 Pages. Язык: русский

Examines the relativistic aspects of generalization, which "removed" the distinction between inertial, gravitational, inertia, inert properties of mass, giving rise, however, the problem of non-locality of energy (and its multivariate solution), characteristic of the integral characteristics of the GTR.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[369] viXra:1804.0409 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-27 04:06:28

Proof of Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Andrey B. Skrypnik
Comments: 4 Pages.

Now there is a formula for calculating all primes
Category: Number Theory

[368] viXra:1804.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 10:21:20

The Timeless Universe

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 9 Pages.

In the unified theory of dynamic space the phenomenon of motion has been described as a form of space deformation, that is identical to time. The motion force is deducted from the dynamic space and is accumulated on the spherical zone of the particle, due to the difference of cohesive pressure in front of and behind it. Cosmic journey of galaxies becomes at a Universal constant timeless speed. Also, timeless speed of light is a Universal constant, while light speed is a local constant. The gravity tail of galactic systems is one of moreover causes for their chaotic motion. So, the search for an unknown form of dark matter and energy is no longer necessary.
Category: Astrophysics

[367] viXra:1804.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 10:33:11

Waste Heat Switch for Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, twostroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[366] viXra:1804.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 11:14:24

Mixed Generalized Multifractal Densities for Vector Valued Quasi-Ahlfors Measures

Authors: Adel Farhat, Anouar Ben Mabrouk
Comments: 19 Pages.

In the present work we are concerned with some density estimations of vector valued measures in the framework of the so-called mixed multifractal analysis. We precisely consider some Borel probability measures satisfying a weak quasi-Alfors regularity. Mixed multifractal generalizations of densities are then introduced and studied in a framework of relative mixed multifractal analysis.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[365] viXra:1804.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 17:45:41

General Relativity and Representation of Solutions

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 9 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we find the representation of the gravity field equation and solutions. We treats the representation of Schwarzschild solution, Reissner-Nordstrom solution, Kerr-Newman solution,Robertson-Walker solution. Specially, Robertson-Walker solution is an uniqueness.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[364] viXra:1804.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 21:44:14

A Study on the Improvement of Servo Control Characteristics of Ultra Precision Machine Tools by ANFIS-PID Controller

Authors: Su-Bom Yun, On-Jeng Sim
Comments: 17 Pages. Ultra-precision machine tools are highly demanding machining environments.

The demand for ultra-precision machining is increasing day by day. In particular, demand for ultra-precision processing products is increasing in many fields such as defense industry, space industry, and economy. Accordingly, ultra-precision processing technology is also increasing. However, the precision of machining varies depending on the environment. The most influential factors are vibration, temperature, and wear. Therefore, a special tool setting a micro-thermosensor is installed to measure the temperature change at the cutting point in real time. Recently, various artificial intelligence manipulation techniques have been studied to overcome these deficiencies. In this paper, we describe the improvement of the control accuracy compared to the previous controllers by applying the adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller that takes into account the model uncertainty of the subject and by conducting the simulation.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[363] viXra:1804.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 23:49:54

The Shadow of the Smile of the "Cheshire Cat"

Authors: V.A.Kasimov
Comments: 13 Pages. Язык: русский

Offers a discussion of some topological paradoxes arising in the theory of relativity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[362] viXra:1804.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 23:55:31

PMC-topology

Authors: V.A.Kasimov
Comments: 2 Pages. Язык: русский

In the mathematical description of physical phenomena is used mainly Point-Metric Classical topology (PMC-topology), embodied in the methods of mathematical analysis. It is necessary to note the important features of the application of PMC-topology to the solution of the problems of space-time relations, which will give us an unambiguous hint at the limitations of its applicability. To understand the reason for this limitation, it is necessary to return to the origins of the continuity concept of point-metric classical topology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[361] viXra:1804.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-27 00:32:57

Gravitational Waves: Propagation Speed is Co-ordinate Dependent

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 8 Pages. To cite this APS poster presentation: http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/APR18/Session/F01.62

The speed of propagation of Einstein's gravitational waves pertains to the derivation of a wave equation from the linearized field equations of General Relativity. It is routinely claimed that the resulting wave equation predicts propagation speed at that of light. However, the speed is in fact coordinate dependent – change the coordinates then the speed of propagation is entirely different from that of light. Coordinate changes can be arbitrarily made ad infinitum. Consequently there is no unique propagation speed. The coordinates used by Einstein were purposely introduced to satisfy his assumptions that the waves exist and travel at the speed of light. His argument assumes as premise that which is to be demonstrated and is therefore invalid (petitio principii). Moreover, the objective cannot be achieved because General Relativity cannot localize its gravitational energy - it violates the usual conservation laws for a closed system and is thereby in conflict with a vast array of experiments. To try to satisfy the usual conservation laws Einstein constructed his pseudotensor, which is a meaningless collection of mathematical symbols because it violates the rules of pure mathematics
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[360] viXra:1804.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-27 01:56:03

Theoretical Study of Amorphous Mos2 Formation Condition by DC Cathode Sputtering Evaporation

Authors: Kwangil Kim, Ilman Pak, Kwangmyong Li
Comments: 4 Pages.

ABSTRACT The deposition of MoS2solid lubricant on metal surfaces by non-acid deposition is the most widely used method in aviation and space. The MoS2 film formed by the non-acid deposition is amorphous when the temperature of the matrix is 160 ° or less, and becomes crystalline when the temperature is higher. [2] The amorphous film has a smaller friction coefficient than the crystalline film. [3] In this study, the amorphous film formation conditions of MoS2 were determined theoretically and the friction coefficient was measured in DC cathodic dep
Category: Chemistry

[359] viXra:1804.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-27 03:22:51

Vortex Equation in Holomorphic Line Bundle Over Non-Compact Gauduchon Manifold

Authors: Zhenghan Shen, Wen Wang, Pan Zhang
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, by the method of heat flow and the method of exhaustion, we prove an existence theorem of Hermitian-Yang-Mills-Higgs metrics on holomorphic line bundle over a class of non-compact Gauduchon manifold.
Category: Geometry

[358] viXra:1804.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-27 05:40:17

Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

Physicists from the University of Basel have observed the quantum mechanical Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in a system of several hundred interacting atoms for the first time. [43] Researchers at Aalto University, Finland, have created a Bose-Einstein condensate of light coupled with metal electrons, so-called surface plasmon polaritons. [42] A team led by Rice University scientists used a unique combination of techniques to observe, for the first time, a condensed matter phenomenon about which others have only speculated. The research could aid in the development of quantum computers. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[357] viXra:1804.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-27 06:16:01

Magnetoresistance Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Magnetoresistance Effect The magnetoresistance effect is the tendency of a material to change the value of its electrical resistance in an externally-applied magnetic field. [34] For the first time, a group of researchers from Universidad Complutense de Madrid, IBM, ETH Zurich, MIT and Harvard University have observed topological phases of matter of quantum states under the action of temperature or certain types of experimental imperfections. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Condensed Matter

[356] viXra:1804.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 13:04:25

Quantum Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

In recent years, nanofabricated mechanical oscillators have emerged as a promising platform for quantum information applications. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[355] viXra:1804.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 13:20:56

Human Papillomavirus – the Cause of Prostate Cancer

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 9 Pages. Copyright © 2018 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. Published by:.

BACKGROUND: Several observational studies investigated the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the risk of prostate cancer (PC) and have suggested conflicting results about this relationship. However, the relationship between HPV infection and PC remains unclear. The aim of the present meta-analysis study is to investigate whether HPV serves as a cause of PC. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched for suitable articles. Previously published expert review and systematic review were used as an additional source to identify appropriate articles. Articles selected for this meta-analysis should fulfil the following inclusion criteria: (a) no data access barrier (b) PCR DNA based identification of HPV. RESULTS: The studies analysed were able provide evidence that without being married no (HPV infection of a men/prostate cancer).The X² value of the total 20 articles indicated a significant causal relationship between HPV and PC. In other words, if HPV infection of human prostate, then prostate cancer. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, Human papillomavirus is the cause of prostate cancer. KEYWORDS: Human papillomavirus, prostate cancer, causal relationship, causality
Category: Statistics

[354] viXra:1804.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 13:23:20

Near-Macroscopic Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

In work recently published in Nature, a team led by Prof. Mika Sillanpää at Aalto University in Finland has shown that entanglement of massive objects can be generated and detected. [11] Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[353] viXra:1804.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 14:18:07

Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (Epr) as not a Paradox But a Weakened Theorem © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The binary equation as rendered is tautologous. This confirms a modified thesis of the captioned paper, that EPR is not a paradox and is resolved as an implication theorem.
Category: Quantum Physics

[352] viXra:1804.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 18:29:30

Refutation of Quantum Block Chain Encoding © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The published equation as rendered is not tautologous. This means the attempt to convert classical information to quantum states is ultimately mistaken as a basis for quantum blockchain.
Category: Quantum Physics

[351] viXra:1804.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 18:35:25

Fitting Some Galaxy Rotation Curves Using the `constant Lagrangian' Model for Galactic Dynamics.

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 10 Pages.

The velocity rotation curves of the SPARC database present an opportunity to test the `constant Lagrangian' model for galactic dynamics. The fits of the rotation curves from thirteen different galaxies are presented.
Category: Astrophysics

[350] viXra:1804.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 21:32:26

Q-Analogues for Ramanujan-Type Series

Authors: Bing He, Hongcun Zhai
Comments: 7 Pages. This is a joint work with Dr. Zhai.

From a very-well-poised _{6}\phi_{5} series formula we deduce a general series expansion formula involving the q-gamma function. With this formula we can give q-analogues of many Ramanujan-type series.
Category: Number Theory

[349] viXra:1804.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 22:40:05

Volume as Time Dimension

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 7 Pages.

Volume as Time Dimension Extracted form Volume of Schwarzschild radius of hbar ((hbar/s/c^2)*2*G/c^2) = 1.74266836e-78 meters = Schwarzschild radius of hbar KronosPrime@Outlook.com
Category: Quantum Physics

[348] viXra:1804.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 02:12:24

Water Content of Earth Underestimated

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 1 Page.

Next step for reform of geophysics after conclusion, that Earth’s density is overestimated, should be- reestimation of terrestrial internal water content. This could prompt new look to earthquakes phenomena, Expanding Earth theory and other geophysical oddities.
Category: Geophysics

[347] viXra:1804.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 03:04:34

Once More About Quantum "Entanglement"

Authors: V.A. Kasimov
Comments: 15 Pages. Язык: русский

During the conceptual design of the experimental results of Aspect one must speak the language of quantum mechanics, not the language of the Argo private insights. One of these insights is the concept of "entanglement" (of particles or states is unclear!) The same language of quantum mechanics allows for a clear and unambiguous manner to give concrete content to the questions on this occasion. For the analysis of the proposed elementary model used in [1, 2].
Category: Quantum Physics

[346] viXra:1804.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 03:07:59

The One-Particle Contextuality, Two-Particle Nonlocality, Entanglement, Wheeler's Experiments with Delayed Choice, FWT and All that ...

Authors: V.A. Kasimov
Comments: 4 Pages. Язык: русский

In continuation of the discussion of the results of the Aspect's experiments [13]. An overview of the new results.
Category: Quantum Physics

[345] viXra:1804.0379 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-28 10:48:16

Modularity in the Universe

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages. This belongs to the Hilbert Book Model Project

All massive objects in the universe behave as modules. All modules are recurrently regenerated by private stochastic processes. These processes install the coherence of the module and control the binding of components in composed modules.
Category: Quantum Physics

[344] viXra:1804.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 04:42:16

Unusual Magnetic Structure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
Category: Condensed Matter

[343] viXra:1804.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 05:54:56

Magnetic Frustration

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

A new material created by Oregon State University researchers is a key step toward the next generation of supercomputers. [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21]
Category: Condensed Matter

[342] viXra:1804.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 06:38:20

The Strong Goldbach Conjecture, Klein Bottle And Möbius Strip

Authors: Angel Garcés Doz
Comments: 9 Pages.

This modest article shows the connection between the strong Goldbach conjecture and the topological properties of the Klein bottle and the Möbius strip. This connection is established by functions derived from the number of divisors of the two odd integers whose sum is an even number.
Category: Number Theory

[341] viXra:1804.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 07:11:44

Refutation of Heyting Logic© Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

As claimed in quantum physics papers, objects in the lattice-vectors of Heyting algebra are not idempotent. Consequently, Heyting logic is not bivalent, and hence refuted.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[340] viXra:1804.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 09:36:54

Dense Nuclear Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Analyses of the gravitational waves from the neutron star merger observed by LIGO and Virgo improve models describing the dense nuclear matter inside a neutron star. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[339] viXra:1804.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 09:58:25

General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists at the University of British Columbia have proposed a radical new theory to explain the exponentially increasing size of the universe. [10] Researchers playing with a cloud of ultracold atoms uncovered behavior that bears a striking resemblance to the universe in microcosm. [9] Gravitational waves may be produced in the heart of the galaxy, says a new study led by Ph.D. student Joseph Fernandez at Liverpool John Moores University. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[338] viXra:1804.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 13:32:19

What Does the Rydberg Constant Represent ?

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 11 Pages.

Planck Units (kilograms & Joules) Treated as (Volume Units) of Planck Pressure KronosPrime@Outlook.com
Category: Quantum Physics

[337] viXra:1804.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 15:01:54

Об инерции \\\ About Iiertia (About One Refinement of Concepts Inertia and Momentum)

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 15 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> About Inertia and Momentum Apr 24 2018

In this article, an attempt is made to clarify the concepts of inertia and momentum in terms of the author's understanding of the universe. This understanding is given in the "Theory of Nature" (TP) of the author, which should be considered a new materialistic physics and cosmology. The author stands on the platform of dialectical materialism. According to this solely scientific philosophy, our world is material. All things, bodies and objects in nature are material. Processes and phenomena in nature are caused by matter, its movement. In nature, there is nothing that is not matter or its various forms of motion. Matter is the basis, essence, substance of nature. Studying nature, we must adequately reflect matter in the conceptual apparatus of the theory of nature. Modern physics is the basic science of nature. But in its conceptual apparatus there is no adequate reflection of matter. The basis of physics is the concept of physical quantity. An adequate reflection of the matter of nature in the conceptual apparatus of physics can only be its reflection as the basic physical quantity. This is exactly what is done in TP. Matter in TP is elevated to the rank of the basic physical quantity. This is the essence of the revolution in science that the "Theory of Nature" realized. ++++++++++++++++++++++++ В настоящей статье предпринята попытка дать разъяснение понятий инерция и импульса с точки зрения авторского понимания мироздания. Это понимание дано в «Теории Природы» (ТП) автора, которую следует считать новой материалистической физикой и космологией. Автор стоит на платформе диалектического материализма. Согласно этой единственно научной философии наш мир материален. Все предметы, вещи, тела и объекты в природе материальны. Процессы и явления в природе обусловлены материей, её движением. В природе нет ничего, чтобы не было материей или её различными формами движения. Материя – это основа, сущность, субстанция природы. Изучая природу, мы должны адекватным образом отражать материю в понятийном аппарате теории о природе. Современная физика является основной наукой о природе. Но в её понятийном аппарате нет адекватного природе отражения материи. Основой физики является понятие физической величины. Адекватным отражением материи природы в понятийном аппарате физики может быть только её отражение в качестве основной физической величины. Именно так и сделано в ТП. Материя в ТП возведена в ранг основной физической величины. В этом суть той революции в науке, которую осуществила «Теория Природы».
Category: Classical Physics

[336] viXra:1804.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 16:44:53

A New Sieve for the Twin Primes ( How the Number of Twin Primes is Related to the Number of Primes)

Authors: H.L. Mitchell
Comments: 12 Pages.

We introduce a sieve for the number of twin primes less than n by sieving through the set {k ∊ ℤ+ | 6k < n}. We derive formula accordingly using the Euler product and the Brun Sieve. We then use the Prime Number Theorem and Mertens’ Theorem. The main results are: 1) A sieve for the twin primes similar to the sieve of Eratosthenes for primes involving only the values of k, the indices of the multiples of 6, ranging over k = p ,5 ≤ p <√n.It shows the uniform distribution of the pairs (6k-1,6k+1) that are not twin primes and the decreasing frequency of multiples of p as p increases. 2) A formula for the approximate number of twin primes less than N in terms of the number of primes less than n 3) The asymptotic formula for the number of twin primes less than n verifying the Hardy Littlewood Conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[335] viXra:1804.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 17:29:51

Idempotnts in Motivic Quantum Gravity

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard
Comments: 9 Pages.

The quantization of rest mass is governed by strictly discrete data, in principle coming from the combinatorics of a universal category of motives. We outline the essential ingredients from a categorical perspective, giving a context for the Koide mass operators.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[334] viXra:1804.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 17:51:39

Refutation of Liouville's Theorem as not Invertible © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

While the constructive form of the Liouville theorem is tautologous, its reverse is not which renders it as suspicious and unreliable.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[333] viXra:1804.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 20:34:14

Learning Geometric Algebra by Modeling Motions of the Earth and Shadows of Gnomons to Predict Solar Azimuths and Altitudes

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 54 Pages.

Because the shortage of worked-out examples at introductory levels is an obstacle to widespread adoption of Geometric Algebra (GA), we use GA to calculate Solar azimuths and altitudes as a function of time via the heliocentric model. We begin by representing the Earth's motions in GA terms. Our representation incorporates an estimate of the time at which the Earth would have reached perihelion in 2017 if not affected by the Moon's gravity. Using the geometry of the December 2016 solstice as a starting point, we then employ GA's capacities for handling rotations to determine the orientation of a gnomon at any given latitude and longitude during the period between the December solstices of 2016 and 2017. Subsequently, we derive equations for two angles: that between the Sun's rays and the gnomon's shaft, and that between the gnomon's shadow and the direction ``north" as traced on the ground at the gnomon's location. To validate our equations, we convert those angles to Solar azimuths and altitudes for comparison with simulations made by the program Stellarium. As further validation, we analyze our equations algebraically to predict (for example) the precise timings and locations of sunrises, sunsets, and Solar zeniths on the solstices and equinoxes. We emphasize that the accuracy of the results is only to be expected, given the high accuracy of the heliocentric model itself, and that the relevance of this work is the efficiency with which that model can be implemented via GA for teaching at the introductory level. On that point, comments and debate are encouraged and welcome.
Category: Geometry

[332] viXra:1804.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 21:30:21

A Boundary Value Problem of the Partial Differential-Integral Equations and Their Applications

Authors: Kim Ju Gyong, Ju Kwang Son
Comments: 13 Pages.

We study the boundary value problem of a partial differential-integral equations that have many applications in finance and insurance. We will solve a boundary value problem of the partial differential-integral equations by using the solution of conjugate equation and reflection method and apply it to determine the probability of company bankruptcy in insurance mathematics.
Category: Statistics

[331] viXra:1804.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 00:02:28

Effect of Biofield Energized Vitamin D3 on Bone Health in MG-63 Cell-Line

Authors: Faith Ann Pyka, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Sambhu Charan Mondal, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 9 Pages.

The objective of current research work was to evaluate the potential of Consciousness Energy Healing-based vitamin D3 and DMEM medium on bone health parameters such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen, and bone mineralization in human bone osteosarcoma cells (MG-63). The test items like vitamin D3 and DMEM were divided into two parts. One part of each sample was received the Biofield Energy Treatment by Faith Ann Pyka and those samples were denoted as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) samples, while the other parts of each sample were referred as the untreated test items (UT). The MTT cell viability assay revealed that the test samples were found as safe in the tested concentrations. The level of ALP was significantly increased by 191.45% in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test item (UT-TI) group at 1 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-TI group. Moreover, ALP level was significantly increased by 144.89% and 226.75% in the UT-DMEM + BT-TI and BT-DMEM + BT-TI groups, respectively at 50 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Further, collagen level was significantly increased by 98.15%, 80.54%, and 49.98% in the UT-DMEM + BT-TI, BT-DMEM + UT-TI, and BT-DMEM + BT-TI groups, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Additionally, at 50 µg/mL level of collagen was significantly increased by 129.73%, 189.16%, and 94.60% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item groups, respectively with respect to the untreated group. Apart from this, the percent of bone mineralization was distinctly enhanced by 283.74%, 27.91%, and 118.02% in the UT-DMEM + BT-TI, BT-DMEM + UT-TI, and BT-DMEM + BT-TI groups, respectively at 50 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Moreover, the percentage of bone mineralization was significantly increased by 265.92%, 231.82%, and 158.2% in the UT-DMEM + BT-TI, BT-DMEM + UT-TI, and BT-DMEM + BT-TI groups, respectively at 100 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Altogether, the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 was significantly improved the bone health parameters and it could be an alternative approach for nutraceutical supplement to combat vitamin D3 deficiency and able to fight against various bone-related disorders including rickets, low bone density, osteomalacia, bone and joint pain, bone fractures, osteoporosis, osteoma, osteogenesis imperfecta, Paget’s disease, deformed bones, chondrodystrophia fetalis, stress management and prevention, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and anti-aging by improving overall health.
Category: Biochemistry

[330] viXra:1804.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 02:11:06

A Note on a Problem in Misho Sampo

Authors: Hiroshi Okumura
Comments: 2 Pages. This paper will be submitted to Sangaku Journal of Mathematics.

A problem involving an isosceles triangle with a square and three congruent circles is generalized.
Category: Geometry

[329] viXra:1804.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 02:34:19

On the Time Reversal Noninvariance in Quantum Physics

Authors: V.A. Kuz`menko
Comments: 25 Pages.

A brief review of the main direct and indirect experimental proofs of the nonequivalence of forward and reversed processes in nonlinear optics is presented. The main consequences of this nonequivalence and the ways of its experimental study are discussed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[328] viXra:1804.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 02:58:28

Plastic Semiconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

Cheap, flexible and sustainable plastic semiconductors will soon be a reality thanks to a breakthrough by chemists at the University of Waterloo. [42] Using short laser pulses, a research team led by Misha Ivanov of the Max Born Institute in Berlin, together with scientists from the Russian Quantum Center in Moscow, has shed light on the extremely rapid processes taking place within these novel materials. [41] Trapping light with an optical version of a whispering gallery, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a nanoscale coating for solar cells that enables them to absorb about 20 percent more sunlight than uncoated devices. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[327] viXra:1804.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 05:45:18

Nuclear Accurate Clocks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Recently, scientists suggested switching from electron to nuclear transitions that may considerably increase the precision of clocks due to higher frequency. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[326] viXra:1804.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 06:03:20

About the EPR Paradox. Resolution Features

Authors: V.A. Kasimov
Comments: 7 Pages. Язык: русский

In interpreting the results of experiments A. Aspect faced two concepts of quantum mechanics and relativity theory, which requires a thorough consideration of the causes of contradictions. The analysis of these issues devoted many works of different authors, and the points raised here also have been exhibited for analysis. However, we feel that contact again to the key moments of the contradiction and possibly in compressed form is a must.
Category: Quantum Physics

[325] viXra:1804.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 06:20:23

About the Second Postulate of STR

Authors: V.A. Kasimov
Comments: 2 Pages. Язык: русский

Probably, orthodox physicists will consider the question indecent: Is the second postulate necessary for the construction of a Special theory of Relativity? Nevertheless, this issue was raised and considered by at least two independent authors [1, 2]. This topic is proposed for discussion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[324] viXra:1804.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 07:22:26

Augmenting 19th Century Thermoelectric Greenhouse Theory with 20th Century Quantum Mechanics Raman Spectroscopy: Towards a Coherent Radiation Theory of the Atmosphere

Authors: Blair Macdonald
Comments: 101 Pages.

Current greenhouse theory is incomplete: it does not include Raman spectroscopy and is incorrectly based on the special group of ‘Tyndall’ greenhouse gases, which are really the thermoelectric (TE-IR) gases, as detected only by thermoelectric transducers. It’s premise: ‘the non-GHGs Nitrogen and Oxygen do not absorb or emit infrared radiation’ presents a paradox, it contradicts both quantum mechanics and thermodynamics – where all matter above absolute 00 Kelvin radiates IR photons. These (above) molecules possess quantum predicted emission spectra within the IR range of the EMS – at 2338cm-1 and 1556cm-1 respectively – but are only observed, and temperatures from them measured, by Raman Spectrometers, ‘IR spectrometers’ complement instrument. This was investigated by quantum and thermoelectric theory and application. A report of Raman spectrometer measurements on jet engine outlet temperatures and gas concentrations was referring to, and the following conclusions made: 1) all Raman modes (the non-GHGs) are temperature/radiation equivalent to ‘IR- active modes with respect to – and complying with – the Boltzmann and Planck’s constant, and quantum spectroscopy theory; 2) in support, H2O’s 3659cm-1 mode is both TE-IR and Raman equivalent – supporting the ‘equipartition’ principle; and CO2’s temperature can be measured by both instruments independently through its shared modes; 3) the special (1%) greenhouse gases, discovered by Tyndall in ca. 1859, are really the thermoelectric gases, detected only by receiving (non-radiating) thermo-electric transducers; 4) ‘IR’ spectroscopy is also based on these thermoelectric transducers, and as a consequence ‘IR’ spectrographs show only the spectra modes with electric dipoles and not Raman; 5) N2, when radiated at its 2338cm-1 mode, is (long lasting) metastable, and is essential to the operation of a CO2 Laser: from this mechanism, it was concluded – contrary to current greenhouse theory – atmospheric CO2 is heated by the same mechanism; 6) all the atmosphere absorbs heat directly from the Sun – just as with the oceanic euphotic layer.
Category: Climate Research

[323] viXra:1804.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 07:44:38

Quantum Dot Photon Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[322] viXra:1804.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 08:55:27

Quantum Blockchain

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

A pair of researchers with Victoria University of Wellington has suggested that the way to prevent future blockchains from future hackers using quantum computers is to use quantum blockchains. [27] Yale's latest work expanding the reach of quantum information science is actually a game of quantum pitch and catch. [26] With novel optoelectronic chips and a new partnership with a top silicon-chip manufacturer, MIT spinout Ayar Labs aims to increase speed and reduce energy consumption in computing, starting with data centers. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[321] viXra:1804.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 09:48:21

Refutation of Additive Arithmetic Operations in the Riemann Sphere © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The definition of multiplication for extended complex numbers and undefined values of ∞–∞ and 0×∞ are theorems. The definition of addition for extended complex numbers is not a theorem. The custom of forcing a field definition for extended complex numbers is mistaken as are the undefined values of the quotients 0/0 and ∞/∞.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[320] viXra:1804.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 09:53:45

Back to Enchantment ?

Authors: Elemer E Rosinger
Comments: 49 Pages.

The fundamental concept of the "UNKNOWN UNKNOWN" introduced seemingly accidentally by Donald Rumsfeld in 2002, is shown to have a rather unique ontological role which may make it suitable for a disenchanted modern generation to wake up to the existence and fundamental role of what traditionally is called the "transcendental".
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[319] viXra:1804.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 09:48:26

Invisible Magnetic Sensors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18]
Category: Condensed Matter

[318] viXra:1804.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 10:52:44

Transition States of Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

An international group of physicists managed for the first time to experimentally observe the transition between two states of matter, propagating polariton-solitons and a Bose-Einstein condensate. [32] An international research team produced an analog of a solid-body crystal lattice from polaritons, hybrid photon-electron quasiparticles. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[317] viXra:1804.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 11:52:43

Quantum Cath in New Research

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Yale's latest work expanding the reach of quantum information science is actually a game of quantum pitch and catch. [26] With novel optoelectronic chips and a new partnership with a top silicon-chip manufacturer, MIT spinout Ayar Labs aims to increase speed and reduce energy consumption in computing, starting with data centers. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[316] viXra:1804.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 12:39:31

Information and Thermodynamic Entropy from the Standpoint of Local Observers in an Expanding Universe

Authors: Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 5 Pages.

We describe cosmic expansion from the standpoint of an observer’s comoving horizon. When the Universe is small, the observer detects a large amount of the total cosmic bits, which number is fixed. Indeed, information, such as energy, cannot be created or destroyed in our Universe, i.e., the total number of cosmic bits must be kept constant, despite the black hole paradox. When the Universe expands, the information gets ergodically “diluted” in our isotopic and homogeneous Cosmos. This means that the observer can perceive just a lower number of the total bits, due the decreased density of information in the cosmic volume (or its surrounding surface, according to the holographic principle) in which she is trapped by speed light’s constraints. Here we ask: how does the second law of thermodynamics enter in this framework? Could it be correlated with cosmic expansion? The correlation is at least partially feasible, because the decrease in the information detected by a local observer in an expanding Universe leads to an increase in detected cosmic thermodynamic entropy, via the Bekenstein bound and the Laudauer principle. Reversing the classical scheme from thermodynamic entropy to information entropy, we suggest that the quantum vacuum’s cosmological constant, that causes cosmic expansion, could be one of the sources of the increases in thermodynamic entropy detected by local observers.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[315] viXra:1804.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 12:48:43

Again About the "Twin Paradox"

Authors: V.A. Kasimov
Comments: 13 Pages. Язык: русский

As often in discussions of the theory of relativity denied the existence of the twin paradox, there is a need to dwell on this again. It is shown that the formal means of SRT and GRT a paradox twins are not resolved.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[314] viXra:1804.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 13:10:26

Photons Shot from Non Inertial Frame of Reference

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page.

this describes why a photon shot from any side of the star would make the star make the star decrease its speed
Category: Quantum Physics

[313] viXra:1804.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 13:33:40

Spinning Heat Gravity and Time Explained Throught Velocity

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page.

this paper talks about how can spinning of masses cause so much
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[312] viXra:1804.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 17:39:29

Refutation of the Hall Effect © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The Hall effect as rendered is not tautologous due to the single contradiction F value. This means the Hall effect is refuted and not confirmed as a theorem. What follows is that application of the Hall effect to quantum models, skewed lattices, and brain dimensions is likewise not tautologous.
Category: Mind Science

[311] viXra:1804.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 17:59:39

High-rise and Space Towers (Masts, Space Elevator, Motionless Satellites)

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 177 Pages.

A lot of new concepts, ideas, and innovation in high altitude and space towers were offered, developed and researched in last years especially after 2000. For example: optimal solid space towers, inflatable space towers (include optimal space tower), circle and centrifugal space towers, kinetic space towers, electrostatic space towers, electromagnetic space towers, and so on. Given book summarizes there researches and gives the detail description them, note some their main advantages, shortcomings, defects and limitations.
Category: Classical Physics

[310] viXra:1804.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 18:27:45

Rotation of Transition Metal Ions under Electric Fields: Possible New Superconducting Electron Pairing Mechanism

Authors: Tiege Zhou
Comments: 20 Pages.

Electric field effects in iron- and copper-based superconductors were studied by using the first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT). The research objects include iron-based superconductors (KFe2Se2, LaFeAsO, NdFeAsO, and BaFe2As2) and copper-based superconductors (YBa2Cu3O7, HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8, Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8, and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10). To describe the strong correlation effect of 3d-electrons or 4f-electrons, the GGA+U method was used. Some results were further verified by the HSE method. The densities of states (DOS) were given. The change of the charge densities under electric fields is presented to demonstrate the electric field effect. It is found that the electron clouds of Fe ions in iron-based superconductors, Nd ions in Nd2Fe2As2O2, and Cu ions in copper-based superconductors change obviously. The pattern of the change is more like a rigid-body rotation than an elastic deformation. The author proposed that the rotation of the electron clouds of transition metal ions may be a new medium of superconducting electron pairing. The author’s views about some issues and suggestions on follow-up studies are also presented.
Category: Condensed Matter

[309] viXra:1804.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 23:50:14

Modular Real Number LIne

Authors: Walter Gress
Comments: 12 Pages.

This work expounds upon a theory of peripheral-integers and peripheral-reals, integers and reals that in a modular number line mirror their counterparts. It illustrates the properties of these numbers in hopes to breathe life into research of numbers that go beyond infinity
Category: Number Theory

[308] viXra:1804.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 00:07:05

Limiting Vectors

Authors: Walter Gress
Comments: 2 Pages.

The behavior of vectors whence taken upon limits to infinity.
Category: General Mathematics

[307] viXra:1804.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 00:43:20

Spatially Separated EPR State

Authors: Masataka Ohta
Comments: 1 Page.

Usual arguments on EPR state assume that, after particles I and II interact somewhere, they are spatially separated, which is why EPR correlation was considered to be a paradox. That is, after the interaction, particle I exists only in a spatial region A, while particle II exists only in a spatial region B located at a distance from A. However, though the separation imposes certain restriction on possible quantum state, its implication has not been properly considered. That is, though quantum state of A is a tensor product of quantum state of particle I and II in A, as quantum state of particle II in A is ground state only, the product is identical to quantum state of particle I in A. Similarly, quantum state of B is quantum state of particle II in B. Then, as entire quantum state is Cartesian, not tensor, product of quantum state of A and B, the entire quantum state is Cartesian product of quantum state of particle I and II, which means there is no tensor product term to represent quantum entanglement. For example, using binary state, (|0>, |0>) + (|1>, |1>) = (|0>, |1>) + (|1>, |0>) = (|0> + |1>, |0> + |1>). Separation process resolves entanglement. If the entire quantum state is calculated differently, by first taking Cartesian product and, then, tensor product, a tensor product term appears. However, as the term represents action at a distance and, thus, unphysical, its coefficient must always be 0. That is, quantum entanglement of EPR correlation assuming the spatial separation is a superficial mathematical artifact representing action at a distance.
Category: Quantum Physics

[306] viXra:1804.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 04:00:45

Introduction of Reflex Based Neural Network

Authors: Liang Yi
Comments: 17 Pages.

This paper introduces a new neural network that works quite different from current neural network model. The RBNN model is based on the concept of conditioned reflex, which widely exists in real creatures. In RBNN, all learning procedure are executed by the neural network itself, which makes it not a complex mathematic model but simple enough to be implemented in real brain. In RBNN, information is organized in a clear way, which makes the whole network a white box rather than a black box, so we can teach the network knowledge easily and fast. This paper shows the power of conditioned reflex as a search tool which can be used as states transfer function in state machine. Using combinations of neurons as symbols which plays the role of letters in traditional state machine, a RBNN can be treated as a state machine with small number of memory unit but huge number of letters.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[305] viXra:1804.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 05:44:34

Logical Errors of Special Relativity

Authors: Florian Michael Schmitt
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper will reveal a fundamental logical error of Special Relativity. It will be shown, strictly deducting from Albert Einstein’s own concept, that lengths being measured with clocks do not differ between two systems in relative motion to each other. Furthermore, it is shown that Special Relativity de facto puts two different events into relation and concludes from this the loss of simultaneity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[304] viXra:1804.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 06:48:47

On the Postulate of the Constancy of the Speed of Light in the STR Abstract

Authors: V.A. Kasimov
Comments: 6 Pages. Язык: русский

The question of whether the necessary postulate of the constancy of the speed of light for the construction of the Special Theory of Relativity was raised and discussed, at least two independent authors [1, 2]. The answer to this question is methodologically very important in recognition of the fact that the foundations of the output of the Galilean transformations and Lorentz are the same basic properties of substantial space and time of Newton. It turned out that in the classical physics "hiding" a contradiction in the substantial properties of space and time. What is the essence of this contradiction? The article attempts to answer this question. Note that the authors of the mentioned works have received their findings generally avoiding mention of the words "light" and "the speed of its spread".
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[303] viXra:1804.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 08:03:57

Top Five Dark Matter Candidates

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

What if the universe we know is just one runty part of a larger, mostly invisible universe, and the only way we can interact is via gravity? [28] University of Houston scientists are helping to develop a technology that could hold the key to unraveling one of the great mysteries of science: what constitutes dark matter? [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[302] viXra:1804.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 08:48:29

Experimental Metaphysics

Authors: A.V. Kaminsky
Comments: 21 Pages.

Quantum mechanics today allows you to experimentally test the basic philosophical paradigms. The article describes experiments with entangled states, the interpretation of which affects the conceptual questions of philosophy.
Category: Quantum Physics

[301] viXra:1804.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 09:11:00

Fitting the NGC 1560 Rotation Curve and Other Galaxies in the `constant Lagrangian' Model for Galactic Dynamics.

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 25 Pages.

The velocity rotation curve of NGC 1560 has a peculiar wiggle around 4.5 kpc. This makes it a favorable galaxy to test the diverse models trying to explain galactic dynamics, as for example CDM and MOND. I will fit NGC 1560 using the GR-Schwarzschild based `constant Lagrangian' model for galactic dynamics and compare it to other results. But first I will give a brief expose of the `constant Lagrangian' approach. At the end, I present same other fitting curves: those of galaxies F583-1, F579V1 and U11648.
Category: Astrophysics

[300] viXra:1804.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 09:37:25

Electrogates in Microfluids

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

The researchers, Y. Arango, Y. Temiz, O. Gӧkçe, and E. Delamarche, at IBM Research-Zurich in Rüschlikon, Switzerland, have published a paper on electrogates in a recent issue of Applied Physics Letters. [42] Using short laser pulses, a research team led by Misha Ivanov of the Max Born Institute in Berlin, together with scientists from the Russian Quantum Center in Moscow, has shed light on the extremely rapid processes taking place within these novel materials. [41] Trapping light with an optical version of a whispering gallery, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a nanoscale coating for solar cells that enables them to absorb about 20 percent more sunlight than uncoated devices. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[299] viXra:1804.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 10:43:30

Cooler Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have added a new dimension to our understanding of why straining a particular group of materials, called Ruddlesden-Popper oxides, tampers with their superconducting properties. [32] Nuclear techniques have played an important role in determining the crystal structure of a rare type of intermetallic alloy that exhibits superconductivity. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[298] viXra:1804.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 04:06:10

Relevance of Atomic Structure to the Physical Characteristics of Matter

Authors: David Johnson
Comments: A 9 page paper containing 9 explanatory diagrams

Energy to Matter (E2M) proposes a structure for quarks and nucleons, and uses these to generate 3-dimensional models of atomic structure of elements in the Periodic Table and their bonding characteristics. This short article and associated videos present some of the modelled atomic structures and shows how the structure of the nucleus relates to the observed physical and bonding characteristics of the elements involved.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[297] viXra:1804.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 05:43:00

Dissipation Curve of Topological Insulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

In view of these properties, it is hoped that topological insulators can be used in advanced communications and information processing systems, as well as in quantum computing. [34] For the first time, a group of researchers from Universidad Complutense de Madrid, IBM, ETH Zurich, MIT and Harvard University have observed topological phases of matter of quantum states under the action of temperature or certain types of experimental imperfections. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[296] viXra:1804.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 05:54:20

A Novel Procedure for the Assessment of Multidimensional Brain Activities

Authors: Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 6 Pages.

The brain activity displays hidden functional dimensions, apart from the conventionally assessed three spatial ones (plus time). This finding, corroborated by a long sequence of recent experimental observations, requires novel methodological devices in order to provide a mathematical treatment for such elusive nervous extra-dimensions. Here we describe a novel, simple approach that makes feasible to extract hidden multidimensional information from real neurodata series, in order to detect, assess and quantify a fourth spatial dimension of cortical activity. Also, our technique might stand for the first step towards an artificial nervous network equipped with four spatial dimensions, instead of the classical three.
Category: Mind Science

[295] viXra:1804.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 07:45:40

Dwarf Galaxies Big Picture

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

EPFL scientists have completed the fastidious task of analyzing 27 dwarf galaxies in detail, identifying the conditions under which they were formed and how they've since evolved. [27] Researchers have developed a new way to improve our knowledge of the Big Bang by measuring radiation from its afterglow, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[294] viXra:1804.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 08:27:04

Speakable and Unspeakable in Special Relativity: the Ageing of the Twins in the Paradox

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu, Vasco Guerra
Comments: 27 Pages.

In previous papers we have presented a general formulation of special relativity, based on a weaker statement of the postulates. In this work, the paradigmatic example of the twin paradox is discussed in detail. Within the present formulation of special relativity, a “non-paradoxical” interpretation of the asymmetric ageing of the twins emerges. It is based exclusively on the rhythms of the clocks, which are not related by the standard textbook expressions and shall not be confused with clock time readings. Moreover, the current approach exposes the irrelevance of the acceleration of the returning twin in the discussion of the paradox.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[293] viXra:1804.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 09:13:23

Torsion Field and Interstellar Communication

Authors: Victor Shkatov, Vitaliy Zamsha
Comments: 34 Pages. For education and for communication engineers

Authors of this book made attempt to explain what is Torsion Field and how this can be used to build communication systems or for further research ...
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[292] viXra:1804.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 09:09:59

The Golden Ratio in Atomic Theory

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 4 pages

It is now exactly fifteen years since the author sent a short article on the topic of the title to Nature, but it was not accepted. Two years later, a full paper was accepted in Molecular Physics, 103 (2005) 877, in the Special Issue in honor of Nicholas Handy and the author has published many papers over the years. The Golden ratio is an amazing number that is found to govern many natural spontaneous creations of Universe. The article to Nature, reproduced here, shows for the first time that it arises right in the core of the atom.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[291] viXra:1804.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-22 13:46:56

MBNM (Measuringbynotmeasuring) Thought Experiment

Authors: Chakarapani N Rao
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here's a thought experiment. If we can contain an electron within a resting sphere of diameter 1m, without the electron coming in contact with the walls of the sphere for 48min, Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle becomes epistemological not ontological.
Category: Quantum Physics

[290] viXra:1804.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-22 14:36:50

Beyond Miner’s Rule Free Energy Damage Equivalence

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 5 Pages. Reference Terms in the book Thermodynamic Degradation Science

In this paper, we extend the concept of damage which was original developed empirically by Miner using the concept of thermodynamic work and free energy. We first explain the equivalency of free energy to damage. Then we develop ways to measure the free energy in products to help assess the amount of damage that a product can experience prior to failure. The main approach is to use product’s ultimate work energy. Although Miner’s rule and the cumulative damage concept is typically thought of as specific for cyclic work, we note that in most cases, damage accumulates during a product useful life prior to failure.
Category: Classical Physics

[289] viXra:1804.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-22 15:05:15

Special Relativity: The Revival of Metaphysics

Authors: ziaedin Shafiei
Comments: 14 pages - Any negative scientific feedback is most welcomed

Special Relativity (SR) was introduced to the scientific world as a revolutionary new compound of ideas. The theory rightly rejected the idea of aether and presented the first case of uncertainty in physics, i.e. the absolute speed of no known frame is known . But, was SR really a paradigm shift in science or, in general, a giant step in wrong direction? Sceptics might think that SR brought ambiguities such as the twins paradox or relativistic mass but the main undesirable effects of SR, when it was presented in 1905, were: 1.Insisting on contemplating alone for discovering the reality of the universe with supposedly one unerring cool tool, thought experiment. 2.Introducing an instrument, e.g. the light clock with a supposed working characteristic that is not yet experimentally proven. 3.Introducing the constant relative speed, between two inertial reference frames (IRF), into the experimental setting. It then tried to do thought experiment in the new setting using the light clock. This introduction brought some challenges which SR tried to fix by time dilation, length contraction and relativistic mass. Relativistic mass was reluctantly excluded from SR by Einstein in a letter to L. Barnett in June 1948. But as relativistic mass was part and parcel of SR it was not quite easy for scientific community to part with it and forget about it . The subject is still under debate but by the end of the twentieth century mainstream physics was convinced that relativistic mass should be given a quiet farewell due to its controversial consequences. This article summarises the reasons that length contraction and time dilation should have the same fate. The author has already shown that: 1.Following the surprise null result from Michelson and Morley (M&M) experiment, the proposal of length contraction, and later on time dilation, was just based on a simple analytical oversight of the experiment as the movement of the half-silvered mirror was ignored in the analysis. In simple words, length contraction was founded on false foundation. This was a huge blunder that science should not be proud of, in the least, and should have been pointed out immediately and forgotten ever since. But, unfortunately, in the wake of the confusion not only no one noticed the mistake but also length contraction was found to be a useful platform for a new theory, namely special relativity. The realisation of this obvious mistake pulls the rug from under ensuing experiments or test theories such as Kennedy–Thorndike experiments or the Robertson-Mansouri-Sexl test theory as they rely on length contraction as a proven premise. 2.Time dilation is not a well thought out scientific idea as initially proposed and believed by physicists[13] as the theory is based on one specific position of the moving clock in relation to its observer. This recognition further undermines test results such as the Ives-Stilwell experiment [14]. The article tries to put SR under further scrutiny and suggests SR to be considered as a metaphysical idea attired in an elaborate scientific and mathematical gown, such as the Lorentz Transformation Equation. It tries to dismiss SR experimental setting by a few examples. It shows that the theory can result in cases that even length contraction and time dilation are not able to fix, that is, to make laws of physics to be the same in all IRFs. More examples show why the insertion of relative speed in experimental setting cannot been beneficial to science.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[288] viXra:1804.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-22 16:24:29

What Does Rydberg Constant Represent?

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 10 Pages. Rydberg is Planck Mass

What does Rydberg constant represent?
Category: Quantum Physics

[287] viXra:1804.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-22 17:01:20

Simultaneous Measurement of Wave and Particle Properties Using Modified Young's Double-Slit Experiment

Authors: Kazufumi Sakai
Comments: 5 Pages. Science Front Publishers, Journal for Foundations and Applications of Physics, vol. 5, No. 2 (2018), ISSN 2394-3688

The principle of complementarity is the foundation of quantum mechanics; its correctness has been verified by several studies. At present, the Englert – Greenberger duality relation is used for quantitative evaluations. We fabricated a new double slit experimental apparatus capable of simultaneously measuring the visibility and path-distinguishability, and measured the wave and particle properties. We thus obtained results in disagreement with the principle of complementarity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[286] viXra:1804.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 01:37:41

Some Topological Paradoxes of Relativity (Epr)-II

Authors: V.A. Kasimov
Comments: 6 Pages. Язык: русский

To refer again to the article A. Aspect "bell's THEOREM: the naive view of the experimenter" we were forced by some publications. However, we have again seen the conceptual correctness of the statement of the problem of EPR in the Aspect's article. In conceptual terms, in the "naive presentation of EPR" from the Aspect of no "splices" probabilistic measures of different spaces is not required. The presentation of the Aspect is logically closed and complete. The existence of a problem related to the violation of bell inequality is shown conceptually (by simple examples). The real possibility of solving this problem today is, in our opinion, only a relational interpretation of quantum mechanics [3], [4], since the relational interpretation of quantum mechanics Rovelli "puts out the brackets" local causality in the EPR paradox, replacing it with the concept of the integrity of the relations of the observed systems and, thereby, abandoning the concept of velocity, doubtful from the point of view of quantum mechanics as a derivative in the TMK-topology of space-time relations. And this is, apparently, what physics is "pregnant" for a long time! But the difficulty of resolution of the dilemma of completeness and the local causality associated with the absence of the notion of speed in the form of spatio-temporal derivative in the scalar form. And this is a common problem of quantum mechanics, which the relational concept intends to solve . In the proposed article there are all logical "ties", for each of which it would be possible to object and say - it is not so
Category: Quantum Physics

[285] viXra:1804.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 01:51:30

The True Geometry of Nature (Hypothesis)

Authors: Lev I. Verkhovsky
Comments: 5 Pages.

It is assumed that the geometric basis of the physical world is not the Minkowski space, but the three-dimensional projective space in which the absolute is given in the form of an oval surface. The fundamental changes, which in this case will occur in mathematical physics, are briefly outlined.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[284] viXra:1804.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-21 04:14:57

Laser turn on Cancer-Killing Immune Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

A remote command could one day send immune cells on a rampage against a malignant tumor. The ability to mobilize, from outside the body, targeted cancer immunotherapy inside the body has taken a step closer to becoming reality. [19] It's called gene editing, and University of Alberta researchers have just published a game-changing study that promises to bring the technology much closer to therapeutic reality. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[283] viXra:1804.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-21 08:42:43

Magnetic Scalar Field Generator

Authors: Vitaliy Zamsha, Vladimir Shevtsov
Comments: 8 Pages. innovation in magnetic scalar field

In this paper work, authors represent an innovative construction of the scalar field generator, which is named as “scalar gun”. Scalar gun proposed in this article can be used as a magnetic scalar field generator for educational purpose, for some research in physics or biology or medicine or as part of the communication system etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[282] viXra:1804.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-21 14:14:31

Negative Entropy Living Systems Models and a Fifth Law of Thermodynamics

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 8 Pages. Reference Terms in the book Thermodynamic Degradation Science

This paper will describe some basic negative entropy models for living system growth and repair. In so doing we will find that the laws of thermodynamics are unable to explain why growth and repair would spontaneously occur in nature. The models will show that the Second Law is not able to justify growth and repair without a Fifth Law. A Fifth law is needed to include tendencies of living systems to create order from available work and matter. In this paper, the Second Law short comings are exposed and the need for a Fifth Law is demonstrated and proposed.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[281] viXra:1804.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-21 14:40:18

Refutation of the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation for Spatial Dimension © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The Clausius-Clapeyron equation as implemented is not confirmed as tautologous.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[280] viXra:1804.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-21 21:29:02

Мой ответ Игорю Старку \\\ my Reply to Mr. I. Stark

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 23 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> My reply to Mr. I. Stark 22 April 2018

In my reply to Mr. I. Stark, I sought to justify my position and my view of nature. All this or almost everything is set out in my articles on "Theory of Nature". My understanding is that in the study of Nature, it is first and foremost necessary to identify a specific manifestation of matter in nature, to establish minimal, then not crushing, carriers of matter. And the next step is to study the interaction of material bodies on the Planck scale of the universe. This is the natural logic of knowing nature. The concept of the field refers to the category of concepts describing the interaction of material bodies. The logic of nature itself and the logic of cognition of nature are simple: first, material bodies, and then their interaction, and not vice versa. Material bodies interact with each other, but they are not generated by interaction, field. Field, interaction does not generate matter. Material bodies are primary, and their interaction is secondary. +++++++++++++++++++++ В своём ответе И. Старку я стремился дать обоснование своей позиции и своему взгляду на природу. Всё это или почти всё изложено в моих статьях по «Теории Природы». Моё понимание состоит в том, что при изучении Природы надо в первую очередь выявить конкретное проявление материи в природе, установить минимальные, далее не дробимые, носители материи. А уже следующим шагом должно стать изучение взаимодействия материальных тел на планковском масштабе мироздания. Это естественная логика познания природы. Понятие поле относится к категории понятий описывающих взаимодействие материальных тел. Логика самой природы и логика познания природы просты: сначала материальные тела, а потом их взаимодействие, а не наоборот. Материальные тела взаимодействуют между собой, но они не порождаются взаимодействием, полем. Поле, взаимодействие не порождает материю. Материальные тела первичны, а их взаимодействие вторично.
Category: Classical Physics

[279] viXra:1804.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-22 02:13:16

Physical Meaning of Wick Rotation and Advanced Waves

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 20 Pages. Cite: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6169019.v1

Abstract - "When we solve (19th-century Scottish physicist James Clerk) Maxwell's equations for light, we find not one but two solutions: a 'retarded' wave, which represents the standard motion of light from one point to another; but also an 'advanced' wave, where the light beam goes backward in time. Engineers have simply dismissed the advanced wave as a mathematical curiosity since the retarded waves so accurately predicted the behavior of radio, microwaves, TV, radar, and X-rays. But for physicists, the advanced wave has been a nagging problem for the past century." ("Physics of the Impossible" by Michio Kaku - Penguin Books, 2009: pp. 276-277) Advanced waves are usually discarded because they are thought to violate the causality principle: advanced waves could be detected before their emission. On one level, I can appreciate that reasoning. But ultimately, I think it's an error that should be replaced by Isaac Newton's idea of gravity and the modern idea of quantum mechanics' entanglement. After writing a paragraph about entanglement and Newtonian gravity, several paragraphs are devoted to the motion of electromagnetism and gravitation, plus absorption and re-radiation. These are followed by (1) advanced waves and the dating of, among other things, dinosaur fossils, (2) existing technology that, unknown to everyone, detects the presence of advanced waves, (3) advanced waves plus disease and ageing, (4) partially overcoming ageing with technology based on noise-cancelling headphones, and (5) the role of Wick rotation and advanced waves in entanglement and evolution. Just as advanced waves are usually discarded, very few physicists or mathematicians will venture to ascribe a physical meaning to imaginary numbers, which seem to have no correspondence with external reality. Here, it will be shown that imaginary time (which is described by such numbers) has two physical meanings - (1) it provides a way to unify space and time into one space-time, (2) it will allow construction of what may be called "imaginary computers". Keywords Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory; Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics; retarded waves; advanced waves; electromagnetism; gravitation; radioactive dating; noise-cancelling headphones; better health; longer life; nature of space and time; increasing Astronomical Unit; Pioneer anomaly; entanglement; evolution; imaginary computers; SUSY; supersymmetry Table of Contents ADVANCED WAVES AND DINOSAURS CIRCLES, SPHERES, EVOLUTION AND DINOSAURS WICK ROTATION, BITS, COSMIC TOPOLOGY WICK ROTATION, SPACE-TIME AND SUSY WICK ROTATION AND IMAGINARY COMPUTERS
Category: Mathematical Physics

[278] viXra:1804.0302 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-01 07:06:29

Explanation of Quantum Entanglement Using Hidden Variables

Authors: Jesús Sánchez
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, it will be explained the quantum entanglement using hidden variables. This means, with no need of immediate or infinity range interactions. For this, the solution would be to take into account also the measurement device hidden variables. These hidden variables of the measurement device will cause that the detection of the particles to be measured, can only be made at certain moments, places and orientations that correspond when the particle states have specific values. This means, the particle state can be changing over time, but the measurement equipment can only detect it when it has certain values (because the hidden values of the measurement equipment are also participating in the process). So, the measurement device is participating indirectly in the entanglement of the particles. The problem until now with hidden variables interpretation was that only the hidden variables of the particles were taken into account. But, once the measurement device hidden variables status is considered also, the issue can be solved.
Category: Quantum Physics

[277] viXra:1804.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-22 05:44:24

Why Baryonic Matter Appears Insufficient in Spiral Galaxies?

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi
Comments: 2 pages, 3 figures

Considering the presence of dark matter or modifying the Newtonian laws of gravity are the most dominant scientific methods that we come across when it comes to explaining the mysterious, non-declining, non-Keplerian rotation curves exhibited by spiral galaxies. Considering the presence of baryonic matter only in order to solve the galaxy rotation problem has been explained by me in my previous papers. In this paper I present a practical approach to explain why the baryonic matter present within a spiral galaxy appears to be insufficient to account for the anomalous galaxy rotation curves.
Category: Astrophysics

[276] viXra:1804.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-22 08:16:50

Some Topological Paradoxes of Relativity (Epr)

Authors: V.A. Kasimov
Comments: 16 Pages. Язык: русский

In the footsteps of the article by A. Aspect "BELL'S THEOREM: the naive view of an experimentalist". Because in equation (23) has detected an error (or typo), I took the trouble to verify calculations from 1 to 5 sections of the article. The are some clarifying points that are important for understanding the essence. Given an elementary conclusion of formulas (3) that is omitted in the article. The Bell's inequality, derived on the basis of the general model for a dichotomous variable, disturbed the quantum mechanical model for a pair of "entangled" photons. In Bell's article it is clearly (though not very detailed) shown. No " artificial gadgets" is not able to resolve this contradiction. The only thing that causes confusion is the procedure of creating a mixed state of two photons and the essence conceptual view of mathematics experiment. Theoretically, this procedure can be represented as a symmetrization of the wave function of the pair. However, how does the transfer of this idea to the technical essence of the experiment is unclear.
Category: Quantum Physics

[275] viXra:1804.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-22 08:32:08

Human Brain in a Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research in Frankfurt have now shown how the new model can be used to investigate multiple properties in parallel. [28] Scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory are conducting fundamental physics research that will lead to more control over mercurial quantum systems and materials. [27] Physicists in Italy have designed a " quantum battery " that they say could be built using today's solid-state technology. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18]
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[274] viXra:1804.0298 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-23 16:59:23

A `constant Lagrangian' Model for Galactic Dynamics in a Geodetic Approach Towards the Galactic Rotation Dark Matter Issue.

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 26 Pages.

I start with a historical note on the galactic rotation curves issue. The problem with the virial theorem in observed galactic dynamics, lead to the Dark Matter hypothesis but also to Modified Newtonian Dynamics or MOND. Then I move (away) from MOND towards a relativistic, Lagrangian approach of orbital dynamics in a curved Schwarzschild metric. I propose a `constant Lagrangian' model for galactic scale geodetic dynamics. I will show with four rotation fitting curves to what extend my proposed model galaxies `constant Lagrangian' postulate works in these limited number of situations. The fitted galaxies are NGC 2403, NGC 3198, UGC 6614 and F571-8. In the paper I present a theoretical context in which the `constant Lagrangian' postulate might replace the classical virial theorem on a galactic scale. But the proposed postulate isn't a `general law of nature' because in the solar system and in the GNSS relativistic context, the classical virial theorem is proven accurate. Due to the limitations of the proposed postulate, a statement regarding Dark Matter can't be made. But the model might achieve within the GR-Schwarzschild paradigm what MOND achieves within the Newtonian paradigm, fitting the experimental galactic rotation curves.
Category: Astrophysics

[273] viXra:1804.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-20 14:07:50

Probability Density Functions as Mathematical Tools to Probe Computational Aspects of Petroleum Sciences in the Context of Computational Fluid Dynamics & Petroleum Microbiology – A Novel Suggestion Using Higher Order Logic(HOL)/Scala/Scalalab/JikesRVM.

Authors: Nirmal Tej kumar
Comments: 4 Pages. Short Communication

As stated in our TITLE we intend to focus on PDF based computational aspects of Petroleum Sciences and Engineering using HOL-Scala-Scalalab-JikesRVM.To the best of our knowledge we believe this is one of the pioneering short communications in this domain.
Category: Geophysics

[272] viXra:1804.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-20 14:17:20

Rydberg Electron v2.0

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 6 Pages. It is Accurate

Phi Based Fractal Universe
Category: Quantum Physics

[271] viXra:1804.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-20 14:56:44

Black Hole Universe and Golden Ratio

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 2 Pages.

Within the framework of the black-hole model of the Universe, I introduced the concept of Cherenkov radius, i.e. the distance from the center of the Universe, at which the speed of the orbiting test particle and the speed of light are the same. I showed that the radius of the Universe and the Cherenkov radius are in the golden ratio.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[270] viXra:1804.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-20 15:23:06

Ultrafast Electron Oscillation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

Collaborative research team of Prof. Jun Takeda and Associate Prof. Ikufumi Katayama in the laboratory of Yokohama National University (YNU) and Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) have reported petahertz electron oscillation. [38] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[269] viXra:1804.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-20 16:28:14

A New Type of Phase Transition Based on the Clausius-Clapeyron Relation Involving a Change in Spatial Dimension

Authors: Christopher Pilot
Comments: 19 Pages.

Using a space filled with radiation, we derive a generalization for the Clausius-Clapeyron relation to account for a phase transition, which involves a change in spatial dimension. We consider phase transitions from dimension of space, n, to dimension of space, (n-1), and vice versa, from (n-1) to n-dimensional space. For the former we can calculate a specific release of latent heat, a decrease in entropy and a change in volume; for the latter we derive an expression for the absorption of heat, the increase in entropy, and the difference in volume. Total energy is conserved in this transformation process. We apply this model to radiation in the early universe and find that for a transition from n = 4 to (n-1) = 3, there is an immense decrease in entropy accompanied by a tremendous change in volume, much like condensation. However, unlike condensation, this volume change is not three-dimensional. The volume changes from V4, a four-dimensional construct, to V3, a three-dimensional entity, which can be considered a subspace of V4. As a specific example of how the equation works, we assume a transition temperature of 3*1027 degrees Kelvin, and assume, furthermore, that the latent heat release in three-dimensional space is 1.8*1094 Joules. We find that for this transition, the energy densities, the entropy densities, and the volumes assume the following values (photons only). In four-dimensional space, we obtain u4 = 1.15*10125 J m-4, s4 = 4.81*1097 J m-4 K-1, and V4 = 2.14*10-31 m4. In three-dimensional space, we have u3 = 6.13*1094 J m-3, s3 = 2.72*1067 J m-3 K-1, and V3 = .267 m3. The subscripts 3 and 4 refer to three-dimensional and four-dimensional quantities, respectively. We speculate, based on the tremendous change in volume, the explosive release of latent heat, and the magnitudes of the other quantities calculated, that this type of transition might have a connection to inflation. With this work, we prove that space, in and of itself, has an energy content and vice versa, that energy is equivalent to space. This is so because giving up space releases latent heat, and buying space costs latent heat, which we can quantify. This is in addition to the energy contained within that space due to radiation. We can determine the specific amount of heat exchanged in transitioning between different spatial dimensions with our generalized Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[268] viXra:1804.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-20 19:53:17

Prime Number Explanation

Authors: Sergey A. Lazarev
Comments: 4 Pages.

Prime number. Its nature, appearance, types, movement, prediction.
Category: Number Theory

[267] viXra:1804.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-20 22:09:15

Difference Sieve

Authors: Walter Gress
Comments: 22 Pages.

A Sieve that extracts various properties of numerical sequences, demonstrating patterns in different types of sequences, rational, and irrational numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[266] viXra:1804.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-21 00:44:20

On Q-Laplace Transforms and Mittag-Leffler Type Functions

Authors: Kishan Sharma
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the present paper, the author derived the results based on q-Laplace transform of the K-Function introduced by Sharma[7]. Some special cases of interest are also discussed.
Category: General Mathematics

[265] viXra:1804.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-21 00:47:59

b#D - Sets and Associated Separation Axioms

Authors: N.Vithya, P.Thangavelu
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper the notion of b#D-sets is introduced. Some weak separation axioms namely b# −Dk, b# −R0, b#-R1 and b#-S0 are introduced and studied. Some lower separation axioms are characterized by using these separation axioms.
Category: General Mathematics

[264] viXra:1804.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-21 01:49:59

Volume of the Electron = Photon ev

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 8 Pages. Bulk Modulus & Wave Speed of Aether Medium derived from Electron Schwarzschild radius

Bulk Modulus & Wave Speed of Aether Medium derived from Electron Schwarzschild radius
Category: Quantum Physics

[263] viXra:1804.0285 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-21 05:53:40

The Emergence of Spatio-Temporal Certainty (1+2+3)

Authors: V. A. Kasimov.
Comments: 27 Pages. Язык: русский

The well - known philosophical formula: "Space and time are universal forms of existence of matter" forces us to introduce several levels of representation of our knowledge about space-time relations, which we will conditionally call "levels of ontologization" of our understanding of these relations. These levels can be considered as ontological sections in the process of cognition of the essence of spatiotemporal relations and the formation of their conceptual certainty. A simple example is used to model the process of formation of spatiotemporal certainty in the Leibniz aspect: the transition from the quantum level (micro) to the level of classical mechanics (macro). In this regard, we can talk about the two-phase existence of matter. In addition, an attempt was made to outline the solution of space-time problems after work: "Contextuality of one particle, nonlocality of two particles, entanglement, Wheeler's experiments with delay of choice, FWT and so on ..."[12]. The current situation of the search for the essence of space-time relations resembles the early history of the search for the essence of "phlogiston", which was resolved by the statistical theory of Gibbs ensembles, the definition of thermodynamic concepts and, in particular, the concept of temperature as the average kinetic energy of the ensemble. It is quite possible that the spatiotemporal relations are also some averages from the eigenvalues of the quantum object operators.
Category: Quantum Physics

[262] viXra:1804.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 02:17:34

The Origin of the Mass of a Charged Particle and the Mass Prediction of a Fourth-Generation Quark

Authors: Hyoyoung Choi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Since the charge Q is the set of infinitesimal charge dQ, electric force is operated between infinitesimal charges and therefore, electrostatic self-energy exists due to the presence of charge Q itself. Electrostatic self-energy has a potential to explain substantial parts of elementary particle mass. Mass Prediction of a Fourth-Generation Quark.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[261] viXra:1804.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 08:00:16

Laser Control of Magnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia have found a way to write and delete magnets in an alloy using a laser beam, a surprising effect. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[260] viXra:1804.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 09:43:35

Wireless Power Transfer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

An international research team including scientists from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and ITMO University has proposed a way to increase the efficiency of wireless power transfer over long distances and tested it with numerical simulations and experiments. [40] Collaborative research team of Prof. Jun Takeda and Associate Prof. Ikufumi Katayama in the laboratory of Yokohama National University (YNU) and Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) have reported petahertz electron oscillation. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[259] viXra:1804.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 09:47:02

Perceptual Significance of Kernel Methods for Natural Image Processing

Authors: Vikas Ramachandra, Truong Nguyen
Comments: 6 Pages.

We explore the unifying connection between kernel regression, Volterra series expansion and multiscale signal decomposition using recent results on function estimation for system identification. We show that using any of these techniques for (non-linear) image processing tasks is (approximately) equivalent. Further, we use the relation between wavelets and independent components of natural images. Kernel methods can be shown to be implicit Volterra series expansions, which are well approximated by wavelets. Wavelets are, in turn, well represented by independent components of natural images. Thus, it can be seen that kernel methods are also near optimal in terms of higher order statistical modeling and approximation of (natural) images. This explains the reason for good results often (perceptually) observed with the use of kernel methods for many image processing problems.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[258] viXra:1804.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 09:53:13

Superresolution Using Perceptually Significant Side Information

Authors: Vikas Ramachandra, Truong Nguyen
Comments: 4 Pages.

We investigate the problem of super-resolution of images in the presence of side information. In some situations, when some information of the original image is available to the sender, it can be embedded into the low resolution images, either in the pixels themselves or in the headers. This information can be later used when required to reconstruct the superresolved image. For this, a novel multiresolution histogram matching based superresolution procedure is outlined. The proposed technique gives better results compared to contemporary resolution enhancement algorithms, and is especially useful for de-blurring text images captured from mobile phone cameras.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[257] viXra:1804.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 10:07:17

Reasons for High Life Expectancy at Birth with Males in Hambantota District in Sri Lanka

Authors: Imesha Rashmini Rathnayaka1, Nivethika Sivakumaran1
Comments: 9 Pages. http://www.ijstre.com/Publish/322018/43368139.pdf

Introduction:It has been proven twice that the Hambantota District has the highest life expectancy in male population. This study focused to find and identify reasons for Hambantota District people to have high life expectancy at birth. Methodology: Research was carried out in both qualitative and quantitative phases in five MOH (Medical Health Officer) divisions in Hambantota District. Study focused on 3 age categories, 55-65 Years, 66-75 Years, and above 76 Years. Main objectives and key information areas are Life Style and Social Behaviors, Food Consumption and Diet, Familial Trait and Physical and Mental Health. Results: Majority of the male population have educated up to grade 5 and most are engaged in the agriculture while others engaged in fishery and self-employment etc. Almost everyone reachestheir workplaces by foot or by bicycle. Many of them work less than six hours. They spend their free time with their family members and watch TV. Most of them do not consume alcohol and smoke. Almost everyone take part in social activities. Majority eat red rice for all three meals. Almost everyone eats fish every day. They have a high salt intake. Their parents and ancestors have also have had a high life expectancy. Only a minority suffer from chronic illnesses. They all have a good physical and mental health condition. They spend happy and relaxed lifestyle. Conclusion: Healthy diet, low alcohols consumption and smoking, high iodine intake, physical activeness and their social well being effect for high life expectancy within the male population of selected five MOH divisions in Hambantota District. They have a free and happy life. Genetics of these people also may contribute for high life expectancy. Abundance of neem trees in this area also may effect on their high life expectancy.
Category: Biochemistry

[256] viXra:1804.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 09:59:42

A Distributed Compressive Sampling Approach for Scene Capture Using an Array of Single Pixel Cameras

Authors: Vikas Ramachandra
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper presents a method of capturing 3D scene information using an array of single pixel cameras. Based on the recent results for distributed compressive sampling, it is shown here that there could be considerable savings in the measurements required to construct the whole scene, when the correlations between the images captured by the individual cameras in the array is exploited. A technique for doing so for an array of cameras separated by translations along one axis only is illustrated.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[255] viXra:1804.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 11:00:03

Space Equation – Basic Equation of Unified Field Theory

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 7 pages, 1 figure

Since Maxwell successfully unified previously separated electrical and magnetic fields in a new electromagnetic field, the idea of theory common for all physical force fields became apparent. Until now the attempts to bind together separate equations of all physical force fields have been unsuccessful. All forces act in space. Space is a common attribute of all interactions. Here we show that unification is possible on the basis of a new space conception. In contemporary physics the force field is part of space where force acts. In contradiction to this very basic principle of contemporary physics, we here propose a new concept that space and physical force fields are mutually dependent entities of the same phenomena. If a force field does not exist, then the corresponding space does not exist either. And vice versa, if space does not exist, there is no force field present. Change of the force field physics assumption yields into the possibility to describe any known physical force field and the corresponding space by a uniform equation, which we call Space Equation. Therefore the Space Equation represents the basic equation of the Unified Field Theory (UFT).
Category: Classical Physics

[254] viXra:1804.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 14:17:24

Universe in Microcosm

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers playing with a cloud of ultracold atoms uncovered behavior that bears a striking resemblance to the universe in microcosm. [9] Gravitational waves may be produced in the heart of the galaxy, says a new study led by Ph.D. student Joseph Fernandez at Liverpool John Moores University. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Quantum Physics

[253] viXra:1804.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 14:48:35

Afterglow from the Big Bang

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Researchers have developed a new way to improve our knowledge of the Big Bang by measuring radiation from its afterglow, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16]
Category: Astrophysics

[252] viXra:1804.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 14:56:03

Rydberg Electron

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 3 Pages. GUT

Universe is Entirely a Fractal Set based off Rydberg
Category: Quantum Physics

[251] viXra:1804.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 15:50:36

Stormy 2018 from Perspective of Vortical Astrogeophysics

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 4 Pages.

One level of acting forces of astrogeophysics are deciphered here in examples of July/August and September/October ephemerides.
Category: Geophysics

[250] viXra:1804.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 16:13:42

Refutation of the Paradox of Epicurus as Invoked by Epictetus © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The "Epicurean paradox" or "Riddle of Epicurus" is a version of the problem of evil. As rendered it is tautologous. This means that the paradox of Epicurus as invoked by Epictetus is refuted as a contradiction, and is confirmed as a theorem and not as a paradox.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[249] viXra:1804.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 17:53:50

The Relation of Particle Sequence to Atomic Sequence

Authors: Jeff Yee, Yingbo Zhu, Goufu Zhou
Comments: 11 pages

In this paper, we take the first steps of simplifying particles into a linear function that organizes particles based on their particle number, similar to how atoms are arranged by atomic number. This repeats the method that was used to organize atomic elements and create the Periodic Table of Elements in the 1800s. The solution to linearize particles into a predictable function is not as simple as atomic elements, but it does exist. We will introduce an equation that fits known particles into a linear function and enables the prediction of future particles based on missing energy levels. It also predicts an exact mass of the neutrino. To accomplish this, particles are first organized by particle numbers, similar to atomic numbers in the Periodic Table of Elements and then charted against their known Particle Data Group energy levels. The results show similarities between particles and atomic elements – in both total numbers in formation and also in numbers where both are known to be more stable.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[248] viXra:1804.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 19:48:02

Refutation of Kramers-Kronig Relation © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The Kramers-Kronig relation is not tautologous and refuted.
Category: Condensed Matter

[247] viXra:1804.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-20 02:19:42

Czarnodziurowy Wszechświat a Złota Proporcja ### Black Hole Universe and Golden Ratio

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 2 Pages. In Polish.

W ramach czarnodziurowego modelu Wszechświata wprowadziłem pojęcie promienia Czerenkowa, czyli odległości od centrum Wszechświata, przy której wartości prędkości cząstek i światła są takie same. Pokazałem, że iloraz promienia Wszechświata i promienia Czerenkowa jest złotą proporcją. ### Within the framework of the black-hole model of the Universe, I introduced the concept of Cherenkov radius, i.e. the distance from the center of the Universe, at which the particle velocity and light velocity values are the same. I showed that the radius of the Universe and the Cherenkov radius are in the golden ratio.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[246] viXra:1804.0267 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-06 04:30:05

Intuitive Explanation of the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: John Atwell Moody
Comments: 14 Pages.

Let \alpha be the unique \Gamma(2) invariant form on H with a pole of residue 1 at i\infty and one of residue -1 at 1. The ratio [\alpha: i\pi dtau] tends to 1 at the upper limit of [0,i\infty). Let \mu_{pm}:TxH->H be the action of multiplying by \sqrt{g} and {1\over{\sqrt{g}} for g in the connected real multiplicative group T. For each real c in (0,1) and each unitary character \omega, the form g^{2-2c}\omega(g)\mu_+^*(\alpha-\pi d\tau)\wedge \mu_-^*)\alpha-i\pi d\tau is exact if and only if \zeta(c+i\omega_0)=0 where \omega_0 is chosen such that \omega(g)=g^{i\omega_0}. The rate of change of the magnitude is given by an integral involving a unitary character. Conjecturally the rate seminegative on the region 0 The form descends to the real projective line, it is locally meromorphic there with one pole and integrates to \pi e^{i\pi ({3\over 2}s + 1}. The value \zeta(s)=0 if and only if the integral along the arc from 0 to \infty not passing 1 is zero. This implies the arc passing through 1 equals a residue. We begin to relate the equality with the condition Re(s)=1/2.
Category: Number Theory

[245] viXra:1804.0266 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-22 09:16:20

Duality Transform Between Black and White Psychological Profiles.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is shown that the Fourier transform is the appropriate defining characteristic in black-white psychological profiles.
Category: Mind Science

[244] viXra:1804.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-20 04:02:39

The Gravitational Field in the Relativistic Uniform Model Within the Framework of the Covariant Theory of Gravitation

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin
Comments: 18 Pages. International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, Vol. 78, pp. 39-50 (2018). http://dx.doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILCPA.78.39.

For the relativistic uniform system with an invariant mass density the exact expressions are determined for the potentials and strengths of the gravitational field, the energy of particles and fields. It is shown that, as in the classical case for bodies with a constant mass density, in the system with a zero vector potential of the gravitational field, the energy of the particles, associated with the scalar field potential, is twice as large in the absolute value as the energy defined by the tensor invariant of the gravitational field. The problem of inaccuracy of the use of the field’s stress-energy tensors for calculating the system’s mass and energy is considered. The found expressions for the gravitational field strengths inside and outside the system allow us to explain the occurrence of the large-scale structure of the observable Universe, and also to relate the energy density of gravitons in the vacuum field with the limiting mass density inside the proton. Both the Universe and the proton turn out to be relativistic uniform systems with the maximum possible parameters. The described approach allows us to calculate the maximum possible Lorentz factor of the matter particles at the center of the neutron star and at the center of the proton, and also to estimate the radius of action of the strong and ordinary gravitation in cosmological space.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[243] viXra:1804.0264 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-23 04:22:49

On Expanding a Function Into Raw Moment Series

Authors: Andrej Liptaj
Comments: 10 Pages.

I focus in this text on the construction of functions f_{j} with the delta property C_{i}\left(f_{j}\right)=\delta_{i,j}, where C_{i} are operators which associate to a function its i-th raw moment. A formal method for their construction is found, however results are divergent, from what a non-existence of such functions is conjectured. This also prevents an elegant series expansion with order-by-order moment matching. For a finite interval some partial results are presented: a method of expansion into raw moment series for finite number of moments and a “non-delta” method based on computing Legendre-expansion coefficients from moments (an already known method [1]). As by-product some coefficients formulas are found: coefficients for expanding a Hermite function into the Taylor series and coefficients for expanding into the Taylor series an element of a Fourier series (i.e. common formula for sine and cosine) thus formally merging the two (sine and cosine) Fourier sub-series into one.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[242] viXra:1804.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-20 08:39:08

DNA Replication Model

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8]
Category: Physics of Biology

[241] viXra:1804.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-20 09:02:41

Formula to Find Prime Numbers and Composite Numbers with Termination 1

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martín
Comments: 9 Pages.

The prime numbers greater than 5 have 4 terminations in their unit to infinity (1,3,7,9) and the composite numbers divisible by numbers greater than 3 have 5 terminations in their unit to infinity, these are (1,3,5,7,9). This paper develops an expression to calculate the prime numbers and composite numbers with ending 1.
Category: Number Theory

[240] viXra:1804.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-20 09:34:32

Muon Spin Tales

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Scientists at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories are collaborating to test a magnetic property of the muon. Their experiment could point to the existence of physics beyond our current understanding, including undiscovered particles. [14] Muons are mysterious, and scientists are diving deep into the particle to get a handle on a property that might render it—and the universe—a little less mysterious. [13] For elementary particles, such as muons or neutrinos, the magnetic force applied to such charges is unique and immutable. However, unlike the electric charge, the magnetic force strength is not quantised. [12] Particle physics and decorative glassware are two disciplines that don't often meet. But given the striking results of a recent artist-scientist collaboration, perhaps that could change. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[239] viXra:1804.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-20 09:54:49

Magnetic Data Storage of the Future

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) have been attracting a lot of attention recently. This is because of the increased demand for faster, longer-lasting and lower-energy IT systems, and the need for higher data storage capacity. [29] Researchers have discovered that using an easily made combination of materials might be the way to offer a more stable environment for smaller and safer data storage, ultimately leading to miniature computers. [28] Employees of Kazan Federal University and Kazan Quantum Center of Kazan National Research Technical University demonstrated an original layout of a prototype of multiresonator broadband quantum-memory interface. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[238] viXra:1804.0259 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-21 14:45:07

A Note on Diophantine Relations at or Near the Beginning of Prime Sequences

Authors: M. A. Thomas
Comments: 3 Pages.

An observation of Diophantine sequences at or near the beginning of Prime sequences
Category: Number Theory

[237] viXra:1804.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-20 10:40:26

Dark Matter of Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

CfA astronomer Qirong Zhu led a group of four scientists investigating the possibility that today's dark matter is composed of primordial black holes, following up on previously published suggestions. If galaxy halos are made of black holes, they should have a different density distribution than halos made of exotic particles. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[236] viXra:1804.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 13:24:09

From Insulator to Conductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

Using short laser pulses, a research team led by Misha Ivanov of the Max Born Institute in Berlin, together with scientists from the Russian Quantum Center in Moscow, has shed light on the extremely rapid processes taking place within these novel materials. [41] Trapping light with an optical version of a whispering gallery, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a nanoscale coating for solar cells that enables them to absorb about 20 percent more sunlight than uncoated devices. [40]
Category: Condensed Matter

[235] viXra:1804.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 20:07:58

Video Frame Rate Conversion Based on Spatio-Temporal Smoothness Constrained Multilayer Motion Estimation and Inpainting

Authors: Vikas Ramachandra, Aimei Huang, Truong Q. Nguyen
Comments: 21 Pages.

We explore a new technique for video frame rate up-conversion. A noniterative multilayer motion estimation algorithm is investigated, based on spatio-temporal smoothness constraints. For regions in the interpolated frame which cannot be motion compensated, we use an exemplar based video inpainting algorithm. The proposed approach yields excellent results compared to other previous approaches
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[234] viXra:1804.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 22:02:08

Тайна крупицы материи \\\\\ Mystery of the Crupitsa of Matter

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 11 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Mystery of the Crupitsa of Matter

Что такое крупица материи? Какую тайну скрывает в себе крупица материи? О чём эта тайна? Какую информацию хранит в себе крупица материи?! Вопросы правильные, вопросы интересные, вопросы по существу. Вот об этом, об ответах на эти вопросы и будет идти речь в настоящей статье. Это ещё одна статья по «Теории Природы» автора. А «Теория Природы» и есть современная материалистическая физика и космология. +++++++++++++++++++++++++ What is a crupitsa (atom) of matter? What secret hides in itself acrupitsa (atom) of matter? What is this secret? What kind of information is stored in a crupitsa (atom) of matter? Questions are correct, interesting questions, questions on the merits. That's about this, the answers to these questions will be discussed in this article. This is another article on "Theory of Nature" by the author. And "Theory of Nature" is modern materialistic physics and cosmology.
Category: Classical Physics

[233] viXra:1804.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 22:49:49

Gravity and Inertia Are Two Sides of Same Coin

Authors: Krishan Vats
Comments: 2 Pages.

Gravitational mass and inertial mass, have been found quantitatively same in experiments, but they are still considered two different concepts/phenomena in all physics literature. This article puts forth the idea that the two are conceptually same, not different. Therefore they are also always found to be quantitatively same. Which is not a coincidence; It is proposed that gravity and inertia are indeed one and same phenomena. This concept of identical phenomenon is presented to physicists to prove or disprove. For clarifying purpose, same concept is stated multiple times with slightly different wordings.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[232] viXra:1804.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 12:11:39

Experiment Supports Stoe Model and Rejects the Traditional Model of a Coulomb Field

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of the coulomb field is of vortices in the plenum. An experiment is proposed that forces a spark of electrons to flow outside the volume between a positive--negative electrode pair. This experimental observation rejects the traditional source--sink pair model of the coulomb field and does not reject the STOE model of the coulomb field and the mechanism of electric attraction and repulsion.
Category: Classical Physics

[231] viXra:1804.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 19:18:22

Refutation of GHZ Experiments © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The expected result for GHZ is supposed to be a contradiction. However the result is not a contradiction, due to one contingency value (falsity) as not contradictory. This means the GHZ experiment is refuted, further supporting previous refutations of Bell's inequality using Meth8/VŁ4.
Category: Quantum Physics

[230] viXra:1804.0251 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-01 22:14:08

Newton’s First Law Revisited

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 10 Pages.

Newton’s first law is expressed in textual form. It states that, unless acted upon by a net unbalanced force, an object will remain at rest, or move uniformly forward in a straight line. Accordingly, “inertial motion” means uniform rectilinear motion, while uniform circular motion is considered to be a noninertial, accelerated motion. This differentiation has resulted in the aftermath in different analytical treatments of the two types, both in classical and relativistic physics. In this short note, we show, based on Newton’s laws, that, contrary to the conventional differentiation between rectilinear and circular systems of motion, the two are dynamically equivalent, such that the set of laws describing the dynamics of one system correspond to an identical set of laws describing the dynamics of the second. An immediate corollary for the special case of uniform motion is that Newtonian physics is inconsistent with his first law and is, instead, consistent with Galileo’s definition of inertial motion. To rectify the apparent inconsistency, we propose a natural modification of the first law, which incorporates the case of uniform circular motion. By means of this inclusion, the first law can retain its unique standing, as a separate law that could not be deduced from the second law as a special case. We formulate the modified law textually and mathematically and comment briefly on the implication of the proposed modification to the theory and education of classical, and relativistic physics.
Category: Classical Physics

[229] viXra:1804.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 03:52:47

Machine Learning Protein Dynamics Data

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

At the University of South Florida, researchers are integrating machine learning techniques into their work studying proteins. [21] Bioinformatics professors Anthony Gitter and Casey Greene set out in summer 2016 to write a paper about biomedical applications for deep learning, a hot new artificial intelligence field striving to mimic the neural networks of the human brain. [20] A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses—so-called retrosyntheses—with unprecedented efficiency. [19] Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[228] viXra:1804.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 05:09:59

Hybrid Quantum Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

A team of researchers from the National Institute of Informatics (NII) in Tokyo and NTT Basic Research Laboratories (BRL, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation) in Japan have published an explanation of how quantum systems may be able to heat up by cooling down. [19] Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have created a chip on which laser light interacts with a tiny cloud of atoms to serve as a miniature toolkit for measuring. [18] An international collaboration, including researchers from the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and Royal Holloway, University of London, has successfully demonstrated a quantum coherent effect in a new quantum device made out of continuous superconducting wire – the Charge Quantum Interference Device (CQUID). [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[227] viXra:1804.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 05:38:11

Topological Quantum Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

For the first time, a group of researchers from Universidad Complutense de Madrid, IBM, ETH Zurich, MIT and Harvard University have observed topological phases of matter of quantum states under the action of temperature or certain types of experimental imperfections. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[226] viXra:1804.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 06:46:57

Nuclear Techniques of Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Nuclear techniques have played an important role in determining the crystal structure of a rare type of intermetallic alloy that exhibits superconductivity. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[225] viXra:1804.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 09:26:06

Quasi-Classical Theory of Gravity

Authors: Alexander P. Sobolev
Comments: 28 Pages. 1-28 english, 29-56 russian

The gravitational equations were derived in general relativity (GR) using the assumption of their covariance relative to arbitrary transformations of coordinates. It has been repeatedly expressed an opinion over the past century that such equality of all coordinate systems may not correspond to reality. Nevertheless, no actual verification of the necessity of this assumption has been made to date. The initial equations of a theory of gravity with general covariance restricted due to introduction of the constraint are formulated in the paper. The concept of the entropy density of space-time is defined, the constraint is interpreted from a physical point of view as a sufficient condition for the adiabaticity of the process of evolution of its metric. A basic model of evolution of the Universe is constructed on this basis which consistent with the observational astronomical data but without using of the hypotheses of the existence of a “dark energy”, “dark matter” and “inflatons". It is claimed that the maximum global energy density in the Universe was 64 orders of magnitude smaller the Planckian one, and the entropy density is 18 orders of magnitude higher the value predicted by GR. Keywords: Gravitation, restricted covariance, nonsingular theory, entropy of space-time, evolution of the Universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[224] viXra:1804.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 09:28:47

Herbig Haro Object Mystery Solved by Dual/Triple New Physics Dark Matter Black Hole Pairing, the Origin of Quick Star/Galaxy Formation.

Authors: ieo Vuyk
Comments: 27 Pages.

Function Follows Form in Quantum FFF Theory. The rigid FORM and Microstructure of elementary particles (rigid strings), is supposed to be the origin of functional differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a new splitting, accelerating and pairing new paradigm Dark Matter Black Hole, (DMBH) seem to be able to convert vacuum particle energy (ZPE) into real plasma which could explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, by so called Galaxy- or Stellar Anchor Black Holes (GABHs respectively SABHs). These Anchor Black Holes can be observed as Herbig Haro ( HH) Hotspots or Bowshocks. Recent observation of two High Energy Cosmic Ray Hotspots, (HECRHs) at solar polar locations, ( Big Dipper and Southern cross) is reason to assume in accord with new physics of Quantum FFF Theory, that these hotspots represents the locations of our Solar Anchor Black Hole (the North-and South SABHs). At the same time in the Quantum FFF model, it is proposed that early Galaxies also are created by dual black hole ( HH) systems being former Big Bang black hole splintered primordial dark matter black holes. They will be called Galaxy Anchor Black Holes ( GABHs) As a consequence, the standard Hot Big Bang with Hot plasma and Hydrogen as the base for everything has to be rejected. Recent observation of a faint galaxy without a dark matter content (NGC 1052 DF2) seems to be created by the star forming capacity even by triple pairing dark matter black hole nuclei of the surrounding globular star clusters assumed to have a triangular topology.
Category: Astrophysics

[223] viXra:1804.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 09:52:22

Anything Unusual Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. the Nature of Emergence of the Stationary and Moving Funnels Same Are the Power Educations in a Cloak Which Are a Consequence of Climate Change of Earth.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The nature of emergence of the stationary and moving funnels same are the power educations in a cloak which are a consequence of climate change of Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[222] viXra:1804.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 10:46:43

To Shed Light on the Eclipse Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. the Exclusive Hypothesis that the Moon is the Comet Rest, "Delivered Water" to Earth, and the Reason of Global Terrestrial Cataclysms, Eliminates the Existing Contradictions of Scientists on the ma

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The exclusive hypothesis that the Moon is the comet rest, "delivered water" to Earth, and the reason of global terrestrial cataclysms, eliminates the existing contradictions of scientists on the matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[221] viXra:1804.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 10:48:23

From One Test Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Disk Galaxies do One Turn Approximately for the Same Time Because Have Resulted from Galactic Disintegration of the Universe by Béla Dyry.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Disk galaxies do one turn approximately for the same time because have resulted from galactic disintegration of the Universe by Béla Dyry.
Category: Astrophysics

[220] viXra:1804.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 10:49:45

International "RED" Station Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Emergence of Red Fog on Earth and in Space is Logical and Will be Coordinated with Exclusive Hypotheses of on-Stage Performance Group of "NIKI"

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Emergence of red fog on Earth and in space is logical and will be coordinated with exclusive hypotheses of on-stage performance group of "NIKI"
Category: Astrophysics

[219] viXra:1804.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 11:03:11

Concerning Relativity Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. in the Universe Everything Concerning Space of Anything, God's Love and Time.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

In the Universe everything concerning space of Anything, God's Love and Time.
Category: Astrophysics

[218] viXra:1804.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 11:04:11

Beyond Back Propagation

Authors: Tofara Moyo
Comments: 1 Page.

5 Protea Lane Newton west
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[217] viXra:1804.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 11:33:34

Not so Look for Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Astronomers Have Found the Amazing Galaxy Which Doesn't Contain Anti-Matter. All Galaxies in the Universe Have Arisen Owing to Galactic Disintegration of the Universal White Hole.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Astronomers have found the amazing galaxy which doesn't contain anti-matter. All galaxies in the Universe have arisen owing to galactic disintegration of the Universal White Hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[216] viXra:1804.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 11:41:28

The Big Illusion of the Big Bang Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. Our Universe is Limited and Ordered. Galaxies Have Arisen in the Course of Galactic Disintegration of a Universal White Hole and Move to Suburbs of the Universe.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Our Universe is limited and ordered. Galaxies have arisen in the course of galactic disintegration of a universal White Hole and move to suburbs of the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[215] viXra:1804.0234 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-19 22:40:24

An Algebraic Method for the Application of the Constructive Proof of Classification Theorem for Closed and Connected Surfaces

Authors: Onurcan Bektaş
Comments: 3 Pages.

For a given planar diagram of a closed & connected surface, we establish an ”algebraic” method for cutting and gluing operations on the edges of the diagram. By this, by just manipulating the name of the edges with the given rules, with the guidance of the classification of closed and connected surface theorem given in [1], we can determine the type of the surface without having need to draw any diagram.
Category: Topology

[214] viXra:1804.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-15 07:12:23

The Natural System of Units of Robert Yusupov***\\\***Натуральная система единиц Роберта Юсупова.

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 46 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> Units of the Nature <©> 15 April 2018

This article was conceived as an article devoted to the solution of the question (problem) of natural units. Many people, physicists and philosophers, naturalists were engaged in this problem (question). The names of many researchers remained unknown and forgotten, sunk into oblivion. The Irish physicist G. J. Stoney and the German physicist M. Planck left their mark on the solution of the problem of searching for and finding natural units. The author of this article also has a solution to this problem. This problem was solved by the author in 2013. The article provides a comparison of all three options for solving this problem. The author believes that his decision is the final solution to the problem of natural units. Absolute knowledge is achieved. Absolute truth is known. ++++++++++++++++++ Настоящая статья задумывалась, как статья посвящённая решению вопроса (проблемы) натуральных единиц (природы). Этой проблемой (вопросом) занимались многие люди, физики и философы, естествоиспытатели. Имена многих исследователей остались неизвестными и забытыми, канули в лету. Свой след в решении проблемы поиска и отыскания натуральных единиц (природы) оставили ирландский физик Дж. Стони и немецкий физик М. Планк. Автор настоящей статьи, также имеет своё решение этой проблемы. Эта проблема решена автором в 2013 году. В статье приводится сопоставление всех трёх вариантов решения этой проблемы. Автор считает, что его решение является окончательным решением проблемы натуральных единиц. Достигнуто абсолютное знание. Познана абсолютная истина.
Category: Classical Physics

[213] viXra:1804.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-15 08:33:49

Impurity Atoms in Graphene

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Condensed Matter

[212] viXra:1804.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-15 10:13:09

Gravitation and Cosmology Without Divergences

Authors: Alan M. Kadin
Comments: 6 Pages. Submitted to Gravity Research Foundation, March 2018

The orthodox general theory of relativity (GR) predicts metric divergences, typically when the normalized gravitational potential &phi= -½, giving rise to event horizons. But all standard experimental tests are in the regime where |&phi|<<1/2, suggesting that alternative large-potential extrapolations should be considered. A simple alternative formulation of GR is presented which focuses on gravitational time dilation and length contraction by a factor of (1-&phi), which is always > 1 since &phi < 0. This formulation duplicates the predictions of the orthodox theory for weak potentials with |&phi| << ½, but avoids all divergences for larger values. Furthermore, this suggests “dim stars” rather than black holes, and provides an intuitive picture of large gravitational red shifts in cosmic expansion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[211] viXra:1804.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-15 10:22:40

Whispering Light Boosts Solar Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Trapping light with an optical version of a whispering gallery, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a nanoscale coating for solar cells that enables them to absorb about 20 percent more sunlight than uncoated devices. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[210] viXra:1804.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 01:49:53

Coulombic Energy Replaced by Electromagnetic Energy in Bohr’s Theory Makes Atomic Physics Simple and Sensible

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 6 pages

Over a century ago Bohr arrived at the conclusion that the ground state energy of hydrogen is half the Coulombic energy, which is negative. As hydrogen is the most abundant element in the Universe, it implies that the energy of the Universe is predominantly negative. Since this is strange, the author found that on replacing the Coulombic energy by electromagnetic energy, the energy is in fact positive. This modification of Bohr’s theory gave rise to many interesting results, showing that atomic physics is much simpler and more meaningful.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[209] viXra:1804.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 03:01:38

Black Holes are Dark Matter

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 133 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

Black Holes are Dark Matter. Information is lost in Black Holes. “Black Holes are Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Information is lost in black holes” Adrian Ferent “Our universe will die; Gravitons will change Matter in Dark Matter, inside the Black Holes” Adrian Ferent How Matter is change in Dark Matter by Gravitons: Ferent equation for photon – graviton interaction, photon absorption by a Black Hole: E = h × f + a × f + a × ν where a × ν is the negative energy of the graviton ν is the frequency of the interaction graviton. I calculated: the graviton’s energy emitted by black holes is higher than: E = 4.14559 × 105 GeV After n interactions the energy of the photon is: where f is the initial frequency of the photon. Because graviton’s frequency νk > fk the energy E of the photon is higher after each photon-graviton interaction, this means photon’s frequency is much higher and this is the process how Matter is change in Dark Matter inside a Black Hole. “Gravitons change Matter in Dark Matter, inside a Black Hole” Adrian Ferent That is why: “Information is lost in Black Holes” Adrian Ferent “Black holes are Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Black holes are Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent This is another proof that my Gravitation theory is right. Wrong things what you learned about Black Holes, because Gravitons are not present in Einstein’s wrong Gravitation theory! That is why in my view Gerard 't Hooft, Leonard Susskind, Stephen Hawking, Jacob Bekenstein… are wrong regarding Black Holes: Bekenstein and Hawking conjectured that the black hole entropy is directly proportional to the area of the event horizon divided by the Planck area. From the entropy it is possible to use the usual thermodynamic relations to calculate the temperature of black holes. The entropy measures how many such squares, whose side is a Planck length, are there on the surface of a black hole. From here Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind suggested that the information is in fact preserved and is stored on the boundary of a system. After the “The Black Hole War” Gerard 't Hooft, Stephen Hawking and Leonard Susskind agreed that the information is not lost inside a black hole; Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind discovered the holographic principle, the informational content of all the objects that have fallen into the black hole is entirely contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon. They considered a photon falling in a black hole, that will increase the black hole entropy and surface area; the black hole’s mass increases and the photon information is stored on the event horizon. Alice and Bob thought experiments: Alice jumps into a very large black hole, leaving Bob outside the event horizon. Physicists have assumed that Alice won’t notice anything unusual as she crosses the event horizon. Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind are wrong because Information is lost in black holes. That is why: “The holographic principle is wrong” Adrian Ferent “My Quantum Gravity theory explains that the Event Horizon is made of Gravitons” Adrian Ferent That is why the informational content of all the objects that have fallen into the black hole is not contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon. What happens when we fall in a Black Hole? “When we fall in a Black Hole, the Gravitons will break our atoms before we get to the event horizon” Adrian Ferent That is why: Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind are wrong regarding Alice and Bob thought experiments, because the Gravitons will break the atoms of Alice and Bob, before they get to the event horizon. You learned from your professors, from your books about the temperature of Black Holes! “Because Black Holes are Dark Matter, Black Holes do not have temperature” Adrian Ferent “Black holes are Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Matter is Dark Matter with the density greater than Planck density” Adrian Ferent I discovered that Black holes are Dark Matter, I discovered that the Information is lost in Black Holes, I discovered what is the Event Horizon, I explained that the holographic principle is wrong and I discovered what happens when we fall in a Black Hole. 51. I am the first who explained Gravitation 52. I am the first who discovered what happens when we fall in a Black Hole: the Gravitons will break our atoms before we get to the event horizon 53. I am the first who explained that the holographic principle is wrong 54. I am the first who discovered that Black holes are Dark Matter 55. I am the first who explained that Information is lost in black holes 56. I am the first who explained what is the event horizon: the Event Horizon is made of Gravitons 57. I am the first who explained that our universe will die; Gravitons will change Matter in Dark Matter, inside the Black Holes 58. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons change Matter in Dark Matter, inside a Black Hole 59. I am the first who discovered that Black Holes do not have temperature, because Black Holes are Dark Matter
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[208] viXra:1804.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 05:14:31

Spin-3/2 Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[207] viXra:1804.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 06:51:43

Quantum Entanglement Record

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[206] viXra:1804.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 07:54:40

Question 447: Some Trigonometric Formulas for the Argument 2npi/13,n=1,2,3,4,5,6.

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

This note presents continued radicals and trigonometric formulas for the argument 2npi/13, n=1,2,3,4,5,6.
Category: General Mathematics

[205] viXra:1804.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 07:57:36

Malmsten's Integral

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with Malmsten's integral.
Category: Number Theory

[204] viXra:1804.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 07:59:39

Question 449: Some Definite Integrals

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 6 Pages.

This note presents some definite integrals.
Category: Number Theory

[203] viXra:1804.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 10:45:14

On Schrödinger Equations Equivalent to Constant Coefficient Equations

Authors: D. K. K. Adjaï, J. Akande, L. H. Koudahoun, Y. J. F. Kpomahou, M. D. Monsia
Comments: 9 pages

This paper shows that the solution of a class of Schrödinger equations may be performed in terms of the solution of the equation of constant coefficients.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[202] viXra:1804.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 10:48:57

Electron in a Dual State

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[201] viXra:1804.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 11:07:43

Superconductive Current of Spin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Researchers have shown that certain superconductors—materials that carry electrical current with zero resistance at very low temperatures—can also carry currents of 'spin'. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[200] viXra:1804.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 11:37:53

OFDM Performance Improvement Based on Active Constellation Extension and Active Interference Cancelation

Authors: SongIl Choe, IlNam Ri, SongChol Dong, IlSok Kim, ChunHo Pak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a transceiver technology able to achieve spectrally efficient and high data rate wireless transmissions. It is also able to transmit in a non-contiguous (NC) fashion by utilizing several separate spectral whitespaces. Cognitive radio systems based on non-contiguous orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (NC-OFDM) is a promising technique that can provide efcient bandwidth utilization for high data rate wireless communication systems under frequency selective fading environments. However, the high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) and large spectrum sidelobe power are the two major limitations at the transmitter side of the NC-OFDM based Cognitive Radio (CR) system, which may significantly reduce the power efficiency and performance of the system. In this paper, we present a joint method for the PAPR reduction and sidelobe suppression based on Active Constellation Extension(ACE) and Active Interference Cancelation(AIC). The key idea of the proposed method is to dynamically extend part of the constellation points on the secondary user (SU) subcarriers based on ACE and add several SC symbols on the primary user (PU) subcarriers based on AIC to generate the appropriate cancelation signal for joint PAPR reduction and sidelobe suppression. Since the convex optimization is computationally complex in nature, a suboptimal method is also proposed whose simulation result shows that there is a significant improvement in terms of PAPR and sidelobe reduction.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[199] viXra:1804.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 11:48:31

Decoding Dark Energy by using the Mass-Energy Relation

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi
Comments: 1 page

The mysterious phenomenon of dark energy has been explained by me in my previous papers on the basis of molecular diffusion model. In this paper I present an additional proof to further support the molecular diffusion model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[198] viXra:1804.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 13:27:36

The Expanding Universe, Einstein and the Big Bang

Authors: Michael Singer
Comments: 3 Pages.

In 1917 Einstein developed equations that described an ever-expanding universe. It is the nature of an electromagnetic universe to continually expand, although the term “ever-dilating universe” would be more appropriate given his other work. Later on, after the expansion of the universe was actually discovered, Georges Lemaitre proposed the “Big Bang” theory to account for that expansion rather than viewing it as being in the nature of an electromagnetic universe. So we seem to have two perfectly sensible reasons for the expansion of the Universe. Why?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[197] viXra:1804.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 14:06:25

Imaginary Numbers Are not Tautologous © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The definition of the imaginary number is not tautologous and hence refuted. The definition as rendered is contingent, the value for falsity. While the definition can be coerced to be non-contingent, the value for truthity, it is still not tautologous.
Category: Number Theory

[196] viXra:1804.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 16:39:04

Vixrapedia.org

Authors: Valdhaorna Istri
Comments: 1 Page.

Announcing a new encyclopedia that does not censor knowledge.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[195] viXra:1804.0213 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-30 22:35:14

Circular and Rectilinear Sagnac Effects Are Dynamically Equivalent and Contradictory to Special Relativity Theory

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Sagnac effect, named after its discoverer, is the phase shift occurring between two beams of light, traveling in opposite directions along a closed path around a moving object. A special case is the circular Sagnac effect, known for its crucial role in GPS and fiber-optic gyroscopes. It is often claimed that the circular Sagnac effect does not contradict special relativity theory (SRT) because it is considered an accelerated motion, while SRT applies only to uniform, non-accelerated motion. It is further claimed that the Sagnac effect, manifest in circular motion, should be treated in the framework of general relativity theory (GRT). We counter these arguments by underscoring the fact that the dynamics of rectilinear and circular types of motion are completely equivalent, and that this equivalence holds true for both non-accelerated and accelerated motion. With respect to the Sagnac effect, this equivalence means that a uniform circular motion (with constant w) is completely equivalent to a uniform rectilinear motion (with constant v). We support this conclusion by convincing experimental findings, indicating that an identical Sagnac effect to the one found in circular motion, exists in rectilinear uniform motion. We conclude that the circular Sagnac effect is fully explainable in the framework of inertial systems, and that the circular Sagnac effect contradicts special relativity theory and calls for its refutation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[194] viXra:1804.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 01:30:45

Quantum Shift in Light and Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

A team led by Rice University scientists used a unique combination of techniques to observe, for the first time, a condensed matter phenomenon about which others have only speculated. The research could aid in the development of quantum computers. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[193] viXra:1804.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 02:02:00

Did the Emergence of Blood Groups Weed Out Cannibalism? a New Take on a Persistent Conundrum

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 6 Pages.

It is proposed that the emergence of different blood groups – whether in humanoids or their predecessors – served as a strong deterrent to the mixing of blood from different individuals. Cannibalism is the most likely activity in which such mixing would have been inevitable. In fact, the immunological significance of the blood groups may be overblown, as a correspondence between antigen and antibody is not always apparent in them. These conclusions also raise intriguing questions about the consumption of animal meats and blood by humans, with interesting implications for currently held views on diet and disease.
Category: Biochemistry

[192] viXra:1804.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 05:29:22

New Bose-Einstein Condensate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

Researchers at Aalto University, Finland, have created a Bose-Einstein condensate of light coupled with metal electrons, so-called surface plasmon polaritons. [42] A team led by Rice University scientists used a unique combination of techniques to observe, for the first time, a condensed matter phenomenon about which others have only speculated. The research could aid in the development of quantum computers. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[191] viXra:1804.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 07:33:29

Nuclei Catch Up with Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

In an attosecond study of the H2 molecule, physicists at ETH Zurich found that for light atomic nuclei, as contained in most organic and biological molecules, the correlation between electronic and nuclear motions cannot be ignored. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[190] viXra:1804.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 08:38:51

A Physical Review on Currency

Authors: Ran Huang
Comments: 14 Pages.

A theoretical self-sustainable economic model is established based on the fundamental factors of production, consumption, reservation and reinvestment, where currency is set as a unconditional credit symbol serving as transaction equivalent and stock means. Principle properties of currency are explored in this ideal economic system. Physical analysis reveals some facts that were not addressed by traditional monetary theory, and several basic principles of ideal currency are concluded: 1. The saving-replacement is a more primary function of currency than the transaction equivalents; 2. The ideal efficiency of currency corresponds to the least practical value; 3. The contradiction between constant face value of currency and depreciable goods leads to intrinsic inflation.
Category: Economics and Finance

[189] viXra:1804.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 08:58:55

Gravity with Black Hole Shadows

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Astrophysicists at Frankfurt, the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, and Nijmegen, collaborating in the project BlackHoleCam, answer this question by computing the first images of feeding non-Einsteinian black holes: it is presently hard to tell them apart from standard black holes. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It’s estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[188] viXra:1804.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-15 06:29:29

A Quantum Physics Jeopardy Problem of a One-Bound-State Double Dirac Delta Potential with a Centrifugal, Angular-Momentum-Like Tail

Authors: Spiros Konstantogiannis
Comments: 19 Pages.

Starting from a simple, one-parameter, symmetric wave function, we derive an attractive double Dirac delta potential with a centrifugal, angular-momentum-like tale, which has only one bound state, the energy of which can be set to zero.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[187] viXra:1804.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 04:08:13

Gene Editing Medicine

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

It's called gene editing, and University of Alberta researchers have just published a game-changing study that promises to bring the technology much closer to therapeutic reality. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8]
Category: Physics of Biology

[186] viXra:1804.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 04:38:29

Some Considerations on Physical Constants G and α in Light of the Concept of the Net Charged Universe (NCU) [1,2]

Authors: Ulrich Berger
Comments: 8 Pages.

As described previously, the concept of a “Net Charged Universe” (NCU) assumes that the expansion of the universe is driven by a slight excess of positive charge in the universe’s matter. This excess charge comes into being by means of quantum fluctuations at the universe’s horizon. Excess protons experience electrostatic acceleration and therefore gain high relativistic mass, which is the source of the creation of neutral matter at the universe’s horizon. The present article investigates some consequences of that steady creation of space and matter in NCU history. The most important consequences are the following:  The gravitational constant G and the fine structure constant α are not constant but proportional to the historically decreasing mass density of the universe.  The commonality between G and α in terms of this proportionality seems to indicate a deep interdependency between both variables and between their related phenomena, i.e. the gravitational and electromagnetic properties of matter.  The historically decreasing value of G might be the real cause of anomalies of stars’ circling in galaxies, which led to the assumption of “Dark Matter” (DM) by current cosmology.  Because of a possibly holographic emergence of gravitation, newly created matter might immediately show its “gravitational presence” throughout the whole universe. In contrast to that, the “electromagnetic presence” of new matter propagates through space with the speed of light and cannot be immediately experienced in the inner universe. The value of α that varies with time and space can possibly be regarded as a measure for the fraction of all matter that is electromagnetically present at a certain place – e.g. our galaxy.  Calculations on the electromagnetic and the gravitational acceleration of matter in the NCU yield identical mathematical expressions although they were derived here in fully independent ways.  Finally, those expressions do not contain any “constants” like G, α, particle masses, elementary charge etc. – except the speed of light. The electromagnetic and the gravitational acceleration of matter are both controlled solely by geometrical variables, i.e. variable radii. These radii and the equations containing them seem to be the only true fundamentals related to describing and understanding the NCU.  The deep interdependency between G and α (or, say, gravitational and electromagnetic properties of matter) based on the NCU concept revealed here might even point to a path to unification of relativity and quantum theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[185] viXra:1804.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 05:29:00

Lyme Disease and Bee Venom Therapy

Authors: Mit Skolov
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract. It is reported about the growing interest in bee venom therapy in the treatment of Lyme disease (borreliosis) in the USA. Key words: Lyme disease, Lyme borreliosis, bee venom therapy, apitoxin therapy, honeybee venom, apitoxin, melittin.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[184] viXra:1804.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 07:17:58

Small Data Storage, Tinier Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Researchers have discovered that using an easily made combination of materials might be the way to offer a more stable environment for smaller and safer data storage, ultimately leading to miniature computers. [28] Employees of Kazan Federal University and Kazan Quantum Center of Kazan National Research Technical University demonstrated an original layout of a prototype of multiresonator broadband quantum-memory interface. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[183] viXra:1804.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 08:00:32

Artificial Intelligence Accelerates Discovery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The research group took advantage of a system at SLAC's Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that combines machine learning—a form of artificial intelligence where computer algorithms glean knowledge from enormous amounts of data—with experiments that quickly make and screen hundreds of sample materials at a time. [23] Researchers at the UCLA Samueli School of Engineering have demonstrated that deep learning, a powerful form of artificial intelligence, can discern and enhance microscopic details in photos taken by smartphones. [22] Such are the big questions behind one of the new projects underway at the MIT-IBM Watson AI Laboratory, a collaboration for research on the frontiers of artificial intelligence. [21] The possibility of cognitive nuclear-spin processing came to Fisher in part through studies performed in the 1980s that reported a remarkable lithium isotope dependence on the behavior of mother rats. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[182] viXra:1804.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 09:25:33

Understanding Random Pixels & Random Numbers in the Context of SEM/TEM/AFM/cryo-Electron Microscopy Image Processing – A Promising Technical Insight into the Interesting World of Randomness & Noisy Images in EM Domains Using a Quantum Device & Image J

Authors: Nirmal Tej kumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Technical Communication on Quantum Computing & Concepts

A sincere attempt is made to probe EM domains using Randomness & Random Numbers by using a Quantum Device as stated in the above mentioned TITLE of this technical communication.To the best of our knowledge this is indeed a pioneering R&D technical note using a Quantum Device.
Category: Quantum Physics

[181] viXra:1804.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 11:41:48

Exact Solution of Odes Vector Space Transformationtechnique

Authors: Claude Michael Cassano
Comments: 10 Pages.

This linear algebra technique provides a useful method of obtaining exact solutions to homogeneous linear ordinary differential equations. The Bessel half integer solutions, being long well known, have been used here to verify with confidence the above linear independence technique for solving ordinary differential equations. The Bessel second order LHODE has been used, here, as an example application of this vector space transformation technique. Clearly, it may be used on other non-general elementary second order LHODE, such as the Legendre, Laguerre, Hermite and other second order LHODE's. Using the two linearly independent solutions of a second order linear homogeneous ordinary differential equations insures that the two functions are linearly independent. However, any two linearly independent functions may be used, and the two resulting differential equations need not be the same, as was the case for the Bessel's above. In fact, clearly, the technique may also be used for higher order LHODE's, since there are N linearly independent solutions of an N-th order LHODE there would be an equal number of transformation equations.
Category: General Mathematics

[180] viXra:1804.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 13:23:50

The Holomorphic Quanta. A Relational Model for Visualizing, Understanding and Teaching Quantum Physics and Relativity

Authors: Theodore J. St. John
Comments: 14 Pages.

Quantum Mechanics is appropriately named because it is mostly about the mechanics used to work probability problems. There must be, and there is a better way to visualize the concepts of quantum physics so that teachers can present a consistent conceptual interpretation. In this paper, we use a graph (i.e. the image of a graphical map) to represent the relationships between space, time and motion but we interpose the linear space-time domain (the moving or relativistic reference frame in the region greater than one) with a logarithmic spatial-temporal frequency domain (the at-rest or quantum reference frame in the region between zero and one). This approach demonstrates space-time equivalence as S=Tc^2, and thereby reveals the de Broglie equations for energy of a quantum particle in exactly the same geometric relation as the total energy relations that include mass-energy equivalence. The model allows one to visualize the particle-wave duality as a change in perspective the same as you can visualize an object both at rest with respect to your classroom yet in motion with respect to the sun, provides a perspective on the meaning of time and the psychological time flux as an eternal process of transformation, reinterprets the speed of light as the speed at which darkness (the absence of information) recedes, and concludes that the solid objects that occupy 3-dimensional expanse of space can be viewed as holomorphic images, materialized by the interaction of fields that gain physical form by their transformation into divergence and curl.
Category: Quantum Physics

[179] viXra:1804.0193 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-18 21:28:30

A Clear Trend in the Mass-Radius Relationship Concerning Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 8 Pages. More stars are added due to accusations of cherry-picking data.

Data was obtained from the Kepler Space Telescope and through various media to plot the trend in the mass-radius relationship of stars as they evolve. The trend is that as they lose mass and evolve, they shrink in diameter. This is predicted by stellar metamorphosis, as stellar evolution is planet formation itself.
Category: Astrophysics

[178] viXra:1804.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 14:31:44

Infinite Product for Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Authors: Mendzina Essomba François
Comments: 10 Pages.

I propose in this article the first infinite products of history for inverse sinusoidal functions
Category: Number Theory

[177] viXra:1804.0191 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-23 11:38:07

Dark Matter is Negative Mass

Authors: Hyoyoung Choi
Comments: 12 Pages.

Negative mass is an object whose existence is required by the law of the conservation of energy. The fundamental properties of negative mass can explain important characteristics of dark matter. 1) additional centripetal effects, 2) explanations derived from fundamental principles about the reason why dark matter does not have electromagnetic interaction, 3) repulsive gravity ensuring almost even distribution and lower interaction of dark matter, 4) gravitational lens effect, 5) accelerating expansion of the universe can be explained with negative mass. Therefore, we should seriously examine the negative mass model.
Category: Astrophysics

[176] viXra:1804.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-15 01:03:37

Confusions in Modern Physics.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 3 Pages. New physics.

Some clarifications in the concept of inertia and mass.
Category: Classical Physics

[175] viXra:1804.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-15 03:36:16

Some Experiments Against Relativity

Authors: CuiHaiLong
Comments: 4 Pages.

To summarize some of the negative relativity experiments, and to make a reasonable explanation for some of these experiments, mainly to remind people that anti-relativity experiments can be seen everywhere.But people look at the problem with colored eyes and they just ignore it all the time,It also reflects the terrible power of man's faith,Just as believers ignore the myriad anti-religious realities, they remain fanatical about maintaining religion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[174] viXra:1804.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-15 04:17:29

New Theory of Relativity, Opening of New Laws of Movement in the Moving System.

Authors: Valentín Ibáñez Fernández
Comments: 46 Pages.

A profound analysis of the theory of relativity led to the creation of a new special theory of relativity (STR), in early papers 1-9. The new special theory of relativity 1-3 explained all the fundamental phenomena that occur in mechanical and electromagnetic processes, both in inertial motion systems and in the system in rest. However, the individual expositions in these works did not reveal a complete basic physical-philosophical approach to the description of these phenomena. In this work, these shortcomings is eliminating, and in addition, the shortcomings of Galileo's theory of relativity, based on which errors will made in further studies, Having concluded these studies, the author puts forward both a new theory of relativity and the discovery of new laws of motion in a moving system.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[173] viXra:1804.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 08:39:13

Fine-Structure on Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

A team of researchers from the University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has conducted an ultra-precise measurement of the fine-structure constant, and in so doing, have found evidence that casts doubts on dark photon theory. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30] Now our new study – which hints that extremely light particles called neutrinos are likely to make up some of the dark matter – challenges our current understanding of its composition. [29] A new particle detector design proposed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) could greatly broaden the search for dark matter—which makes up 85 percent of the total mass of the universe yet we don't know what it's made of—into an unexplored realm. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[172] viXra:1804.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 08:52:28

Kinetic Analysis of H2S Removal Over Several Mesoporous Metal Mixed Oxides During Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization in a Fixed-Bed Reactor Using the Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 1 Page.

DKM has not considered the detailed characteristic parameters of the solid sorbent in such a microscopic way as unreacted shrinking core model(SCM) or general regression model (GRM) but in a macroscopic way. Therefore, DKM can be extensively applied to the kinetic analysis of noncatalytic heterogeneous reaction or adsorption processes without the requirement of structural property for sorbents.
Category: Chemistry

[171] viXra:1804.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 09:00:32

Dipolar Molecule

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Harvard Assistant Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology Kang-Kuen Ni and colleagues have combined two atoms for the first time into what researchers call a dipolar molecule. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[170] viXra:1804.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 18:31:14

Formula to Get Twin Prime Numbers.

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martín
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper develops a modified an old and well-known expression for calculating and obtaining all twin prime numbers greater than three. The conditioning (n) will be the key to make the formula work.
Category: Number Theory

[169] viXra:1804.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 21:56:20

Related to Fermat’s Last Theorem: the Quadratic Formula of the Equation X^(n-1) ∓ X^(n-2)y + X^(n-3)y^(n-2) ∓ … + Y^(n-1)= Z^n(nZ^n) in the Cases N = 3, 5 and 7.

Authors: Quang Nguyen Van
Comments: 4 Pages.

We give some quadratic formulas (including Euler's and Dirichlet's formula) of the equation X^(n-1) ∓ X^(n-2)Y + X^(n-3)Y^(n-2) ∓ … + Y^(n-1) = Z^n(nZ^n) in the cases n = 3, 5 and 7 for finding a solution in integer.
Category: Number Theory

[168] viXra:1804.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 23:39:36

Why Imaginary Quaternions Bear no Nexus to Reality © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The quaternion of Hamilton is not tautologous.
Category: Quantum Physics

[167] viXra:1804.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 05:42:10

Quantum Supremacy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[166] viXra:1804.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 06:40:08

Szczególna Teoria Względności (In Polish) ### Special Theory of Relativity (In Polish)

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 150 Pages.

Podręcznik ten przeznaczony jest dla studentów wszystkich uczelni, na których wykładana jest fizyka. Może być przydatny dla nauczycieli fizyki w szkołach średnich. Mam nadzieję, że zostanie wykorzystany również przez zawodowych relatywistów. ### This handbook is intended for students of all universities where physics is taught. It can be useful for physics teachers in secondary schools. I hope that it will also be used by professional relativists.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[165] viXra:1804.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 06:45:03

Ogólna Teoria Względności (In Polish) ### General Theory of Relativity (In Polish)

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 252 Pages.

Podręcznik ten przeznaczony jest dla studentów wszystkich uczelni, na których wykładana jest fizyka. Może być przydatny dla nauczycieli fizyki w szkołach średnich. Mam nadzieję, że zostanie wykorzystany również przez zawodowych relatywistów. ### This handbook is intended for students of all universities where physics is taught. It can be useful for physics teachers in secondary schools. I hope that it will also be used by professional relativists.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[164] viXra:1804.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 06:47:39

Giganci Teorii Względności (In Polish) ### Giants of the Theory of Relativity (In Polish)

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 124 Pages.

Prezentowana encyklopedia zawiera 144 portrety prekursorów, twórców i propagatorów teorii względności oraz informacje o wkładzie wniesionym przez nich w powstanie i rozwój tej dziedziny fizyki. Zamieszczono spis wszystkich prac Einsteina dotyczących szczególnej i ogólnej teorii względności oraz jednolitej teorii pola. ### The presented encyclopedia contains 144 portraits of precursors, creators and propagators of relativity theory, as well as information about their contribution to the rise and development of this field of physics. A list of all Einstein's papers on special and general relativity and a unified field theory is provided.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[163] viXra:1804.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 07:11:54

Elektryczność (In Polish) ### Electricity (In Polish)

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 142 Pages.

E-book "Elektryczność" przeznaczony jest dla studentów wszystkich uczelni, na których wykładana jest fizyka. Może być przydatny dla nauczycieli fizyki w szkołach średnich. Cechą charakterystyczną tej książki jest brak numeracji wzorów. ### The e-book "Electricity" is intended for all students of the university, which taught physics. It can be useful for physics teachers in secondary schools. A characteristic feature of this book is the lack of pattern numbering.
Category: Education and Didactics

[162] viXra:1804.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 13:45:09

Expansion Tectonics – Is It All Wet?

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 6 Pages.

Expansion Tectonics postulates that the Earth has grown from a much smaller orb over its history, the size once being as low as 1/4 of today's radius at the extreme (more common estimates are around 60% of today's radius). Scientists have also long speculated as to the source of Earth's water, estimated today to be anywhere from 1.5 to 11 times the current volume of the oceans, with a rough agreement around three times today's ocean volume (implying 2/3 today is "within" the Earth). This paper examines some of the implications of Expansion Tectonics in conjunction with a total water volume three times today's ocean volume, with neither an increase in Earth's mass or water volume over time. Speculation at two extremes range from an early "saturated sponge" Earth, where all this water was retained within the Earth, with essentially none at the surface (the more common postulate of Expansion Tectonics) to a complete "waterworld," where all of the water was atop the surface, i.e., none within.
Category: Geophysics

[161] viXra:1804.0174 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-04 01:07:50

The Universe Equation

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 2 Pages.

If you claim there are particles: there would actually have to be particles.
And that would mean there are about 18 different microscopic things that work flawlessly together -- just like clockwork to make even just one basic atom "gear" set.
If you have larger sized atoms: it would be like throwing more and more gear sets into the clockwork -- but that is ok because no matter what you throw in -- it will still work just fine.
How can an infinity of 18 different things (infinity times 18 different things) just happen to be here, know how work together as a group and also successfully work together as a group(s)?
How is that possible? It isn't...

Stuff cannot be made from what they call "particles."

If there are particles; this is equation of the universe:
Universe = Infinity × {a,b,c,d,f,g,h,j,k,l,m,o,p,q,t,w,x,y,z}
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[160] viXra:1804.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 14:33:36

Fractals on Non-Euclidean Metric

Authors: Yeray Cachón Santana
Comments: 11 Pages.

As far as I know, there is no a study on fractals on non euclidean metrics.This paper proposes a first approach method about generating fractals on a non-euclidean metric. The idea is to extend the calculus of fractals on non-euclidean metrics. Using the Riemann metric, there will be defined a non-euclidean modulo of a complex number in order to check the divergence of the series generated by the Mandelbrot set. It also shown that the fractals are not invariant versus rotations. The study will be extended to the quaternions, where is shown that the study of fractals might not be extended to quaternions with a general metric because of the high divergence of the series (a condition in order to generate a fractal is selecting bounded operators). Finally, a Java program will be found as example to show those kind of fractals, where any metric can be defined, so it will be helpful to study those properties.
Category: General Mathematics

[159] viXra:1804.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 14:37:14

Bipolar Neutrosophic Minimum Spanning Tree

Authors: Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache, Kifayat Ullah
Comments: 6 Pages. Broumi, Said and Talea, Mohamed and Bakali, Assia and Smarandache, Florentin and Ullah, Kifayat, Bipolar Neutrosophic Minimum Spanning Tree (February 27, 2018). Smart Application and Data Analysis for Smart Cities (SADASC'18). Available at SSRN: https://s

The aim of this article is to introduce a matrix algorithm for finding minimum spanning tree (MST) in the environment of undirected bipolar neutrosophic connected graphs (UBNCG). Some weights are assigned to each edge in the form of bipolar neutrosophic number (BNN). The new algorithm is described by a flow chart and a numerical example by considering some hypothetical graph. By a comparison, the advantage of proposed matrix algorithm over some existing algorithms are also discussed.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[158] viXra:1804.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 14:59:06

Fermat Conjecture Solution

Authors: Allen C. Conti
Comments: 1 Page. (c) Allen C. Conti 2015-2018

Possible solution to the Fermat Conjecture regarding other exponents satisfying the Pythagorus relationship. Solution uses algebraic substitution, logical deduction and modulus verification.
Category: General Mathematics

[157] viXra:1804.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 18:08:40

Retract Neutrosophic Crisp System for Gray Scale Image

Authors: A. A. Salama, Hewayda ElGhawalby, Asmaa.M.Nasr
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper, we aim to develop a new type of neutrosophic crisp set called the retract neutrosophic crisp set and shows a grayscale image in a 2D Cartesian domain with neutrosophic crisp components in the neutrosophic domain. The introduced set is a retraction of any triple structured crisp set. Whereas, the retractset deduced from any neutrosophic crisp set is coincide its corresponding star neutrosophic crisp set defined in by Salama et al. [1]. Hence we construct a new type of neutrosophic crisp topological spaces, called the retract neutrosophic crisp topological space as a retraction of the star neutrosophic topological space. Moreover, we investigate some of its properties.
Category: Topology

[156] viXra:1804.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 22:52:34

A Conjecture for Objectification of the Content of Consciousness

Authors: Daisuke H. Tanaka, Tsutomu Tanabe
Comments: 38 Pages. 4 figures

The content of consciousness has strictly escaped from scientific approach mainly because it is subjective but not objective. We propose the content of consciousness can become objective in a specific condition. We firstly considered the subjective-objective distinction and found that it was not necessarily black-and-white but was continuously graded. We also found two factors affecting the degree of objectiveness: number of individuals who confirmed the specific subject, and reproducibility to confirm the subject. We stated that the specific content of consciousness could be regarded as objective if it was reproducibly confirmed by multiple individuals. Finally, we raised four neurological premises to test the statement: (1) a content-specific and sufficient neural correlates of consciousness (cssNCC) exists in human brain, (2) a specific cssNCC gives rise to a specific content of consciousness, (3) the cssNCC is sharable among multiple individuals and (4) the cssNCC is spatiotemporally stable enough to manipulate repeatedly.
Category: Mind Science

[155] viXra:1804.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 01:16:01

Earth’s Mass Overestimated

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 3 Pages.

As method of calculation of Earth’s mass by analysis of movement of the Moon is disproved, mainstream hardly has other method to calculate Earth’s mass. Raw estimate of Earth’s density is possible, using data from vortical celestial mechanics.
Category: Geophysics

[154] viXra:1804.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 08:27:27

Prototype of Advanced Quantum Memory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Employees of Kazan Federal University and Kazan Quantum Center of Kazan National Research Technical University demonstrated an original layout of a prototype of multiresonator broadband quantum-memory interface. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[153] viXra:1804.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 09:20:08

Molecular Motor Packs DNA

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[152] viXra:1804.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 10:43:40

Zastosowanie Teorii Grafów do Analizy Stabilności Stanów Stacjonarnych W Sieciach Reakcji Enzymatycznch [praca Doktorska, 1978] ### Application of Graph Theory to Stability Analysis of Steady States in Enzymatic Reaction Networks [PhD Thesis, 1978]

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 156 Pages. In Polish

Rozpatrywane w tej pracy rodzaje grafów można utworzyć na podstawie równań stechiometrycznych. Główną zaletą metod grafowych jest możliwość uzyskania informacji o stabilności stanów stacjonarnych bez wypisywania w jawnej postaci jakichkolwiek równań. ### The types of graphs considered in this work can be created on the basis of stoichiometric equations. The main advantage of the graph theory methods is the possibility of obtaining information on the stability of steady states without writing out any equations in an explicit form.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[151] viXra:1804.0164 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-03 10:21:50

The Conditions, Influences, and Effects Relating to the Concept of a Universal Particle

Authors: John Raymond
Comments: 8 Pages.

Abstract At its deepest level, informational reality is indivisible. The structure of indivisible reality can only be identified and described by means of predictive algebra. However, divisible informational processes are different measurements to the divisible whole. I refer to these different measurements as being units of the whole. I debate that in the pre-space continuum of irreducible reality, reducible informational processes may appear as the same processes. Furthermore, these two processes are inseparable. I suggest that this inseparability is an effect that is informationally representative of the imaginary matrix of reality. It is my opinion that it is impossible to measure the units of reaction between the energy type forces of holistic reality but it is possible to measure the influences and effects of the reaction of these forces. This demonstrates the entangled nature of indivisible and divisible forces in the matrix of reality. I have described two new particles. One I have entitled a Universal particle and the other one a Minus particle. I have demonstrated how the properties and effects of the Universal particle may have informationally emerged through its relationship with the Minus particle. By so doing, I demonstrate how the Universal particle can traverse all universes and dimensions. This also means that it can be seen as the reality particle. conceptscience@bigpond.com
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[150] viXra:1804.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 11:07:42

Photon eV = Charge Area V2.0

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 5 Pages. It is Accurate

Universe is a Fractal Aether of Primes using a Fibonacci Geometry
Category: Quantum Physics

[149] viXra:1804.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 11:17:56

Computers Analyze Brain Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

According to a new study in Cell, it may be possible to teach machines how to pick out features in neurons and other cells that have not been stained or undergone other damaging treatments. [21] The possibility of cognitive nuclear-spin processing came to Fisher in part through studies performed in the 1980s that reported a remarkable lithium isotope dependence on the behavior of mother rats. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] Now researchers at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11]
Category: Physics of Biology

[148] viXra:1804.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 13:11:57

Thermodynamics of Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

The connection between the two theories is hinted at by a formal curiosity: information theory uses a mathematical term that formally resembles the definition of entropy in thermodynamics. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[147] viXra:1804.0160 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-13 06:30:08

Differential Forms for Physics Students

Authors: William O. Straub
Comments: 13 Pages. One typo fixed

An introduction to the calculus of differential forms for undergraduate physics students
Category: Mathematical Physics

[146] viXra:1804.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 16:36:41

The Planck-Energy is not Fundamental in a Rotating Holographic Universe.

Authors: Dan Visser
Comments: 7 Pages.

This article discards the constant Planck-energy. This will be in service of a rotating vacuum-torus as a new building-stone in a variable vacuum for the benefit of a rotating hologram-universe. The new building-stone hosts all the sub-information for the quantum-information for each emerging not-fundamental Big Bang-universe. This leads to the presentation of a new formula for dimensional variable dark energy. Also a handwritten image shows the author’s velocity-tensor of rotating vacuum, which is combined with an energy of dark force emerged from a dark vacuum particle. He uses his tensor to explain the name of his theory, the Double Torus Theory (DTT) .
Category: Mathematical Physics

[145] viXra:1804.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 22:04:50

On the Representation Theorem for the Stochastic Differential eq Uations with Fractional Brownian Motion and Jump by Probabili ty Measures Transform

Authors: Kim Ju Gyong,Ju Kwang Son
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper we prove Girsanov theorem for fractional Brownian motion and jump measures and consider representation form for the stochastic differential equations in transfer Probability space.
Category: Statistics

[144] viXra:1804.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 22:14:27

Charge Area of the Electron = Photon ev

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 4 Pages. Charge Area of the electron = photon eV

Charge Area of the electron = photon eV (((((1.352910249E-57 m)^2) / ((1.6161132e-35 m)^2)) / 13) * (((2 * 5)^2) s)) / ((1.6161132e-35 m) / c) = 0.999999981 1 / ((((((1.352910249E-57 m) / hbar) / c) / electron mass) / 2)^0.5) = 6.5248935 m kg / s 1.352910249E-57 m (2 * electron mass * G) / (c^2) = 1.35291025e-57 m (6.6774545e-11 m^3/kg/s^2)/c^2/ (6.52485 kg m/s)/electron mass/5^3 = 1 ((((6.6774545e-11 * (((1/5) m)^3)) / (kg / (s^2))) / (c^2)) / (6.52485 ((kg m) / s))) / (electron mass / (kg^3)) = 0.999999994 s5 1.6161132e-35 (meters / planck length) = 0.9999287396 https://photos.app.goo.gl/hwS73Pg69x76Y5v42 Photon transit channel = https://photos.app.goo.gl/C49aNNCBAEHYd2Ng1 Photon transit channel = 1/((x)^(7)*(y)^(7))^(1/6) http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=1%2F((x)%5E(7)*(y)%5E(7))%5E(1%2F6) KronosPrime@ outlook.com https://sites.google.com/site/fractalprimeuniverse/electron-charge-area
Category: Quantum Physics

[143] viXra:1804.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 07:17:37

Deep Learning Smartphone Microscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Researchers at the UCLA Samueli School of Engineering have demonstrated that deep learning, a powerful form of artificial intelligence, can discern and enhance microscopic details in photos taken by smartphones. [22] Such are the big questions behind one of the new projects underway at the MIT-IBM Watson AI Laboratory, a collaboration for research on the frontiers of artificial intelligence. [21] The possibility of cognitive nuclear-spin processing came to Fisher in part through studies performed in the 1980s that reported a remarkable lithium isotope dependence on the behavior of mother rats. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[142] viXra:1804.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 07:54:40

Scanning Tunneling Microscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

NIST researchers have pioneered a process that drastically simplifies fabrication of the kind of nanoscale microchip features that may soon form the basis of a quantum computer, among other applications. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33]
Category: Condensed Matter

[141] viXra:1804.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 01:38:19

On the Mathematics of Special Relativity

Authors: Steve P Smith
Comments: 10 Pages.

It was once said that only three people in the world understood relativity to which Eddington an astronomer/physicist replied “who is the third”. This statement by Einstein was a little forward considering the simplicity of the foundational theory of the paper itself. It may be the case that due to the disingenuous insertion of conditional statements and erroneous assumptions he realized that the paper itself was so erroneous that it may indeed be seen to be incomprehensible to the unguarded reader. It also appears that he was effective in his quest as the number of advocates of Einstein’s special relativity increases daily, who have neither the desire nor inclination to investigate further but rather accept purely on face value Einstein’s assertions. The arduous task of investigation and validation of his theories being left to a small but also increasing number of dedicated independent researchers who refuse to bow to the logical fallacy of appealing to authority.
Category: Astrophysics

[140] viXra:1804.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 06:43:20

Gravity According to my New Theory of Everything.

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 1 Page. Link to My New Theory of Everything : http://vixra.org/abs/1804.0100

This article aims to explain gravity theoretically according to my new theory of everything.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[139] viXra:1804.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 07:57:22

Quantum Mechanics & Quantum Signal Processing Framework Based Cryo-EM Image Processing Using Higher Order Logic(HOL)/Haskell/Scala/JikesRVM/IoT Environment - An Innovative & Interesting Approach in the Context of Quantum Computing.

Authors: Nirmal Tej kumar
Comments: 5 Pages. Technical Communication on Quantum Computing & Concepts

“Anyone who is not shocked by quantum theory has not understood it.” - Niels Bohr. As we all know,cryo-EM Image Processing is proving itself as a useful tool.In this context,we came across interesting and inspirational research papers titled - Quantum approach to Image processing by Mohammad Rastegari and Quantum image processing? by Mario Mastriani.In general,this approach could be applied to any Electron Microscopy Domain/s – SEM/TEM/AFM etc...
Category: Quantum Physics

[138] viXra:1804.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 11:05:48

Using Two Quantum Channels

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Physicists have demonstrated that using two quantum channels in different orders can enhance a communication network's ability to transmit information—even, counterintuitively, when the channels are identical. [32] In a new paper, however, physicists Flavio Del Santo at the University of Vienna and Borivoje Dakić at the Austrian Academy of Sciences have shown that, in the quantum world, information can travel in both directions simultaneously—a feature that is forbidden by the laws of classical physics. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[137] viXra:1804.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 11:59:00

Machine Learning for Gravitational Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A trio of students from the University of Glasgow have developed a sophisticated artificial intelligence which could underpin the next phase of gravitational wave astronomy. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[136] viXra:1804.0148 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-23 08:16:30

Coincidence and Non-coincidence Using Optical Circulators

Authors: M. W. Roberts
Comments: 12 Pages.

An optical experiment is described in which pairs of quantum entangled photons are sent into separate optical circulators. Theoretical analysis is used to predict the number of coincident detections between these photons at the output from the circulators. With proper control of non-local, two-photon interference, the photon pairs can be put in perfect coincidence or in perfect non-coincidence, as selected by the experimenter. These results contradict the predictions made using classical probability analysis.
Category: Quantum Physics

[135] viXra:1804.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 12:55:36

Unprecedented Neutrino Measurement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

This week, a group of scientists working on the MiniBooNE experiment at the Department of Energy's Fermilab reported a breakthrough: They were able to identify exactly-known-energy muon neutrinos hitting the atoms at the heart of their particle detector. [19] In a study published in Physical Review Letters, collaborators of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an experiment led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have shown they can shield a sensitive, scalable 44-kilogram germanium detector array from background radioactivity. [18] The study has put the most stringent limits on the probability of a rare event—a neutrinoless double beta decay of tellurium-130 nuclei. This event can only occur if a neutrino can be its own antiparticle. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[134] viXra:1804.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 13:27:20

Superfluid Quasicrystal

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

The term "superfluid quasicrystal" sounds like something a comic-book villain might use to carry out his dastardly plans. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[133] viXra:1804.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 22:47:36

Fractal Prime Universe 5.0

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 11 Pages. (2/3^2 /5^2 * 11 *137.035999172^2) = 1836.15569564

Fibonacci Fractal Prime Universe (2/3^2 /5^2 * 11 *137.035999172^2) = 1836.15569564 (2/3^2 /5^2 * 11 *137^2) = 1835.19111111 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proton-to-electron_mass_ratio https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fine-structure_constant
Category: Quantum Physics

[132] viXra:1804.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 22:59:37

Fibonacci Luminiferous Aether MATRIX

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 1 Page. (2/3^2 /5^2 * 11 *137.035999172^2) = 1836.15569564224205814599

Fibonacci Luminiferous Aether MATRIX (2/3^2 /5^2 * 11 *137.035999172^2) = 1836.15569564224205814599 Fibonacci (2*5)D https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proton-to-electron_mass_ratio https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fine-structure_constant
Category: Quantum Physics

[131] viXra:1804.0143 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-11 10:54:08

Topological Detection of Wideband Anomalies

Authors: Russell Leidich
Comments: 13 Pages.

Successive real-valued measurements of any physical chaotic oscillator can serve as entropy inputs to a random number generator (RNG) with correspondingly many whole numbered outputs of arbitrarily small bias, assuming that no correlation exists between successive such measurements apart from what would be implied by their probability distribution function (AKA the oscillator’s analog “generator”, which is constant over time and thus asymptotically discoverable). Given some historical measurements (a “snapshot”) of such an oscillator, we can then train the RNG to expect inputs distributed uniformally among the real intervals defined by those measurements and spanning the entire real line. Each interval thus implies an index in sorted order, starting with the leftmost which maps to zero; the RNG does nothing more than to perform this mapping. We can then replace that first oscillator with a second one presumed to abide by the same generator. It would then be possible to characterize the accuracy of that presumption by quantifying the ensuing change in quality of the RNG. Randomness quality is most accurately expressed via dyspoissonism, which is a normalized equivalent of the log of the number of ways in which a particular distribution of frequencies (occurrence counts) of masks (whole numbers) can occur. Thus the difference in dyspoissonism between the RNG output sets will serve to estimate the information divergence between theirrespective generators, which in turn constitutes a ranking quantifier for the purpose of anomaly detection.
Category: Statistics

[130] viXra:1804.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 00:18:01

Refutation of Tarski-Grothendieck Set Theory © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The axiom of Tarski-Grothendieck set theory is refuted as contradictory.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[129] viXra:1804.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 01:44:50

The Nature of Gravity

Authors: Michael Singer
Comments: 4 Pages.

Any two masses will experience gravitational attraction between them that draws them together. In an energy-conserving universe as they accelerate towards each other there must be some energy system losing mass/energy to balance the increase in kinetic energy of the two objects. Now it is received wisdom that mass is inviolate and never changes even when falling into a gravitational well, but the increase in kinetic energies of two bodies falling together under gravitational attraction would then violate the Principle of Conservation of Energy, as the only possible source of mass/energy is a reduction in the effective combined mass as two objects come together. Logically, therefore, there must be an effective reduction of mass, as seen from the greater universe, when two objects approach each other and thus increase the local spacetime dilation. The energy balance of the universe requires that dilating space reduces the effective mass as seen from the greater universe outside that dilation. However, once we accept this proposition we have to reconsider Einstein’s concept that if enough mass comes together space would be breached to create a singularity. He envisaged a linear process whereby adding mass upon mass together resulted eventually in too much mass for local space to support, but from the previous sentences we can see that such a linear process violates the Principle of Conservation of Energy. This leads us to consider an alternative solution based of the fact that a local observer sees the same nature of space around him no matter how deep his gravitational well.
Category: Classical Physics

[128] viXra:1804.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 03:45:11

Extended Quantum Mechanic (Earth is Also the Quantum of Electromagnetic Field)

Authors: Mahesh Khati
Comments: 38 Pages.

Quantum mechanics can be applied to big masses also. This will solve many problems of modern physics like dark matter. This is the big problem of physics for so many years. This solves problem of dual nature of quantum like interference by single photon. This theory will start new relativity other than Einstein relativity which balances relativity of small particles & big masses by similar consideration. It is just found that some galaxies do not contain dark matter & some have abundant dark matter. Means, dark matter is real & different than known matter. This theory gives require explanation to this problem.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[127] viXra:1804.0138 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-06 09:26:50

Dark Matter Black Hole Galaxy Hierarchy According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, stable Black Holes are growing by "eating" the gravitating ( Casimir) pressure vacuum without the standard gravity related inertial effects, the result is that 1: Small BHs seem to concentrate around the central giant Galaxy BH . 2: Galaxy cluster mergers like Abell 520 overshoot and leaving behind their own Dark Matter content. Mass is the potency of rigid strings, to produce and radiate Gravitons as a collision product, between mass less ring shaped oscillating Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and Fermions or Bosons also called Dipole Repeller gravity or dipole Emergent Gravity. More extended loops or "arms" of each rigid string particle is supposed to create more Axion transformation into Gravitons or other electromagnetic monopole photons per time unit. Secondly, gravitons are assumed to exert not an attraction force on fermions and bosons but only a reduced pressure force in opposition to the vacuum pressure of the Axion Higgs field.. So, Gravity can be described as the statistical difference between the collision pressure of “new” gravitons opposing the pressure of Axion Higgs field particles all around us. Emergent gravity as proposed by E.Verlinde and Dipole Rrepeller gravity by Yehuda Hoffman, are in line with this assumption.
Category: Astrophysics

[126] viXra:1804.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 06:12:35

Superlight Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30] Now our new study – which hints that extremely light particles called neutrinos are likely to make up some of the dark matter – challenges our current understanding of its composition. [29] A new particle detector design proposed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) could greatly broaden the search for dark matter—which makes up 85 percent of the total mass of the universe yet we don't know what it's made of—into an unexplored realm. [28] University of Houston scientists are helping to develop a technology that could hold the key to unraveling one of the great mysteries of science: what constitutes dark matter? [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23]
Category: Astrophysics

[125] viXra:1804.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 07:22:27

Refutation of Metamath Proof Explorer Axiom ax-Garth for Tarski–Grothendieck Set Theory © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The axiom for Tarski–Grothendieck set theory as rendered in the Metamath proof explorer in axiom ax-garth is refuted as contradictory. This raises serious questions about the logical accuracy and proof puissance of "Metamath".
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[124] viXra:1804.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 08:47:05

Sensitive Search for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30] Now our new study – which hints that extremely light particles called neutrinos are likely to make up some of the dark matter – challenges our current understanding of its composition. [29] A new particle detector design proposed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) could greatly broaden the search for dark matter—which makes up 85 percent of the total mass of the universe yet we don't know what it's made of—into an unexplored realm. [28] University of Houston scientists are helping to develop a technology that could hold the key to unraveling one of the great mysteries of science: what constitutes dark matter? [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[123] viXra:1804.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 09:25:45

Quantum Junction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[122] viXra:1804.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 10:11:06

Polarization Impact on Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[121] viXra:1804.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 11:52:50

Euclid's Geometry is Just in Our Mind, Rather Than Describing the Real World

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James Peters
Comments: 6 Pages.

The first definition (prior to the well-known five postulates) of Euclid describes the point as “that of which there is no part”. Here we show how the Euclidean account of manifolds is untenable in our physical realm and that the concepts of points, lines, surfaces, volumes need to be revisited, in order to allow us to be able to describe the real world. Here we show that the basic object in a physical context is a traversal of spacetime via tiny subregions of spatial regions, rather than the Euclidean point. We also elucidate the psychological issues that lead our mind to think to points and lines as really existing in our surrounding environment.
Category: Geometry

[120] viXra:1804.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 12:53:37

Charge Quantum Interference Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

An international collaboration, including researchers from the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and Royal Holloway, University of London, has successfully demonstrated a quantum coherent effect in a new quantum device made out of continuous superconducting wire – the Charge Quantum Interference Device (CQUID). [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[119] viXra:1804.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 15:36:28

Psychological Program

Authors: Duan xianxiang
Comments: 20 Pages.

By referring to case study, this dissertation is in attempt to lay bare that people’s psychological activities are a set of programs and psychological and mental disease is accrued to procedural operation’s going awry or set-up of erroneous programs. By amending or learning correct use of these psychological programs can we precisely or thoroughly treat psychological and mental diseases. An integrated psychological treatment process contains psychological analysis plus amended psychological programs. A string of psychological reaction initiated in a human body to initiate a specific assignment is called psychological program. Such ‘initiation’ is both ‘conscious’ and ‘unconscious’. Lookout for psychological program hinges on psychological analysis and scientific hypnosis.
Category: Mind Science

[118] viXra:1804.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 02:14:46

The Photoelectric Effect

Authors: Emil Gigov
Comments: 1 Page.

The laws of the photoelectric effect were discovered by Stoletov and Lenard. And not everything is known yet in that area.
Category: Quantum Physics

[117] viXra:1804.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 03:33:03

Length with Quantum Precision

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have created a chip on which laser light interacts with a tiny cloud of atoms to serve as a miniature toolkit for measuring. [18] An international collaboration, including researchers from the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and Royal Holloway, University of London, has successfully demonstrated a quantum coherent effect in a new quantum device made out of continuous superconducting wire – the Charge Quantum Interference Device (CQUID). [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[116] viXra:1804.0126 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-11 11:42:20

Evaluation Reevaluation of Activation Energies on Pb (Ii) Adsorption Over Bael Leaves (Aegle Marmelos) [J. Hazard. Mater., 173 502–509(2010)] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Su-Bom Yun, On-Jong Sim, Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, the Pb (II) adsorption over extracellular polymeric substances [J. Hazard. Mater., 173 502–509(2010)] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated. Keywords: Adsorption, Kinetics, Modeling, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[115] viXra:1804.0125 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-13 04:30:46

Comment on 5-Dimensional Projective Unified Field Theory by Ernst Schmutzer Published in Vixra:1605.0158

Authors: Rainer Collier
Comments: 5 Pages. The publication list has been corrected and supplemented.

This short letter refers to Schmutzer´s 5-dimensional Projective Unified Field Theory as a new general-relativistic covariant unification of gravitation, electromagnetism and scalarism (a new phenomenon of nature) with some remarks to it.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[114] viXra:1804.0124 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-08 07:53:07

Evaluation Reevaluation of Activation Energies on Acid Blue 193 Adsorption Over Natural Sepiolite [colloids and Surface a, 277(2006), 90–97] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: RyongBok Kim, CholSun Han, Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, the Acid Blue 193 adsorption over natural sepiolite by Özcan et al. [Colloids Surface A, 277(2006), 90–97] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated. Keywords: Adsorption, Kinetics, Modeling, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[113] viXra:1804.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-11 06:36:53

Resolving the EPR Paradox and Bell's Theorem

Authors: Robert H. McEachern
Comments: 2 Pages.

The EPR Paradox and the quantum correlations described by Bell's Inequality theorem, are explained as arising from the behavior of entities that manifest only a single bit of information, such as noisy, band-limited, polarized coins.
Category: Quantum Physics

[112] viXra:1804.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 15:14:44

Fractal Prime Universe V 3.0

Authors: David E Fuller
Comments: 9 Pages. It is Accurate

The Universe is a Fractal Net of Primes (planck length)/((2.99792458e-36 m)) / phi^(7/2) = 1.00051886735 Planck Length = 1.6153902e-35
Category: Quantum Physics

[111] viXra:1804.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-07 02:44:20

E8 Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 441 Pages.

This paper describes a research program based on the 240 E8 Root Vectors encoding the basic structure of a Unified Theory of Fundamental Physics by forming a local classical Lagrangian for the Standard Model plus Gravity and Dark Energy. The Root Vectors know where they belong in the Lagrangian because of their place in the geometric structure of E8 and its related symmetric spaces such as: E8 / D8 = 128-dim (OxO)P2; E8 / E7 x SU(2) = 112-dim set of (QxO)P2 in (OxO)P2; D8 / D4 x D4 = 64-dim Gr(8,16). Embedding E8 local classical Lagrangian into Cl(0,16) Clifford Algebra and taking the completion of the union of all tensor products of all the Cl(0,16)s produces a generalization of hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor fermionic Fock space forming a global AQFT describing spacetime, the Standard Model, and Gravity with Dark Energy. The structure is related to unconventional 26D String Theory by Cl(0,16) -> Cl(0,16)xCl(0,8) = Cl(0,24) -> M(2,Cl(0,24)) = Cl(1,25). Completion of Union of All Tensor Products of Cl(1,25) = 2x2 matrices of Cl(0,24) is the String Theory formulation of the hyperfinite AQFT. The Cl(1,25) of 26D String Theory contains Cl(0,16) which contains E8 whose root vectors describe a Lagrangian for the Standard Model and Gravity + Dark Energy. The paper describes physical interpretations of the 240 Root Vectors and how they are used in calculating force strengths, particle masses, Kobayashi-Maskawa parameters, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratios, etc. that can be compared with Experimental Observations which are given up to and including the 2016 run of the LHC in the Higgs -> ZZ -> 4l channel which is relevant to the E8 Physics prediction of 3 Mass States of the Higgs and Truth Quark. Version 3 (v3) corrects particle identification of E8 Root Vectors in a diagram. Version 4 (v4) adds material about LHCP Bologna 2018.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[110] viXra:1804.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 18:28:37

Fractal Prime Universe V 4.0

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 11 Pages. It is Accurate

The Universe is a Fractal Prime Number Matrix
Category: Quantum Physics

[109] viXra:1804.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-07 07:20:10

Switchable 2-D Ferromagnet

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

University of Groningen physicists have induced magnetism in platinum with an electric field created by a paramagnetic ionic liquid. As only the surface of the platinum is affected, this creates a switchable 2-D ferromagnet. [40] Cornell researchers have become the first to control atomically thin magnets with an electric field, a breakthrough that provides a blueprint for producing exceptionally powerful and efficient data storage in computer chips, among other applications. [39] This "piezomagnetic" material changes its magnetic properties when put under mechanical strain. [38] Researchers have developed a new flexible sensor with high sensitivity that is designed to perform variety of chemical and biological analyses in very small spaces. [37] In a new paper published today in Science Advances, researchers under the direction of Columbia Engineering Professors Michal Lipson and Alexander Gaeta (Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics) have miniaturized dual-frequency combs by putting two frequency comb generators on a single millimeter-sized chip. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Condensed Matter

[108] viXra:1804.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-07 07:51:44

Different Spin on Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[107] viXra:1804.0116 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-10 15:01:33

Wave-Particle Duality Paradox is Solved Using Mutual Energy and Self-Energy Principles for Electromagnetic Field and Photon

Authors: Shuang-Ren Zhao
Comments: 107 Pages.

The particle and wave duality is solved through the self-energy and the mutual energy principles. Welch has introduced the time-domain reciprocity theorem in 1960. This author have introduced the mutual energy theorem in 1987. It has been proved that the above two theorems are same theorem in time-domain or in Fourier domain. This author believe there is an energy flow from transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna. Hence this theorem is a energy theorem instead of a mathematical theorem i.e. the reciprocity theorem. This author found that the mutual energy is the additional energy when the two waves are superposed comparing to the situation when the two waves alone stayed in the space. It is often asked that if the two waves are identical what is the energy after the two waves are superposed, 4 or 2 times? this author's answer are 2 or 4 depending whether the sources of the waves are involved or not. However this author noticed that a more important situation, which is the superposition of two waves: one is retarded wave sent from the emitter, another is the advanced wave sent from the absorber. This situation actually described the photon. This author have found that, instead there are two photons the retarded photon and the advanced photon like some author believed, there is only one photon. The reason is that the two waves the retarded wave and the advanced wave they both bring one photon energy, which are sent to the space, but these energy are returned with the time-reversed waves. The additional energy because of the superpose process of the two waves is just with 1 photon's energy instead of 2 photon's energy. This energy is sent from the emitter to the absorber. These build this author's photon model. This photon model is proved by this author through the notice of the conflict between the energy conservation and both the superposition principle and the Maxwell equations for single charge. This conflict force this author introduced the mutual energy principle and the self-energy principle. Self-energy principle tell us the self-energy (the wave's energy before superposed) time-reversal return to its source and hence do not transfer any energy from emitter to the absorber. The mutual energy principle tell us that transferring the energy from the emitter to the absorber is only done by the mutual energy flow. This author also proved that the mutual energy flow theorem, which says that the energy transferred by mutual energy flow is equal in any surface between the emitter to the absorber. The wave function collapse process is explained by the two processes together the first is the self-energy time-reversal return to their sources (instead of the targets), the second is that the mutual energy flow brings a photon's energy package from emitter to the absorber. The wave's probability property is also explained that because only when a retarded wave synchronized with an advanced wave the energy can be transferred. The photon energy is transferred only when the retarded wave (one of solution of Maxwell equations) and the advanced wave (another solution of the Maxwell equations) are synchronized, otherwise the two waves are returned by two time-reversal waves. Time-reversal wave are not satisfy Maxwell equations but satisfy the time-reversal Maxwell equations. Hence, 4 time-reversal Maxwell equations which describe the two additional time-reversal waves are added to Maxwell equations. Hence, the photon's package wave is consist of 4 waves which are corresponding to 4 self-energy flows. There are two additional energy flows, which are the mutual energy flows that is responsible for transferring the energy from emitter to the absorber. The time-reversal mutual energy flow which is responsible to bring the energy back from the absorber to the emitter if the absorber only obtained a half photon or a part of photon.
Category: Quantum Physics

[106] viXra:1804.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-07 10:20:52

Does wu Kun’s Philosophy of Information Define What is Information?

Authors: Emanuel Diamant
Comments: 2 Pages.

The need for a generally accepted definition of “what is information” is self-evident and acute. However, Kun’s definition of information as a philosophical category indicating indirect being is unable to satisfy this need, especially when it comes to an everyday usage of the term. That forced me to seek for a more suitable definition of information. Despite the differences, Kun and I agree that we witness today a paradigm shift from data-based computational way of thinking to information-based cognitive way of thinking (Kun calls that “informalization of science”). Below is provided a short comment on the issue.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[105] viXra:1804.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-07 10:24:50

Rethinking BICA’s R&D Challenges: Grief Revelations of an Upset Revisionist

Authors: Emanuel Diamant
Comments: 6 Pages.

Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures (BICA) is a subfield of Artificial Intelligence aimed at creating machines that emulate human cognitive abilities. What distinguish BICA from other AI approaches is that it based on principles drawn from biology and neuroscience. There is a widespread conviction that nature has a solution for almost all problems we are faced with today. We have only to pick up the solution and replicate it in our design. However, Nature does not easily give up her secrets. Especially, when it is about human brain deciphering. For that reason, large Brain Research Initiatives have been launched around the world. They will provide us with knowledge about brain workflow activity in neuron assemblies and their interconnections. But what is being “flown” (conveyed) via the interconnections the research programme does not disclose. It is implied that what flows in the interconnections is information. But what is information? – that remains undefined. Having in mind BICA’s interest in the matters, the paper will try to clarify the issues.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[104] viXra:1804.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-07 10:28:34

Artificial Neural Networks: a Bio-Inspired Revolution or a Long Lasting Misconception and Self-Delusion

Authors: Emanuel Diamant
Comments: 7 Pages. Rejected by the IJCNN 2018, Rio de Janeiro, July 08-13, 2018.

Ali Rahimi, best paper award recipient at NIPS 2017, labelled the current state of Deep Learning (DL) headway as “alchemy”. Yann LeCun, one of the prominent figures in the DL R&D, was insulted by this expression. However, in his response, LeCun did not claimed that DL designers know how and why their DL systems reach so surprising performances. The possible reason for this cautiousness is: No one knows how and in which way system input data is transformed into semantic information at the system’s output. And this, certainly, has its own reason: No one knows what information is! I dare to offer my humble clarification about this obscure and usually untouchable matter. I hope someone would be ready to line up with me.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[103] viXra:1804.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-07 11:12:53

Recurrent Capsule Network for Image Generation

Authors: Srikumar Sastry
Comments: 9 Pages.

We have already seen state-of-the-art image generation techniques with Generative Adversarial Networks (Goodfellow et al. 2014), Variational Autoencoder and Recurrent Network for Image generation (K. Gregor et al. 2015). But all these architectures fail to learn object location and pose in images. In this paper, I propose Recurrent Capsule Network based on variational auto encoding framework which can not only preserve equivariance in images in the latent space but also can be used for image classification and generation. For image classification, it can recognise highly overlapping objects due to the use of capsules (Hinton et al. 2011), considerably better than convolutional networks. It can generate images which can be difficult to differentiate from the real data.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[102] viXra:1804.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-07 14:28:19

Fractal Prime Universe

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 5 Pages. It is Acurate

The Universe is a Fractal Prime Matrix
Category: Quantum Physics

[101] viXra:1804.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-07 14:56:09

Fractal Prime Universe V 2.0

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 6 Pages. It is Accurate

The Universe is a Fractal Net Constructed of Primes
Category: Quantum Physics

[100] viXra:1804.0109 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-14 23:33:55

General Relativity: Effects in Time as Causation

Authors: Capt. Joseph H. Forrington
Comments: 21 Pages.

A proof of the gravitational dynamics developed here-in is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”, and a proof of the nature of the evolving continuum is IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. As Einstein’s Tensor is solely based on the time elements he calls his “energy components”, only the effects in time are considered in this paper. Though it is noted that although the stress-energy tensor is not considered here, it is also scaled by the time elements, T^00. All space evolves forward with time. This is the evolving spacetime (quantum) continuum. The evolution of time is the primary, irresistible, force in the universe, as all space, and the densities embedded within, must evolve forward with the passage of time. This is the Fundamental Direction and Rate of Evolution, herein represented by Einstein’s Fundamental Metric, which is the basis of the tensors describing a null gravitational field. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle allows for random fluctuations in time and when dilation gradients are introduced, we also see an evolution of events down gradient, a Gravitational Direction and Rate of Evolution. Although relativistic, it is an irresistible force in time just like the fundamental direction of evolution. This is why gravity only has one direction and why it overpowers all the other forces, even though it seems so weak. So even though GR is based on the Equivalence Principle, the constancy of c and Lorentz contractions, the apparent effects of the time elements also appear to manifest as a virtual flow in the forward direction of time down gravitational fields (dilation gradients) from areas of faster time. Dilation creates a density at the faster end due to contraction to maintain c and there is an increase in energy and pressure due to an increase in frequency. As the motion and densities appear when a dilation gradient is introduced, we see the creation of energy. Gravity then magnifies that energy by evolving the density down gradient into slower areas of time, giving the photons a greater relative frequency, energy and, therefore, mass. The GDE can only manifest orthogonal to the FDE as there is no space ahead of or behind the evolving continuum for the dilation gradient to appear in. The resultant of these two directions of evolution results in the curvature in evolution as per GR as the spacetime (here-in also quantum) continuum evolves forward. We have 2 event horizons we appear to evolve between where time appears to stop and we find a transition from timelike to spacelike. We apparently evolve toward the event horizon of the galactic black hole and away from the outer horizon. The passage of time has an acceleration aspect of ~2.2686*10^-18 s/s that manifests the Hubble shift through time dilation in older frames. This manifests the same 1 s/s difference we find at the event horizon of a black hole at ~13.9 Gly looking outwards. This acceleration eliminates singularities and infinite expansions when added to the time elements of Einstein’s field equations. This is why we do not see black holes as singularities. They are just ever-deepening spiral vortices. Therefore, each galaxy can be considered a branching of the evolution of the universe. In both directions, past and future, there is a limit of relativity when the difference in the rate of time is 1 s/s because time appears to stop and no events are visible. Both of these event horizons retreat when approached and the dilation gradient shifts, so if the 1 s/s limit is considered the edge of the universe, black holes are gateways to other universes without end. Galactic rotation velocities are explained through a proper application of General Relativity within the continuum, rather than space. The origin of spacetime is explained.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[99] viXra:1804.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 01:34:04

Derivation of Forces from Matter Wave

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this work we discuss the possibility that if matter wave is composed of two different physical fields, as in the case of the electromagnetic field which is composed of the electric field and a magnetic field, then it is possible to suggest that matter wave also produces forces, like the electric force and the magnetic force produced by the electromagnetic field. Furthermore, since the forms of forces that can be derived from matter wave has a Yukawa form and Coulomb form, it may be suggested that forces produced from matter wave are in fact related to the strong force and the electroweak force, respectively.
Category: Quantum Physics

[98] viXra:1804.0107 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-11 03:12:21

Evaluation Reevaluation of Activation Energies on Anionic Azo Dye Congo Red Adsorption Over Cationic Modified Orange Peel Powder [J. Mol. Liq. 220 (2016) 540–548] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, the anionic azo dye Congo Red adsorption over Cationic Modified Orange Peel Powder by Parashar et al. [J. Mol. Liq. 220 (2016) 540–548] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated.
Category: Chemistry

[97] viXra:1804.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 02:34:52

Evaluation Reevaluation of Activation Energies on Biosorption of Pb (Ii) by Extracellular Polymeric Substances [scientific Reports | 6:31575] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, the biosorption of Pb (II) over extracellular polymeric substances published by Wei et al. [Scientific RepoRts | 6:31575] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated. Keywords: Adsorption, Kinetics, Modeling, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[96] viXra:1804.0105 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-21 22:46:12

Uniform Unified System of Dimensions Physical Quantities

Authors: Mikhail L. Sokolnikov
Comments: 2 Pages. https://youtu.be/rUI7Dmu62Uo

Logical continuation of the work of the Soviet aircraft designer, the Italian Earl of Croatian origin Roberto Oros di Bartini. Логическое продолжение работы советского авиаконструктора, итальянского графа хорватского происхождения Roberto Oros di Bartini. Time = x^4
Category: Mathematical Physics

[95] viXra:1804.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 03:03:12

Modeling Platform

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

All physical theories that treat dynamic geometrical problems require a modeling platform that combines Hilbert space operator technology with function theory and differential and integral calculus.
Category: Quantum Physics

[94] viXra:1804.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 03:12:47

Quantum Light and Quantum Gravity

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 21 Pages.

Combining the wave-particle duality of quantum mechanics with E=mc2 leads to the conclusion that the "speed of light" is nothing more than a convenient term to use (a convenience which this author also often adopts). There is actually no such thing – consequently, neither can there ever be a Variable Speed of Light. Special Relativity says the speed of light – all electromagnetic and gravitational waves "move" at this velocity – is the greatest speed in the universe. Combining quantum mechanics with general relativity – Einstein's theory of gravity - will result in a theory called quantum gravity. What is a theory integrating quantum mechanics with special relativity to be called? Perhaps quantum light … Even when a successful quantum-light theory is developed, it will only be a step towards understanding reality. Special relativity, general relativity and quantum mechanics each represent a step towards comprehension of the universe. Quantum light will be another step, joining special relativity to the bizarre world of quantum mechanics via mathematics' E=mc2. And quantum gravity will be yet another, possibly uniting general relativity with quantum mechanics via other branches of mathematics – proposed by this article to be those of the electronic binary digits (base-2 maths) and the topology of the Mobius strip and figure-8 Klein bottle (with attention paid to the simply- and multiply-connected issues). It will be shown that the quantum theories of light and gravity have dramatic implications for the concepts of dark energy, dark matter and universal expansion. When the quantum theories become parts of life, unification of physics may be an accomplished fact. More likely, the quantum theories will continue to be refined for centuries.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[93] viXra:1804.0102 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-23 02:00:17

Приглашение на Жизнь (Invitation to Life)

Authors: Emanuel Gluskin
Comments: 105 Pages. Respectable critique of V.V. Nabokov

Памяти покойного Йоси Баная – Выдающегося Израильского Барда, Сатирика, и Воспитателя … всех. Он как-то сказал об одном молодом эстрадном 'герое': "Всё воет и воет – сколько можно?! Вопрос в том – есть ли ему что сказать?" Действительно -- ЧТО есть ему сказать, и на каком коне ему скакать?! Изрядно сказано – пускай его потужит, пускай перу пророков он послужит …. . Но КТО его родная мать?
Category: Mind Science

[92] viXra:1804.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 06:30:16

Proof of the Hypothesis of Large Dirac Numbers or How to Weigh the Universe.

Authors: Yury Rabyshko
Comments: 29 Pages.

The article gives a brief exposition of the solution of cosmological problems. The problem of stability and shortage of mass in galaxies, huge velocities of galactic clusters is solved. The law of formation of fundamental constants, the law of nonlinear expansion of the Universe, the law of gravitational interaction is found. Proof of the hypothesis of large Dirac numbers. The original in Russian. The English version will be published in the near future.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[91] viXra:1804.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 06:26:54

The Theory of Everything-What Kind of Resistance Inertia of an Object Is?

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 3 Pages.

This article aims to clarify briefly and explain what kind of resistance inertia is and approaching a theory of everything as well.
Category: Classical Physics

[90] viXra:1804.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 11:39:51

The Diameter Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Piggybacking on the principle of spherical celestial objects according to stellar metamorphosis a new principle is presented to make predictions of not yet discovered stars. The changing diameters of stars is continuous. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[89] viXra:1804.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 12:12:33

The Energy of the Wave Vortices (Loks) J=3.

Authors: Alexander I.Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 10 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

Development of the mathematical model of the elastic universe. The energy of the loks (3.0), (3.1), (3.2), and (3.3) is calculated. Assumptions are made regarding other loks. The first conclusions on the identification of elementary particles in a set of loks.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[88] viXra:1804.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 12:20:45

Deterministic Evolution – the Role of Cosmological Parameters in the Evolution of Life

Authors: Jose P. Koshy
Comments: 9 Pages. Introduces a 'new concept' in biology, 'Deterministic Evolution', which is based on cosmology.

Natural selection cannot logically explain the direction of evolution of life – emerging from non-living things and evolving from simple to complex – unless nature also evolves suitably. The LCDM model provides only an approximate co-relation between 'evolution of nature' (expansion of universe) and 'evolution of life'. Based on an alternate model, I propose 'deterministic evolution', expansion guiding the evolution in a predetermined way. This resolves the only serious drawback of theory of evolution, 'complexity emerging on its own '.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[87] viXra:1804.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 13:46:55

GW170608: Structure of the Noise Fluctuations

Authors: Walter Orlov
Comments: 3 Pages.

The evaluation of the event GW170608 must be made new. During the “routine instrumental procedure” in Hanford the damping of the pendulum of the mirrors was obviously reduced. As a result, the GW signal became artificially longer.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[86] viXra:1804.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 04:33:26

Automated Classification of Hand-Grip Action on Objects Using Machine Learning

Authors: Anju Mishra, Amity University Uttar Pradesh SHANU SHARMA, Amity University Uttar Pradesh SANJAY KUMAR, Oxford Brooks University PRIYA RANJAN, Amity University Uttar Pradesh AMIT UJLAYAN, Gautam Buddha University
Comments: 10 Pages. This is a preprint of a paper under possible publication consideration.

Brain computer interface is the current area of research to provide assistance to disabled persons. To cope up with the growing needs of BCI applications, this paper presents an automated classification scheme for handgrip actions on objects by using Electroencephalography (EEG) data. The presented approach focuses on investigation of classifying correct and incorrect handgrip responses for objects by using EEG recorded patterns. The method starts with preprocessing of data, followed by extraction of relevant features from the epoch data in the form of discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and entropy measures. After computing feature vectors, artificial neural network classifiers used to classify the patterns into correct and incorrect handgrips on different objects. The proposed method was tested on real dataset, which contains EEG recordings from 14 persons. The results showed that the proposed approach is effective and may be useful to develop a variety of BCI based devices to control hand movements. KEYWORDS EEG, Brain computer interface, Machine learning, Hand action recognition
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[85] viXra:1804.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 07:41:06

None Complex Numbers

Authors: Said Amharech
Comments: 5 Pages. the work is written in french

This work is dealing with something that we’re not sure it exists, but it’s just an attempt to solve some problems in algebra, it gives a general idea about the complexe numbers we got from the great mathematicians of all times, I believe that these complexe numbers we notice in algebra, calculus or even quantum physics are not enough, in general, i think there is another infinite dimension of numbers, and real or complexe numbers are just a simple projection of the complexity of that world. As a method of work instead of adding a function of rotation pi over two as we did with the real line to expand the complexe plan, i’ve thought to make a function of translation… But the importance in here is that the function we need is not a linear function to solve some kind of problems like for example dividing over zero, and as you may notice if the function isn’t linear so that the neutral element of the complexe plan for the additive law which it the trivial zero we know is completely different of the neutral element of the new mother group. at the end we can find some roots easily of riemann’s zeta function but it is not a complexe roots.
Category: Algebra

[84] viXra:1804.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 09:09:31

QR Decomposition Algorithms & Complex Networks Based Cryo-em Image Processing/data Bases/data Mining in the Context of Higher Order Logic (Hol),scala,image J,basex & Jikes RVM

Authors: Nirmal Tej kumar
Comments: 3 Pages. QR-HOL-Scala-Java-Image J-BaseX -> Image Processing & Bioinformatics Framework.

As the TITLE is self explanatory,we are not going into the details.cryo-EM Image Processing and Informatics is one of the BEST tools to probe the frontiers of Nano-Bio Systems.Hence a simple & small attempt from us to process cryo-EM Images in the context of HOL.Written and presented in free style,we do not follow any specific format in preparing this short communication.Just highlighting the main idea.To understand our main idea,readers are requested to kindly go through the references and block diagram/s presented in this communication.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[83] viXra:1804.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 09:44:21

Photonic Computer Chip

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

With novel optoelectronic chips and a new partnership with a top silicon-chip manufacturer, MIT spinout Ayar Labs aims to increase speed and reduce energy consumption in computing, starting with data centers. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[82] viXra:1804.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 10:15:26

Dark Matter in the Smallest Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[81] viXra:1804.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 13:20:09

Is Potential Energy Equation for a Mass at Infinity Correct?

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 1 Page.

Correct calculation for potential energy for masses at infinity.
Category: Classical Physics

[80] viXra:1804.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 19:09:42

On a Quantum Theory of Relativity: Re-Defining the Fourth Spatial Dimension to Solve the Theory of Everything

Authors: Andrew Cox
Comments: 14 Pages.

If space is quantized on a compactified fourth spatial dimension as outlined in Kaluza-Klein theory -- with the extreme curvature of the fourth spatial dimension causing the 'effect' of gravity -- but we experience three-dimensional (inverse-square) gravity, then the fourth spatial dimension must operate as (4-3=) one stand-alone spatial dimension . In one spatial dimension, quantum gravity is the same (effectively 100%) whether two objects are together or apart. This quantum theory of relativity can then be projected to fully explain black hole mechanics, which solves dark matter, which predicts dark energy, which explains the big bang in a cyclic universe -- which completes the "theory of everything."
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[79] viXra:1804.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 21:37:22

The Structure of the String in Mathematical Principle of Nature Philosophy

Authors: D.h
Comments: 48 Pages.

If string theory unifies quantum mechanics and general relativity, the applicable objects of string theory should include microscopic particles and the macrocosm. The greater time span of the universe phenomenon, the more probability that phenomenon contains geometrical symbol that can show the string structure. By certain geometrical change rules of the space in nature philosophical theory, the article arise the solution to observe the string. In the article it build the structure mold in 2-D expression by projected high dimensions (three and above dimension). Compare the mold there is an obvious structure of B-mold polarization transfer and rotation in Cosmos Microwave Background radiation. It proofed the existence reality of the string in space geometry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[78] viXra:1804.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 10:50:45

Neutrinos as Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Now our new study – which hints that extremely light particles called neutrinos are likely to make up some of the dark matter – challenges our current understanding of its composition. [29] A new particle detector design proposed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) could greatly broaden the search for dark matter—which makes up 85 percent of the total mass of the universe yet we don't know what it's made of—into an unexplored realm. [28] University of Houston scientists are helping to develop a technology that could hold the key to unraveling one of the great mysteries of science: what constitutes dark matter? [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[77] viXra:1804.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 12:33:41

Corrigendum Apendix

Authors: Prado, Pf
Comments: 1 Page.

Corrigendum apendix
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[76] viXra:1804.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 12:49:20

Twisting Laser Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

A new method to sensitively measure the structure of molecules has been demonstrated by twisting laser light and aiming it at miniscule gold gratings to separate out wavelengths. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[75] viXra:1804.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 13:27:36

Do Accelerating Charged Particles Really Radiate?

Authors: Michael Singer
Comments: 7 Pages.

In a particle accelerator charged particles radiate when they pass through beam-bending magnets that give them a centripetal acceleration. This is commonly put down to acceleration-induced radiation, but the fact that there are several different detailed theories to explain this phenomenon suggests that it is not well understood. In addition electrons orbiting a nucleus also have centripetal acceleration and do not radiate, so we have the problem that accelerating electrons radiate only sometimes. This suggests that it is not the acceleration per se that creates the radiation but some other factor that exists only in the beam-bending scenario. This paper goes further, and shows that the general concept of acceleration-induced radiation is a violation of the Principle of Conservation of Energy, so that in an energy-conserving universe another cause must be found for the radiation from accelerating charged particles where it occurs.
Category: Classical Physics

[74] viXra:1804.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 13:36:04

Sleeping Stem Cells Brain Repair

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25]
Category: Mind Science

[73] viXra:1804.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 14:23:48

On the Origin of Asteroid (2867) Steins.

Authors: A. Soumbatov Gur
Comments: 15 Pages.

The enigmatic appearance of asteroid Steins is proved to be the result of its formation inside parent body’s crust and throwing out of it. Steins’ diamond-like cone shape, rotational axis, fractures, chains of craters, evolution trends, etc. are consistently explained from the point of view of explosive ejective orogenesis. The implications for asteroids and satellites are discussed.
Category: Astrophysics

[72] viXra:1804.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 15:13:40

The Particle Model for the Higgs’ Condensate and the Anomalous Geometric Diffraction

Authors: Jiri Soucek
Comments: 55 Pages. ISBN 978-3-330-03118-0

In the Standard model of elementary particles there is no concrete particle model for the Higgs’ condensate (of bare Higgs’ particles). The main goal of this study is to create and study the possible particle model for the Higgs’ condensate. We create this model as a set of non-local tachyons. Non-local tachyons are a new type of objects proposed in our previous papers which have a 3-dimensional space-like surface as a trajectory. As a consequence of this model we obtain the existence of a time constant τ0 > 0 which is a parameter of our model. We show that then there exists a geometrical part of a diffraction in the time-like two-slit experiment which makes quantum mechanics invalid at short distances. Then we introduce the dark energy hypothesis which enable us to estimate τ0 . As a main result we give the concrete experimental proposal which can be tested. Also the relation to the basic cosmological model is mentioned. At the end we discuss the generalized model for the Higgs’ condensate in which it is possible to acquire some information from the outside of the light cone and possibly also some correlations from the outside of the light cone.
Category: Quantum Physics

[71] viXra:1804.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 21:48:59

Second Edition: Final Results on P vs NP Via Integer Factorization and Optimization

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky
Comments: 17 Pages.

We reduce integer factorization problem to the equivalent problem of minimizing a quadratic polynomial with integer coefficients over the integer points in a quadratically constrained two-dimensional region. Next, we reduce integer factorization problem to the problem of enumeration of vertices of integer hull of a special two-dimensional rational polyhedron, solvable in time polynomial by Hartmann's algorithm. Finally, as we show that there exists an NP-hard minimization problem, equivalent to the original minimization problem, we conclude that P = NP.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[70] viXra:1804.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 01:19:10

Determination of the Fatty Acids of Hibiscus Manihot Seed Oil by GC-MS

Authors: Ri Hyon Il, Yang Zheng Hyok, Son Kwen Il, Ri Chel Jin
Comments: 8 Pages. analysis

The oil was extracted from Hibiscus manihot seed using Soxhlet extraction method, petroleum ethersoak method..The fatty acid compositions of seed oil were analyzed by GC/MS and Gas Chromatographic conditionwas optimized. The results showed that the content of linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitoleic acid were 58.36 %, 1.66 % and21.95 % respectively and unsaturated fatty acids were 75.56 %.
Category: Biochemistry

[69] viXra:1804.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 07:28:11

Biomedical Applications for Deep Learning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Bioinformatics professors Anthony Gitter and Casey Greene set out in summer 2016 to write a paper about biomedical applications for deep learning, a hot new artificial intelligence field striving to mimic the neural networks of the human brain. [20] A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses—so-called retrosyntheses—with unprecedented efficiency. [19] Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18] Now researchers at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[68] viXra:1804.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 08:06:18

Gare Aux Arnaques

Authors: Christophe Chalons
Comments: 8 Pages.

Papier décrivant des procédés usant abusivement du mot science et qui met en garde
Category: General Mathematics

[67] viXra:1804.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 09:59:52

Particle in a Quantum $\delta$-Function Potential

Authors: Hristu Culetu
Comments: 8 Pages. I would like to have a minimal copyright license, if free.

A quantum potential $V(x,t)$ of $\delta$-function type is introduced, to describe the inertial motion of a particle. Quantum-mechanically, it is in a bound state, though classically one seems to be free. The motion of the object (micro- or macroscopic) takes place according to the Huygens-Fresnel principle. The new position of the object (wave front) plays the role of the secondary sources that maintain the propagation. The mean value of the potential energy is $-mc^{2}$. We found that the de Broglie - Bohm quantum potential is the difference between the bound energy $E = - mc^{2}/2$ from the stationary case and our potential $V(x,t)$.
Category: Quantum Physics

[66] viXra:1804.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 10:52:25

Particle Accelerator for Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

DESY scientists have created a miniature particle accelerator for electrons that can perform four different functions at the push of a button. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[65] viXra:1804.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 11:43:12

Genes Shape Behavior

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

While in graduate school at The Rockefeller University, Dr. Bendesky hypothesized that this marked behavioral difference would show up in the animals' DNA. [31] In previous studies, Camarillo's lab had outfitted 31 college football players with special mouthguards that recorded how players' heads moved after an impact, including a few cases in which players suffered concussions. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24] What is the relationship of consciousness to the neurological activity of the brain? Does the brain behave differently when a person is fully conscious, when they are asleep, or when they are undergoing an epileptic seizure? [23] Consciousness appears to arise naturally as a result of a brain maximizing its information content. So says a group of scientists in Canada and France, which has studied how the electrical activity in people's brains varies according to individuals' conscious states. The researchers find that normal waking states are associated with maximum values of what they call a brain's "entropy". [22] New research published in the New Journal of Physics tries to decompose the structural layers of the cortical network to different hierarchies enabling to identify the network's nucleus, from which our consciousness could emerge. [21]
Category: Mind Science

[64] viXra:1804.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 14:14:20

Corrigendum

Authors: Prado, PF et al
Comments: 1 Page.

Corrigendum
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[63] viXra:1804.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-03 10:54:04

An Algebraic Invariant of Gravity

Authors: Hans Detlef Hüttenbach
Comments: 4 Pages.

Newton's mechanics is simple. His equivalence principle is simple, as is the inverse square law of gravitational force. A simple theory should have simple solutions to simple models. A system of n particles, given their initial speed and positions along with their masses, is such a simple model. Yet, solving for n>2 is not simple. This paper discusses, why that is a difficult problem and what could be done to get around that problem.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[62] viXra:1804.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 15:38:26

Particular Solutions for Boolean Algebra Systems

Authors: Franco Sabino Stoianoff Lindstron
Comments: 22 Pages.

Any system of 'big' Boolean equations can be reduced to a single Boolean equation {í µí±”(í µí²) = 1}. We propose a novel method for producing a general parametric solution for such a Boolean equation without attempting to minimize the number of parameters used, but instead using independent parameters belonging to the two-valued Boolean algebra B2 for each asserted atom that appears in the discriminants of the function í µí±”(í µí²). We sacrifice minimality of parameters and algebraic expressions for ease, compactness and efficiency in listing all particular solutions. These solutions are given by additive formulas expressing a weighted sum of the asserted atoms of í µí±”(í µí²), with the weight of every atom (called its contribution) having a number of alternative possible values equal to the number of appearances of the atom in the discriminants of í µí±”(í µí²). This allows listing a huge number of particular solutions within a very small space and the possibility of constructing solutions of desirable features. The new method is demonstrated via three examples over the 'big' Boolean algebras, í µí°µ 4 , í µí°µ 16 , and í µí°µ 256 , respectively. The examples demonstrate a variety of pertinent issues such as complementation, algebra collapse, incremental solution, and handling of equations separately or jointly.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[61] viXra:1804.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 15:53:11

Solution to the Troesch Problem for Boundary Equations.

Authors: Franco Sabino Stoianoff Lindstron
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper shows, for the first time, that the explicit and exact solution to the Troesch nonlinear twopoint boundary value problem may be computed in a direct and straightforward fashion from the general solution obtained by a generalized Sundman transformation for the related differential equation, which appeared to be a special case of a more general equation. As a result, various initial and boundary value problems may be solved explicitly and exactly.
Category: General Mathematics

[60] viXra:1804.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 17:38:45

A New 'more Natural' Toe Model with Covariant Emergent Gravity as a Solution to the Dark Sector

Authors: J Gregory Moxness
Comments: 5 Pages.

Arguments have been raised against several of the central ideas in theoretical physics, such as M-Theory's (MT's) inability to provide for the falsification necessary to avoid relegating it to the scientific dustbin of an anthropic principle based rationalization, such as the Multiverse. Along similar lines, ideas of a uniquely falsifiable inflation era after the Big Bang (BB) have also lost some of their traction. Recent major experimental results too have sent shock waves, such as the confirmation of the low Higgs mass constraining notions of super symmetry, and the Planck satellite's detail mapping of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) fixing the Hubble parameter at odds with other more traditional methods. Even the null results of major experimental apparatus are causing consternation, as in the search for particle based Dark Matter (DM). Thankfully, all this seems to be opening the door for a more serious investigation into alternative theories that attempt to answer the big questions related to the causal relationships between the Standard Model (SM), General Relativity (GR), and 95\% of the known Universe, namely cosmology's dark sector (Dark Energy (DE) and DM). This paper attempts to connect the dots between some of these alternative ideas as they relate to MOdified Newtonian Gravity (MOND), covariant emergent gravity (CEG), and the fundamental parameters used to fix Natural or Planck units-of-measure. The result is intended to point the way toward a fresh discussion in the directions available for unification of GR with SM while resolving the now more open problems in theoretical physics today.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[59] viXra:1804.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 23:04:43

Microcanonical Ensembles of 32x32 Spins in Ising Model.

Authors: Franco Sabino Stoianoff Lindstron
Comments: 1 Page.

It is well known that different thermodynamic ensembles do not coincide for finite systems. Likewise, it is well established – but hardly recognized – that these differences may distinguish certain ensembles as more appropriate than others even if one is ultimately interested in the thermodynamic limit of infinite system size. To illustrate this point we present as an example the famous second order phase transition in the two-dimensional Ising model and compare the canonical and microcanonical specific heat for a lattice of 32 × 32 spins.
Category: Condensed Matter

[58] viXra:1804.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 01:00:22

The Free Electron's Magnetic Dipole

Authors: Michael Singer
Comments: 12 Pages.

To quote J. Van Huele and J. Stenson, in their paper “Stern-Gerlach experiments: past, present, and future” (J. Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts & Letters, 2004, 81, 206-212) “Spin is a non-classical duplicity useful for classifying atomic states but not observable with free electrons”. So why is it not observable? Pauli claimed that the interaction of the charged particle with the magnetic field causes an incompressible blurring of the trajectories at least as great as the separation between the spin components. However, free electrons twist and turn in the focussing and directing electromagnetic fields of electron microscopes to give precise focussing to a single dot of less than 22nm.With modern technology Pauli’s claim seems difficult to justify. This paper follows the evidence that spin does not exist in free electrons and considers the consequences that alternative decision. Some further theoretical work is required, but it nevertheless demonstrates that the approach ultimately takes us to a precise value for the neutron’s electric field strength and to the beginnings of an understanding of atomic orbitals and transitions.
Category: Classical Physics

[57] viXra:1804.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 04:11:14

Two-Factor Authentication Vulnerabilities

Authors: Stefan Ćertić
Comments: 14 Pages. Keywords: ​internet, 2FA, data security, attacks, breaches.

Corporative giants of the internet, such as Google, Facebook, Various Banks have being using the two-factor authentication technique to ensure security to its users. Although, this companies don’t make this kind operations by themselves, they hire third part companies to do so, integrating the API products for onwards delivery. Because of this, technique have serious breaches that can be explored by a ill-intentioned company. The third part companies stays between the client and the website being in a privileged place to attack any unsuspecting victim.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[56] viXra:1804.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 05:33:23

2-D van der Waals Magnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

Cornell researchers have become the first to control atomically thin magnets with an electric field, a breakthrough that provides a blueprint for producing exceptionally powerful and efficient data storage in computer chips, among other applications. [39] This "piezomagnetic" material changes its magnetic properties when put under mechanical strain. [38] Researchers have developed a new flexible sensor with high sensitivity that is designed to perform variety of chemical and biological analyses in very small spaces. [37] In a new paper published today in Science Advances, researchers under the direction of Columbia Engineering Professors Michal Lipson and Alexander Gaeta (Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics) have miniaturized dual-frequency combs by putting two frequency comb generators on a single millimeter-sized chip. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Condensed Matter

[55] viXra:1804.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 06:41:24

The Schrodinger Equation is a Statistical Equation

Authors: CuiHaiLong
Comments: 3 Pages.

export the Schrodinger equation from a new idea,Deepening people's understanding of the Schrodinger equation,Promoting people's Knowledge of the quantum world,It makes people no longer confused.
Category: Quantum Physics

[54] viXra:1804.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 06:59:05

Robert Falcon Scott’s Last Journey Towards the South Pole

Authors: Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 2 Pages.

This synopsis provides an account of Scott’s last route in Antarctica. The Figure is based on the diaries of the men who took part in the Southern Party (1911-12).
Category: Education and Didactics

[53] viXra:1804.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 07:09:39

Interactions Within Quantum Batteries

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Recent theoretical studies at Monash University bring us a step closer to realistic quantum batteries. [28] Some physicists are now wondering whether quantum phenomena may revolutionize conventional battery chemistry and lead to the development of an entirely new class of potentially more powerful batteries. [27] Physicists in Italy have designed a " quantum battery " that they say could be built using today's solid-state technology. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[52] viXra:1804.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 07:36:32

Analysis of the Fatty Acid Composition in Grape Seed by GC / MS

Authors: Ri Hyon Il, Kim Tae Mun, Kang Myong Su
Comments: 6 Pages. analytical chemistry

Fatty acids composition in grape seed are analyzed. Soxhlet extraction method toextract the fatty oil in the grape seed oil,with potassium hydroxide methanol solution to methyl esterof fatty acid in fatty oil,and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry instrument is analyzed. The results showthat 6 fatty acids are detected in the mountain grape seed,the major fatty acids are linoleic acid and oleic acid.
Category: Chemistry

[51] viXra:1804.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 08:26:14

Computer Recognize Dynamic Events

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Such are the big questions behind one of the new projects underway at the MIT-IBM Watson AI Laboratory, a collaboration for research on the frontiers of artificial intelligence. [21] The possibility of cognitive nuclear-spin processing came to Fisher in part through studies performed in the 1980s that reported a remarkable lithium isotope dependence on the behavior of mother rats. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[50] viXra:1804.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 09:53:24

Exchange Systems of Buried Ground Source Heat

Authors: Ri Un-Chol, Ri Gum-Chol, Ri Chang-Zhu, Yun Wan-Chol, Kim Bom-Il, Chu Zhong-Chol, Ji Yong-Chol, Pak Myong-Guk
Comments: 3 Pages.

We introduced the calculation method of exchange quantity of ground source heat in the exchange systems of buried ground source heat, and studied the form of heat exchanger and selection of pipe material, the determination of pipe diameter and length and the calculation of borehole distance and numbers. Key words: ground source heat exchange system, heat exchanger
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[49] viXra:1804.0054 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-05 11:30:20

Is Photon Frequency Immutable?

Authors: Richard A Peters
Comments: 19 Pages.

Gravitational redshift is currently believed to be the result of the loss of energy of photons as they emerge from a gravitational field into a field of lesser strength. Conversely, gravitational blueshift is believed to be the result of an increase in energy of photons as they move into a gravitational field from a field of lesser strength. Cosmological redshift is believed to be the result of the loss of energy of photons as they travel cosmological distances through an expanding space. I will argue that gravitational redshift is caused by time dilation of the source of radiation at the gravitational body. The redshift of the photons emitted by the source account in full for the measurement of redshift of those photons in a lesser gravitational field. The obverse works for the measurement of gravitational blueshift. The wavelength of the photons received in a stronger gravitational field is measured to be shorter than the emitted wavelength because of time dilation of the receiver. The measured blueshift is illusory and is a measurement artifact. Neither gravitational redshift nor gravitational blueshift results from changes in photon frequency. The frequency of a photon is not changed as the photon moves within a gravitational field to either a weaker or a stronger field. The inherent frequency of a photon is the frequency at which the photon was emitted. The apparent decrease in frequency of the photon in the cosmological redshift results from the increased wavelength that is, in turn, the result of the expansion of space during the photon’s journey, not the result of a decrease in the inherent frequency of the photon. The effect is akin to the Doppler shift caused by the observer’s recessional velocity from the source of radiation. The conclusion: Photon frequency is immutable.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[48] viXra:1804.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 07:31:57

Quantum Computing Uncertainty

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[47] viXra:1804.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 07:58:59

Crivello di Eratostene Elaborato

Authors: Raffaele Cogoni
Comments: 20 Pages. Testo di n° 20 pagine in lingua Italiana

Nel presente lavoro viene descritto un algoritmo per determinare la successione dei numeri primi, esso si presenta come una rielaborazione del noto Crivello di Eratostene.
Category: Number Theory

[46] viXra:1804.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 08:18:50

Black Hole's Gravitational Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Gravitational waves may be produced in the heart of the galaxy, says a new study led by Ph.D. student Joseph Fernandez at Liverpool John Moores University. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It’s estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[45] viXra:1804.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 09:07:54

Quantum Mechanics Solved with Simplified Orbital Mechanics

Authors: Enos Øye
Comments: 10 Pages.

We show that a simplified force between the electron and the nucleus solves Quantum Mechanics in the simplest way possible. We update and rewrite Bohr's postulates, we show the simple relation between the electric and magnetic force, we show how light is emitted, and find a new term for the fine structure constant which is the simplest term there is. Simplified Orbital Mechanics results in a new atomic model which allow mathematically the observed electron cloud. All calculations can be found in this google spreadsheet: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1jE6hjJNPcY7h98DkkGVEJiO9x3LK-_ZK6553cd2b_M8/edit#gid=498321884
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[44] viXra:1804.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 09:54:38

Quantum Level to Car Battery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Algorithms and Scientific Computing SCAI in Sankt Augustin are now significantly shortening this time-consuming and cost-intensive process with their "Virtual Material Design" approach and the specially developed Tremolo-X software. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33]
Category: Condensed Matter

[43] viXra:1804.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 10:59:48

Machine Learning to Microbial Relationship

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Marculescu, along with ECE Ph.D. student Chieh Lo, has developed a machine learning algorithm—called MPLasso—that uses data to infer associations and interactions between microbes in the GI microbiome. [20] A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses—so-called retrosyntheses—with unprecedented efficiency. [19] Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18] Now researchers at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[42] viXra:1804.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 11:34:33

Nanoparticle Films for Data Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[41] viXra:1804.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 13:02:17

A Possible Solution to Gauss Circle Problem

Authors: Franco Sabino Stoianoff Lindstron
Comments: 2 Pages.

The method used in this article is based on analytical geometry, abstract algebra and number theory.
Category: Number Theory

[40] viXra:1804.0045 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-24 06:56:01

Generalization of Galilean Transformation

Authors: Szostek Roman
Comments: 17 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether.

In the article, a generalized Galilean transformation was derived. Obtained transformation is the basis for development of new physical theory, which was called the Special Theory of Ether. The generalized Galilean transformation can be expressed by relative speeds (26)-(27) or by the parameter delta(v) (37)-(38). Based on conclusions of the Michelson-Morley’s and Kennedy-Thorndike’s experiments, the parameter delta(v) was determined. This allows the transformation to take a special form (81)-(82), which is consistent with experiments in which velocity of light is measured. On the basis of obtained transformation, the formulas for summing speed and relative speed were also determined. The entire article includes only original research conducted by its author.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[39] viXra:1804.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 20:06:53

Dark Matters Purpose and Possible Role in the Evolution of Matter

Authors: Stephen Wright
Comments: 1 Page.

A possible explanation for the distribution of Visible vs. Dark Matter. In explaining this I give a possible reason why Dark Matter is present and why it does not interact with Visible Matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[38] viXra:1804.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 20:58:24

The Answer to the Universe, the Life and Everything is Still 42

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

What is the Ultimate Answer to Life the Universe and Everything? According to the “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” an advanced race of beings invented a supercomputer called Deep Thought, which after 7.5 million years came up with the answer of 42. The real answer, to this question, could very well be related to 42. Sphere Theory is a theory where the universe is made of spheres, which are made of spheres etc. It is also a theory where perfection and imperfection are in competition, where perfect packing is cuboctahedron packing and imperfect packing is spheres packed around spheres. This imperfect packing always results in the imperfect amount of packing is nearly equal to the outer layer of spheres, which is likely related to the holographic principle. This paper shows that this spherical structure of nature is followed until the structure becomes a cuboctahedron with an outer layer of 42 spheres. The Hubble Sphere was found to have a surface area 1.0471*10^80 Planck spheres. The Planck Spheres were found to have a surface area of 6.57014*10^40 Kaluza spheres. This paper works to help explain where these quantities come from. We find that this Sphere Theory may be related to a Bremsstrahlung type of radiation and an Entangled Universe
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[37] viXra:1804.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 15:26:33

About Photon

Authors: Marius Arghirescu
Comments: 3 Pages.

The paper argues the conclusion that the photon has rest mass equal with a half of its moving mass.
Category: Classical Physics

[36] viXra:1804.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 15:49:23

A Detailed Review of Beal's Conjecture

Authors: Franco Sabino Stoianoff Lindstron
Comments: 40 Pages.

The Beal Conjecture has been one of the most interesting problems that existed in number theory since the end of the last century. It was discovered by Andrew Beal during his work on Fermat's Last Theorem. In this paper a detailed review of the conjecture is proposed to end in a possible proof.
Category: Number Theory

[35] viXra:1804.0038 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-16 17:09:45

A Simple, Direct Proof of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Philip Aaron Bloom
Comments: 3 Pages.

No simple proof of FLT has been established for every n > 2. We devise, for positive integral values of n, an elaborate algebraic identity, r^n + s^n = t^n, that holds for positive integral (r, s, t), a triple that we relate to positive integral (x, y, z) for which x^n + y^n = z^n holds. We infer that integral (r, s, t) equals integral (x, y, z) by using the unrestricted variable in our identity. For n > 2, we demonstrate that there exists no integral (r, s, t). Hence, for n > 2, there exists no integral (x, y, z).
Category: Number Theory

[34] viXra:1804.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 16:53:15

The Product of the Prime Numbers.

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martin
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper shows that the product of the prime numbers adding and subtracting one is always Simple Prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[33] viXra:1804.0036 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-12 23:10:20

Goldbach's Conjectures

Authors: Radomir Majkic
Comments: 10 Pages. Apart from small technical and obvious language corrections, there is no difference between this and previously submitted version of the Goldbach’s Conjectures paper.

Abstract: The prime numbers set is the three primes addition closed; each prime is the sum of three not necessarily distinct primes. All natural numbers are created on the set of all prime numbers according to the laws of the weak and strong Goldbach's conjectures. Thus all natural numbers are the Goldbach's numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[32] viXra:1804.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 02:33:54

Does Music Enable us to Understand Foreign Lyrics

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 2 Pages.

This article aims to clarify briefly that music might be the reason behind our ability to understand a song foreign lyrics
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[31] viXra:1804.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 02:30:37

Proton Electron Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 14 Pages.

I Abstract This paper shows that the force of charge and gravity can be modeled from a sphere, indicating granulated granular spacetime. Planck Spinning Spheres, (Planck) packed in a cuboctahedron structure, where many spheres are combined to produce the fabric of space. The Planck would be made of smaller Spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres (Kaluza). See images below for an example of a sphere made of spheres. The calculations, herein, imply spacetime to be discrete. Virtual Angular Momentum is transferred to the Continuous Discrete Spacetime that is activated by the appropriate environment. This discrete Virtual Angular Momentum is modeled by equations developed herein. The modeling equations between charge and gravity use the same spherical model. This model: proposes a new definition of the fine structure constant in section IV; proposes a proton charge radius in section V; gives meaning to some Planck dimensions in section VI; predictions can be made about approximate values for the age of the universe and or the size of the Hubble Sphere Universe (Hubble) in section VII; Proposes ideas that may be used to help prove the idea of “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck and Kaluza and a cuboctahedron, vector equilibrium, sub-structure of the universe and relate to wrapped up dimensions in section VIII; The equations will explore the mystery of the constants of nature as did John D. Barrow.(5) Due to these predictions, that may be validated and/or refined in the future, this model may deserve further investigation. These calculations bring back the Dirac’s large number hypothesis (15) and relationships similar to the Koide formula. (16) Below are summarized the simplified equations modeling the Planck for charge and gravity constructed in section II and III. Charge appears to come from electron sized Charge. Gravity appears to come from Proton sized mass
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[30] viXra:1804.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 04:56:49

The Radian's Coincidence Conjecture

Authors: Ryan Haddad
Comments: 1 Page.

This conjecture may be a tool in defining the indefinite tangent of 90 degrees, and is a (new) mathematical coincidence that is indeed strange; why would the tangent of angles near 90 degrees be equal to the angle of the radian multiplied by powers of 10? In fact, if there is no geometrical explanation in current mathematics, it may resides in metamathematics.
Category: Geometry

[29] viXra:1804.0031 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-02 13:54:19

A Formulation of Vacuum Euclidean Gravity on a General Class of Metric Spaces.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 15 Pages.

A general geometric apparatus extending the standard calculus on Riemannian manifolds in a coordinate independent way is developed. It is, moreover, obvious that all quantities involved give rise to the correct limits in such case when convergence is subtle enough. We finish by giving the correct equivalent of the Einstein tensor which approximately is covariantly conserved on a certain deformation scale.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[28] viXra:1804.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-01 08:50:34

Omnipresent Consciousness and Free Will

Authors: Claus Janew
Comments: 10 Pages. CC-BY 4.0 / Janew, Claus. 2011. Omnipresent Consciousness and Free Will. Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research 2, no. 6: 868-876

This article is not an attempt to explain consciousness in terms basically of quantum physics or neuro-biology. Instead I should like to place the term "Consciousness" on a broader footing. I shall therefore proceed from everyday reality, precisely where we experience ourselves as conscious beings. I shall use the term in such a general way as to resolve the question whether only a human being enjoys consciousness, or even a thermostat. Whilst the difference is considerable, it is not fundamental. Every effect exists in the perception of a consciousness. I elaborate on its freedom of choice, in my view the most important source of creativity, in a similarly general way. The problems associated with a really conscious decision do not disappear by mixing determination with a touch of coincidence. Both must enter into a higher unity. In so doing it will emerge that a certain degree of freedom of choice is just as omnipresent as consciousness - an inherent part of reality itself.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[27] viXra:1804.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-01 08:58:43

On the Relativity and Equivalence Principles in Quantized Gauge Theory Gravity

Authors: Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse
Comments: 11 Pages. Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2018 Awards for Essays on Gravitation.

Ongoing proliferation of interpretations of the formalism of quantum mechanics over the course of nearly a century originates in historical choices of wavefunction, and in particular with assignment of geometric and topological attributes to unintuitive internal intrinsic properties of point particle quarks and leptons. Significant simplification and intuitive appeal arise if one extends Dirac’s two-component spinors to the full eight-component Pauli algebra of 3D space, providing a geometric representation of wavefunctions and their interactions that is comparatively easily visualized. We outline how the resulting quantized impedance network of geometric wavefunction interactions yields a naturally finite, confined, and gauge invariant model of both the unstable particle spectrum and quantum gravity that is consistent with and clarifies interpretation of both special relativity and the equivalence principle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[26] viXra:1804.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-01 10:26:24

Java based Natural Language Processing(NLP)-JIProlog-Marvin-JikesRVM as Informatics & Image Processing Platform to Probe & Process Cryo-EM Images – A Simple & Useful Suggestion in the Context of Electron Microscopy(EM) Domains.

Authors: Nirmal Tej kumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Short Communication

As per the TITLE of this short technical note we intend to highlight the importance of probing and processing cryo-EM images using the above mentioned technologies.This is one of the pioneering attempts to monitor the whole process of cryo-EM image processing using JI Prolog.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[25] viXra:1804.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-01 11:25:49

Brownian Motors for Nanoparticles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Today, our IBM Research team published the first real world demonstration of a rocking Brownian motor for nanoparticles in the peer-review journal Science. [34] A team of scientists from across the U.S. has found a new way to create molecular interconnections that can give a certain class of materials exciting new properties, including improving their ability to catalyze chemical reactions or harvest energy from light. [33] A team of scientists including Carnegie's Tim Strobel and Venkata Bhadram now report unexpected quantum behavior of hydrogen molecules, H2, trapped within tiny cages made of organic molecules, demonstrating that the structure of the cage influences the behavior of the molecule imprisoned inside it. [32] A potential revolution in device engineering could be underway, thanks to the discovery of functional electronic interfaces in quantum materials that can self-assemble spontaneously. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24]
Category: Condensed Matter

[24] viXra:1804.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-01 13:35:57

The Location of Mars on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Mars is placed on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram.
Category: Astrophysics

[23] viXra:1804.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-01 15:51:59

Lord Kelvin's Earth: A Correction in the Age of Exoplanets

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Kelvin's Earth cooling timeframe makes sense only when a major assumption is exposed. Of course if Earth started as molten would only take 20-100 million years to cool to its given state, but the Earth did not start off as molten. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[22] viXra:1804.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-01 16:19:37

Optical Image Discovery of Dark Matter Based on Alternative Facts

Authors: A. Onestone
Comments: 5 Pages. 1 figure (b/w), 1 April 2018

Observations of the rotational curves of galaxies, gravitational lensing of galaxy clusters, and of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background have previously been interpreted as evidence for the gravitational signatures of a non-baryonic component of matter. Disturbingly, this invisible substance, known as "dark matter", makes up about 26.8 % of the entire mass-energy budget of the Universe. It has long been thought that it is in the very nature of dark matter to be invisible. Here we report the first successful direct imaging of dark matter. This discovery, which has been achieved through the use of alternative facts, is the greatest discovery ever. Period.
Category: Astrophysics

[21] viXra:1804.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-01 19:44:05

Kinetic Reevaluation on Adsorption of Co(ii), Hg(ii) and Ag(i) from Fuel Ethanol by Silica Gel Supported Sulfur-Containing Pamam Dendrimers[fuel 199 (2017) 91–101 and 206 (2017) 80–88]

Authors: Yong-Son Hong, Hong-Chol Jin
Comments: 3 Pages.

In our letter, the adsorption of Co(II), Hg(II) and Ag(I) from fuel ethanol by silica gel supporte d sulfur-containing PAMAM dendrimers [Fuel 199 (2017) 91–101 and 206 (2017) 80–88] were reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction orders newly were estimated and the calculated rate constants were quantitatively compared on both ads orbate and adsorbents.
Category: Chemistry

[20] viXra:1804.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 00:01:52

The Laser of Einstein

Authors: Emil Gigov
Comments: 1 Page.

If Einstein discovered the laser, then the Brownian motion must emit laser light.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19] viXra:1804.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 03:46:47

Analogue Computer Rapid Calculations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

While the advent of digital computers made these computers obsolete, they are now enjoying a resurgence thanks to ongoing research into artificial materials called metamaterials. [29] A collaboration of scientists led by Google, and including physicists from Leiden University and TU Delft, have developed a practice tool for chemists called OpenFermion. [28] Scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory are conducting fundamental physics research that will lead to more control over mercurial quantum systems and materials. [27] Physicists in Italy have designed a " quantum battery " that they say could be built using today's solid-state technology. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[18] viXra:1804.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 03:54:11

A New Neural Network for Artificial General Intelligence

Authors: Haisong Liang
Comments: 44 Pages. Include both English and Chinese version.

Since artificial intelligence was first introduced several decades ago, neural network has achieved remarkable results as one of the most important research methods, and variety of neural network models have been proposed. Usually, for a specific task, we train the network with large amounts of data to develop a mathematical model, making the model produce the expected outputs according to inputs, which also results in the black box problem. In this case, if we study from the perspective of information meanings and their causal relations with the following measures: denote information by neurons; store their relations with links; give neurons a state indicating the strength of information, which can be updated by a state function or input signal; then we can store different information and their relations and control related information's expression with neurons' state. The neural network will become a dynamic system then. More importantly, we can denote different information and logic by designing the topology of neural network and the attributes of the links, and thus having the ability to design and explain every detail of the network precisely, turning neural network into a general information storage, expression, control and processing system, which is also commonly referred as "Strong AI".
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[17] viXra:1804.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 05:15:53

Quantum Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[16] viXra:1804.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 05:35:54

Acceleration of FSK Caller id Demodulation Using Sos Filter Structure

Authors: WonJun Min, YuSong Kim, Dokkil Kang
Comments: 5 Pages.

Abstract - In several systems such as VoIP analog gateway it is key feature to demodulate FSK caller ID signal on voice band. FSK caller ID are widely used as it has a lot of advantages[1] and to demodulate it correctly and speedily is important for stability of system operation as long as subscriber number increases. In prior paper this subject has been researched, but sampling frequency is selected by special values that differ from typical values [2]. In other paper the system is constructed using the filter of floating coefficients (method 1) or using the filter of integer coefficients that is obtained by rounding the product of floating coefficients of long significant digit and special integer value and process additional operation to avoid over value state(method 2), so floating operations consume time[3]. The common communication systems use typical frequency such as 8 kHz and if FSK caller ID detection processing is running on embedded processors that support only fixed point operation then floating operation will consume hardly system resources. This paper introduces the SOS structure of filter to realization of FSK caller ID demodulation, so not only ensures accuracy but also accelerates processing.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[15] viXra:1804.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 07:20:39

A New Concept in Spherical Geometry for Physical and Cosmological Applications

Authors: S.Kalimuthu
Comments: 4 Pages. NA

In this work, the author has shown that THERE ARE SPHERICAL TRIANGLES WHOSE INTERIOR ANGLE SUM ADDS UP TO 540 DEGREES
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14] viXra:1804.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 07:49:27

Catalan's Constant and Some Integration Questions

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 3 Pages.

This note presents some formulas for Catalan's constant.
Category: Number Theory

[13] viXra:1804.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 07:53:08

Question 446: pi as Sum of Arctangents

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 3 Pages.

This note presents some formulas of pi in terms of sum of arctangents.
Category: General Mathematics

[12] viXra:1804.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 08:40:41

Entangled Antipodal Points on Black Hole Surfaces: the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem Comes Into Play

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 6 Pages.

The entangled antipodal points on black hole surfaces, recently described by t’Hooft, display an unnoticed relationship with the Borsuk-Ulam theorem. Taking into account this observation and other recent claims, suggesting that quantum entanglement takes place on the antipodal points of a S3 hypersphere, a novel framework can be developed, based on algebraic topological issues: a feature encompassed in an S2 unentangled state gives rise, when projected one dimension higher, to two entangled particles. This allows us to achieve a mathematical description of the holographic principle occurring in S2. Furthermore, our observations let us to hypothesize that a) quantum entanglement might occur in a four-dimensional spacetime, while disentanglement might be achieved on a motionless, three-dimensional manifold; b) a negative mass might exist on the surface of a black hole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[11] viXra:1804.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 09:14:49

Dark Energy & Dark Matter = Network Tension & Thread Network

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: Pages.

About 95% of the cosmos cannot be seen by any telescopes, because it is made of mysterious "dark matter" and "dark energy" that do not interact with light

But it is impossible for something to NOT interact with light.

● Stuff can absorb and emit light.
● Reflect light.
● Convey light

If light is traveling towards dark matter...

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ♣

...It has to absorb, reflect or pass through (convey) it.
There is nothing else. Bouncing off it is reflection..
If it is blocking light: it would not be invisible.
Most stuff written about mainstream physic is just nonsense.
Can anyone tell me what "non-interaction" would entail? No, you cannot. That is impossible.

Dark Energy = [DARK][M][L^2]/[T^2]

What could this be? Could space be filled with an unseen vibrating energy substance?
Yes, It is Quantum Thread Theory. Space is NOT empty. There is an all encompassing lattice-type gravity-centered thread particle network in space.

● The thread network has tension on it, that is a pulling force: Gravity
● The network is vibrating, that is energy, it's unseen: Dark Energy
● The network itself is a substance: Dark Matter.

Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10] viXra:1804.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 10:26:49

DNA-Binding Proteins

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[9] viXra:1804.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 11:16:43

Data Integration at Single-Cell

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A team of computational biologists has developed an algorithm that can 'align' multiple sequencing datasets with single-cell resolution. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[8] viXra:1804.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-03 09:54:53

Effect of Magnet Geometry on the Magnetic Component of the Lorentz Force Equation

Authors: Michael Singer
Comments: 9 Pages.

All forces in the universe are created from changes in energy levels that result from changes in the separation of bodies, whether electromagnetic or otherwise. For example, two electrons separated by a finite distance will experience repulsive forces that urge them to separate further. When they are free to move this will cause them to accelerate away from each other, replacing part of the original energy levels with kinetic energy. Even when they are constrained so that they cannot move they still experience those same forces, but there is no energy exchange. Either way, for the force to exist the energy system must exist, even if only potentially. Now consider the second part of the Lorentz Force Equation, which looks at the forces experienced by an electron travelling through a fixed magnetic field. Here there is a lateral force on the electron normal to the direction of travel, and the electron’s path is deflected into a curve, with no change in energy levels. However, the existence of the force requires an energy mechanism and in this paper I set out to identify it. There are enough clues to reach a sound conclusion, such as the fact that a neutron, with a bounded electric field, is not deflected, whereas an electron, with an infinite electric field, is deflected. With the energy mechanism clearly defined, we find that the Lorentz Force Equation fails to take in an important aspect of geometry and hence if we use electron deflection measurement and this Equation as a means of determining magnetic field strength we will virtually always calculate a field strength that is lower than the actuality.
Category: Classical Physics

[7] viXra:1804.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 12:49:21

Fermat's Last Theorem. Proof of P. Fermat?

Authors: Victor Sorokine
Comments: 2 Pages.

Contradiction: Any prime factor r of the number R in the equality A n =A n +B n [...=(A+B)R] has a single ending 0...01 of infinite length; where r≠n. All calculations are done with numbers in base n, a prime number greater than 2.
Category: Number Theory

[6] viXra:1804.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 12:50:23

Fermat's Last Theorem. Proof of P. Fermat? (In Russian)

Authors: Victor Sorokine
Comments: 2 Pages. Russian version

Contradiction: Any prime factor r of the number R in the equality A n =A n +B n [...=(A+B)R] has a single ending 0...01 of infinite length; where r≠n. All calculations are done with numbers in base n, a prime number greater than 2. Противоречие: В равенстве A n =A n +B n [...=(A+B)R] любой простой сомножитель r (r≠n, простое n>2) числа R имеет (в базе n) единичное окончание 0...01 бесконечной длины. Все вычисления проводятся в системе счисления с простым основанием n>2.
Category: Number Theory

[5] viXra:1804.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-02 13:06:16

Quantum Order in Disorder

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4] viXra:1804.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-27 06:01:17

Heroical Apatheism: Mala Fide Bootstrapping Obligations

Authors: Ian von Hegner
Comments: 20 Pages.

Abstract: Discussions on hypothetical gods virtually always focus on the latter’s existence or nonexistence. However, these are only the secondary questions. Heroical apatheism distinguishes these questions from the primary question, which pertains to the importance of these gods. It is a deeply ingrained assumption that if the gods have created the universe and humankind, then this implicitly entails the obligations that these gods must be worshipped and obeyed. These relations between existence and acts and worship and obedience to the gods are so commonplace that virtually no one questions their existence. The rights of these gods are simply assumed at face value. However, the issues pertaining to these necessary relations are not trivial in any respect. This paper highlights these relations by first formulating two cosmological models for the initial condition of the universe and, thereafter, applying these in the analyses of the claims regarding these relations. By doing so, it shows that the justifications for the aforementioned obligations always result in a Münchhausen bootstrapping circularity or are ad hoc. Any necessary relations between existence and worship and between acts of creation and obedience cannot be demonstrated. Furthermore, these assumptions are based on the frequently overlooked reasoning that arguing for or against the obligations to the gods implicitly assumes that these gods have a right to such obligations to begin with. However, all that can be shown is the power to enforce obedience. Thus, heroical apatheism is founded on neither doubt nor disobedience because disobedience implies that an authority exists and an authority’s right presupposes that there is such a right. However, there is no such right, and we do not equate might with right.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[3] viXra:1804.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-01 02:06:29

Pluto Should be Planet Again Discovery of Principial Error in Astronomical Calculations

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 4 Pages.

Popular investigation of biggest methodic blunder of astronomy- how to obtain masses from orbital geometry- and how it helped to “disqualify” Pluto as a planet. In reality Pluto should be several times heavier than Eris.
Category: Classical Physics

[2] viXra:1804.0003 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-07 13:00:04

The Quaternionic Seiberg-Witten Equations

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 6 pages, written in french

Introducing some algebra of the Hamilton numbers, we define some geometry of the quaternions, allowing us to define the quaternion Seiberg-Witten equations.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[1] viXra:1804.0001 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-28 20:27:44

Circuit Complexity and Problem Structure in Hamming Space

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper describes about relation between circuit complexity and accept inputs structure in Hamming space by using almost all monotone circuit that emulate deterministic Turing machine (DTM). Circuit family that emulate DTM are almost all monotone circuit family except some NOT-gate which connect input variables (like negation normal form (NNF)). Therefore, we can analyze DTM limitation by using this NNF Circuit family. NNF circuit have symmetry of OR-gate input line, so NNF circuit cannot identify from OR-gate output line which of OR-gate input line is 1. So NNF circuit family cannot compute sandwich structure effectively (Sandwich structure is two accept inputs that sandwich reject inputs in Hamming space). NNF circuit have to use unique AND-gate to identify each different vector of sandwich structure. That is, we can measure problem complexity by counting different vectors. Some decision problem have characteristic in sandwich structure. Different vectors of Negate HornSAT problem are at most constant length because we can delete constant part of each negative literal in Horn clauses by using definite clauses. Therefore, number of these different vector is at most polynomial size. The other hand, we can design high complexity problem with almost perfct nonlinear (APN) function.
Category: General Mathematics